Abstract: A method and apparatus for directionally controlled rapid solidification of a molten metal casting provides modified mold flasks containing mold media defining a mold cavity into which molten metal is poured and thereafter solidified. The mold media is fluid permeable and electrically and thermally conductive so that coolants passing through the media conduct heat away from the molten metal to promote solidification. Apparatus carried upon and within the mold flask allow controlled application of coolants to dissipate heat in a controlled manner to promote solidification in a controlled direction. Ports defined in the flasks, spaces between the mold media particulates and coolant, directionally applied by a movable cooling ring provide controlled directional cooling and castings having improved mechanical characteristics, with greater speed and increased efficiency.
Abstract: In the trucking industry, a wheel stud having a recess at either end to accommodate a sacrificial insert of metal higher in the electromotive series of metals than the metals of the wheel stud assembly, the lug and the components joined thereby and being of sufficient difference in color from the surrounding materials so as to be readily visible without disassembling the combination, and a method for its use.
Abstract: The invention provides a lightweight brake drum (10) having a lightweight, tubular inner member (14), a length of wire (16) wrapped around the inner member (14) and an outer shell (18). The inner member (14) and the outer shell (18) are made of a lightweight material. Typically, multiple layers of length of wire (16) are wrapped around the inner member (14) to support and inhibit expansion of the inner member (14). Since the length of wire (16) provides support against expansion, the inner member (14) and the outer shell (18) can be made of lightweight materials.
Abstract: A bicycle frame for bicycles with an upper cross bar is provided wherein the upper cross bar does not injure the rider as the rider straddles the cross bar after a stop. The bicycle frame also has an upper cross bar comprising an inner moiety slidably disposed within an outer moiety such that the first end of the inner moiety is outside the outer moiety. A spring is disposed within the upper cross bar to urge the second end of the inner moiety away from the outer moiety. The front end of the upper cross bar is hinged to the head post and the rear end of the upper cross bar is slidably attached to the seat post. A second spring is attached to the frame and adapted to urge the upper cross bar upwards. The springs are chosen so that no discomfort is caused to a rider of a bicycle having the bicycle frame when the rider dismounts the bicycle, straddles the upper cross bar and, by the weight of the rider's body, pivots the rear end of the upper cross bar downward until both feet of the rider touch the ground.