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  • Patent number: 7074596
    Abstract: The ability to synthesize capped RNA transcripts in vitro has been of considerable value in a variety of applications. However, one-third to one-half of the caps have, until now, been incorporated in the reverse orientation. Such reverse caps impair the translation of in vitro-synthesized mRNAs. Novel cap analogues, such as P1-3?-deoxy-7-methylguanosine-5?P3-guanosine-5?triphosphate and P1-3?-O,7-dimethylguanosine-5?P3-guanosine-5?triphosphate, have been designed that are incapable of being incorporated into RNA in the reverse orientation. Transcripts produced with SP6 polymerase using “anti-reverse” cap analogues were of the predicted length. Analysis of the transcripts indicated that reverse caps were not formed. The in vitro translational efficiency of transcripts with the novel “anti-reverse” cap analogues was significantly higher than that of transcripts formed with conventional caps.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 17, 2002
    Date of Patent: July 11, 2006
    Assignee: Board of Supervisors of Louisiana State University And Agricultural and Mechanical College
    Inventors: Edward Darzynkiewicz, Robert E. Rhoads, Janusz Stepinski
  • Patent number: 8153773
    Abstract: New RNA cap analogs are disclosed containing one or more phosphorothioates groups. The analogs also contain modifications at the 2?-O position of 7-methylguanosine that prevent them from being incorporated in the reverse orientation during in vitro synthesis of mRNA and that hence are “anti-reverse cap analogs” (ARCAs). The ARCA modification ensures that the S atom is precisely positioned within the active sites of cap-binding proteins in both the translational and decapping machinery. The new S-ARCA analogs are resistant to in vivo decapping enzymes. Some S-ARCAs have a higher affinity for eIF4E than the corresponding analogs not containing a phosphorothioate group. When mRNAs containing the various S-ARCAs are introduced into cultured cells, some are translated as much as five-fold more efficiently than mRNAs synthesized with the conventional analog m7GpppG.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 19, 2008
    Date of Patent: April 10, 2012
    Assignees: Board of Supervisors of Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, University of Warsaw
    Inventors: Jacek Jemielity, Ewa M. Grudzien-Nogalska, Joanna Kowalska, Edward Darzynkiewicz, Robert E. Rhoads
  • Patent number: 5747258
    Abstract: A method for detecting halogenated precursors incorporated into DNA is presented. The method is based on the selective photolysis of DNA by ultraviolet (UV) light at the sites of an incorporated halogenated precursor, such as the thymidine base analogs 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdUrd), 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine (IdUrd), 5-fluoro-2-deoxyuridine (FdUrd), or 5-chloro-2-deoxyuridine (CldUrd). The 3'-hydroxyl termini of the DNA single strand breaks generated during photolysis may be marked directly or indirectly with a fluorescent label. The DNA termini are directly labeled with fluorochrome-conjugated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) catalyzed by exogenous terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase or DNA polymerase (nick translation system). The DNA termini are indirectly labeled with either biotin- or digoxygenin-conjugated dUTP; the incorporated biotin or digoxygenin is then detected following binding of fluorochrome-conjugated avidin or anti-digoxygenin antibody, respectively.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 20, 1996
    Date of Patent: May 5, 1998
    Assignee: New York Medical College
    Inventors: Zbigniew D. Darzynkiewicz, Xun Li, Frank N. Traganos, Myron R. Melamed
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