Abstract: Aspects of the invention concern methods for detecting, identifying and evaluating tobacco and tobacco products to determine the potential that these compositions have to contribute to a tobacco-related disease. It is based, at least in part; on the discovery that exposure of pulmonary cells to smoke or smoke condensate obtained from tobacco or tobacco products induces double stranded breaks in cellular DNA, which were efficiently detected using assays that measure the presence, absence, or amount of phosphorylation of the histone, H2AX.
March 28, 2011
September 8, 2011
VECTOR TOBACCO, INC., New York Medical College
Anthony P. Albino, Ellen D. Jorgensen, Frank Traganos, Zbigniew Darzynkiewicz, Wendy Jin
Abstract: Dinucleotide cap analogs are disclosed, modified at different phosphate positions with a boranophosphate group or a phosphoroselenoate group. The analogs are useful as reagents in the preparation of capped mRNAs and have increased stability both in vitro and in vivo. They may be used as inhibitors of cap-dependent translation. Optionally, the boranophosphate or phosphoroselenoate group has a 2?-O or 3?-O-alkyl group, preferably a methyl group, producing analogs called BH3-ARCAs or Se-ARCAs. ARCAs may be modified with ?-, ?-, or ?-boranophosphate or phosphoroselenoate groups.
June 4, 2009
Date of Patent:
August 27, 2013
Board of Supervisors of Louisiana State University And Agricultural and Mechanical College
Joanna Kowalska, Jacek Jemielity, Edward Darzynkiewicz, Robert E. Rhoads, Maciej Lukaszewicz, Joanna Zuberek
Abstract: New RNA cap analogs are disclosed containing one or more phosphorothioates groups. The analogs also contain modifications at the 2?-O position of 7-methylguanosine that prevent them from being incorporated in the reverse orientation during in vitro synthesis of mRNA and that hence are “anti-reverse cap analogs” (ARCAs). The ARCA modification ensures that the S atom is precisely positioned within the active sites of cap-binding proteins in both the translational and decapping machinery. The new S-ARCA analogs are resistant to in vivo decapping enzymes. Some S-ARCAs have a higher affinity for eIF4E than the corresponding analogs not containing a phosphorothioate group. When mRNAs containing the various S-ARCAs are introduced into cultured cells, some are translated as much as five-fold more efficiently than mRNAs synthesized with the conventional analog m7GpppG.
June 19, 2008
Date of Patent:
April 10, 2012
Board of Supervisors of Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, University of Warsaw
Jacek Jemielity, Ewa M. Grudzien-Nogalska, Joanna Kowalska, Edward Darzynkiewicz, Robert E. Rhoads