Patents Represented by Attorney Albert Brent
  • Patent number: 4957544
    Abstract: An ash-containing fuel feedstock comprising petroleum coke and/or heavy liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel, wherein said ash comprises compounds of V, Ni, and Si in admixture with an iron-containing additive, is subjected to partial oxidation to produce a hot raw effluent stream of synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas with entrained molten slag. The hot raw effluent gas steam is cooled and coarse slag is separated. The coarse slag is heated to a temperature in the range of about 1900.degree. F. to 2600.degree. F. and above the melting point of said slag while in contact with reducing gas in a thermal reduction zone to produce a molten bath of slag comprising the following separable immiscible phases in wt. %.(a) a dense metal phase in the amount of about 0.1 to 5.0 which precipitates to the bottom comprising a nickel-iron alloy containing about 5 to 60 wt. % of nickel;(b) a sulfur encapsulated slag phase in the amount of about 5.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 1, 1989
    Date of Patent: September 18, 1990
    Assignee: Texaco, Inc.
    Inventor: Mitri S. Najjar
  • Patent number: 4952380
    Abstract: Synthesis gas is produced by the partial oxidation of a high silicon and sulfur-containing heavy liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel and/or petroleum coke having a nickel and vanadium-containing ash that includes calcium and sodium, in a mixture with an iron and/or copper containing additive in a vertical free-flow reaction zone lined with refractory A or a combination of refractory A and refractory B. Refractory A lining of the reaction zone comprises in wt %: Cr.sub.2 O.sub.3 about 20 to 82, MgO about 5.0 to 45, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 about 0 to 10.5 Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 about 0 to 6.2, CaO about 0 to 1.0, SiO.sub.2 about 0 to 2.5, and others about 0 to 1.3. Refractory B comprises in wt. %: Cr.sub.2 O.sub.3 about 0 to 40, MgO about 20 to 85, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 about 0 to 16, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 about 0 to 9.0, SiO.sub.2 about 0 to 2.7, and others about 0 to 1.1.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 11, 1988
    Date of Patent: August 28, 1990
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Mitri Salim Najjar, Roger J. Corbeels
  • Patent number: 4948387
    Abstract: This invention relates to a combination comprising two vertical cylindrical shaped high temperature pressure vessels coaxially connected. The upper vessel is a refractory lined free-flow partial oxidation gas generator for the production of gaseous mixtures comprising H.sub.2 +CO from liquid hydrocarbonaceous and solid carbonaceous fuels. The lower vessel houses a radiation gas cooler for cooling the raw gas stream which is produced in the upper vessel and which passes down through a coaxial vertical cylindrical annular shaped refractory throat located between said upper and lower vessels. A vertical steel cylindrical gas barrier provided with a flanged bottom surrounds the refractory throat passage so that substantially no gas escapes into a stagnant annular zone outside of said gas barrier. Further the refractory throat is vertically supported by said flanged gas barrier.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 24, 1989
    Date of Patent: August 14, 1990
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Michael C. Martin, Erwin A. Reich
  • Patent number: 4946476
    Abstract: Synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas is produced by the partial oxidation of bituminous coal at an autogenous temperature in the range of about 2000.degree. F. to 2700.degree. F. and at a pressure in the range of about 17 to 100 atmospheres to produce a raw effluent gas stream containing entrained molten slag and carbon-rich particulate material. After cooling, course slag and carbon-rich particulate material are separated. A fuel mixture comprising about 20 to 100 wt. % of said carbon-rich particulate material and the remainder comprising a supplemental fuel is reacted by partial oxidation at an autogenous temperature of about 2000.degree. F. to 2700.degree. F. and at a reduced pressure e.g. in the range of about 1 to 16 atmospheres and at least 16 atmospheres below the pressure in the partial oxidation reaction used to produce said carbon-rich particulate material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 24, 1989
    Date of Patent: August 7, 1990
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Mitri S. Najjar, Walter C. Gates, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4933086
    Abstract: Municipal sanitary sewage sludge is disposed of by an improved partial oxidation process without polluting the environment. Aqueous slurries of sewage sludge are upgraded by being sheared without heating, concentrated if necessary, and then mixed with a supplemental fuel, preferably coal. In one embodiment, the aqueous slurry of sewage sludge and the supplemental coal and/or petroleum coke are introduced into a shearing mixer for simultaneous shearing and mixing together. A pumpable aqueous slurry of sewage sludge-coal and/or petroleum coke is thereby produced having an increased amount of total solids and an increased heat content (HHV) as well as containing an increased amount of sewage sludge for reacting with free-oxygen containing gas in a free-flow partial oxidation gas generator. Hot quench water or steam produced by cooling the hot raw effluent stream of synthesis gas, reducing gas or fuel gas from the gasifier may provide heat for indirect heat exchange with other streams in the process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 3, 1989
    Date of Patent: June 12, 1990
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Matthew A. McMahon, Robert M. Suggitt, Ronald J. McKeon, Albert Brent
  • Patent number: 4925644
    Abstract: A process for the simultaneous partial oxidation and desulfurization of sulfur and silicate-containing solid carbonaceous fuel for the production of a gas stream comprising gaseous mixtures of H.sub.2 and CO and containing less than about 0.05 volume % of H.sub.2 S and COS, and entrained fly-ash, calcium sulfide, and particulate carbon. In the process, the solid carbonaceous fuel and a calcium-containing compound are entrained in a gaseous medium and are reacted by partial oxidation in the reaction zone of a free-flow unobstructed gas generator with a controlled amount of free-oxygen containing gas and with or without a temperature moderator so that an equilibrium oxygen concentration is provided in the gas phase in the reaction zone having a partial pressure which is less than about 10.sup.-12 atmosphere. The total moles of calcium in the reaction zone is at least equal to about 1.0 times the moles of sulfur in the solid carbonaceous fuel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 28, 1988
    Date of Patent: May 15, 1990
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Mitri S. Najjar, Roger J. Corbeels
  • Patent number: 4909958
    Abstract: A sulfur-containing heavy liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel and/or solid carbonaceous fuel with a nickel, vanadium, and silicon containing ash is mixed with a silicon-containing material, and a copper and/or cobalt-containing material. The mixture is reacted by partial oxidation in a down-flowing free-flow unobstructed vertical reaction zone with refractory lined walls at a temperature in the range of about 1800.degree. F. to 2900.degree. F. A raw effluent gas stream is produced comprising H.sub.2 +CO and containing entrained slag comprising the following phases: (i) an alloy phase selected from the group consisting fo Cu-Ni, Co-Ni, Cu-Fe, and mixtures thereof; (ii) a silicate phase selected from the group consisting of copper silicate, cobalt silicate, and mixtures thereof; (iii) a spinel phase; and (iv) a fluid oxysulfide phase comprising at least one sulfide from the group consisting of Cu, Co, Fe, and mixtures thereof. There is a reduction in the mole ratio H.sub.2 S+COS/H.sub.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 3, 1989
    Date of Patent: March 20, 1990
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventor: Mitri S. Najjar
  • Patent number: 4891157
    Abstract: The hot effluent gas stream comprising H.sub.2 +CO and entrained molten slag from the partial oxidation of an ash-containing heavy liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel, an ash-containing solid carbonaceous fuel, or mixtures thereof is passed in succession through a radiant or quench cooling zone, a metal gas transfer line and a convective cooling zone. By covering the metal surfaces of the gas transfer line or the gas transfer line and the convective cooler connected thereto with a high temperature resistant carbon-containing material, substantially no molten slag sticks to the metal heat transfer surfaces on the inside of the gas transfer line or to the surfaces of the gas transfer line and the convective cooler connected thereto which are contacted by the partially cooled gas stream leaving the radiant or quench cooling zones.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 3, 1989
    Date of Patent: January 2, 1990
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Enrique F. dePaz, Roger J. Corbeels, Charles G. Sengenberger
  • Patent number: 4889658
    Abstract: Synthesis gas is produced by the partial oxidation of a feedstock comprising a high silicon and sulfur-containing heavy liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel and/or petroleum coke or tar sands having nickel and vanadium-containing ashes in admixture with a silicon and manganese-containing ash fusion temperature modifying agent in a vertical free-flow unobstructed reaction zone lined with a refractory which comprises in wt. %: silicon-containing material about 95 to 99.8, iron oxide about 0.1 to 1.0, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 about 0.1 to 1.0, CaO about 0 to 0.4, and others about 0 to 1.2.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 20, 1988
    Date of Patent: December 26, 1989
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventor: Mitri S. Najjar
  • Patent number: 4889699
    Abstract: Synthesis gas is produced by the partial oxidation of a feedstock comprising sulfur and ash-containing heavy liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuels, solid carbonaceous fuels, or mixtures thereof. An iron-containing additive is introduced into the reaction zone along with the feed to produce first and second liquid phase washing agents that collect and transport the vanadium-containing oxide laths and spinels and other ash components out of the reaction zone. A gaseous slag fludizing agent is also introduced into the top of the reaction zone so tha the gasifier is operated at a uniform temperature throughout under conditions that maximize the fluidity of the molten slag over the full opereating temperature range in the gasifier. Equilibrium oxygen and sulfur concentrations are provided in the gas phase in the reaction zone which provide specific partial pressures.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 20, 1988
    Date of Patent: December 26, 1989
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Mitri S. Najjar, Michael W. Becker
  • Patent number: 4889657
    Abstract: The hot effluent gas stream comprising H.sub.2 +CO and entrained molten slag and ash from the partial oxidation of an ash-containing heavy liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel, an ash-containing solid carbonaceous fuel, or mixtures thereof is passed in succession through a radiant cooling zone, a metal gas transfer line with internal metal heat transfer surfaces, and a convection cooling zone. By maintaining the internal metal heat transfer surfaces of the gas transfer line where turbulent flow of gas stream occurs at a temperature in the range of about 150.degree. F. to below 700.degree. F. by noncontact heat exchange with a coolant, substantially no molten slag or ash sticks to the metal heat transfer surfaces on the inside of the gas transfer line.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 22, 1988
    Date of Patent: December 26, 1989
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventor: Frederick C. Jahnke
  • Patent number: 4880439
    Abstract: The hot process gas stream from the partial oxidation of sulfur-containing heavy liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel and/or sulfur-containing solid carbonaceous fuel comprising gaseous mixtures of H.sub.2 +CO, sulfur-containing gases, entrained particulate carbon, and molten slag is passed through the unobstructed central passage of a radiant cooler where the temperature is reduced to a temperature in the range of about 1800.degree. F. to 1200.degree. F. From about 0 to 95 wt. % of the molten slag and/or entrained material may be removed from the hot process gas stream prior to the radiant cooler with substantially no reduction in temperature of the process gas stream. In the radiant cooler, after substantially all of the molten slag has solidified, the sulfur-containing gases are contacted with a calcium-containing material to produce calcium sulfide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 5, 1988
    Date of Patent: November 14, 1989
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Mitri S. Najjar, Allen M. Robin
  • Patent number: 4875906
    Abstract: Low heating value liquid hydrocarbonaceous and/or solid carbonaceous hazardous waste materials from the production, refining and marketing of petroleum products are destroyed without contaminating the environment while simultaneously gaseous mixtures comprising H.sub.2 +CO i.e. synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas are produced. From about 0.3 to 2.0 wt. % of an anionic surface active dispersant and water (if needed) are mixed with the hazardous waste material to produce a first aqueous mixture. A comminuted solid carbonaceous fuel i.e. coal, petroleum coke is mixed with water and from about 0.02 to 1.00 wt. % of the dispersant to produce a second stable pumpable aqueous slurry. The first and second aqueous slurries are mixed together to produce a stable pumpable final blend aqueous slurry which is reacted in a partial oxidation gas generator as the feedstock.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 10, 1988
    Date of Patent: October 24, 1989
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventor: Howard L. Apel
  • Patent number: 4876031
    Abstract: Synthesis gas is produced by the partial oxidation of a feedstock comprising petroleum coke and/or heavy liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel containing sulfur and having an ash that contains nickel, vanadium and a low content of silicon. An iron-containing additive is introduced into the vertical free-flow unobstructed refractory lined reaction zone along with the feed to produce first and second types of liquid phase washing agents which collect and transport at least a portion of the vanadium-containing oxide laths and spinels and other ash components out of the reaction zone. The refractory lining of the reaction zone comprises in wt. %: MgO 85 to 98, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 0.03 to 3.0, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 0.02 to 2.0, CaO 0.01 to 10, and SiO.sub.2 0.02 to 2.0. Elemental iron may be prevented from forming in the reaction zone by introducing sufficient supplemental oxygen-containing material and/or sulfur-containing material into the reaction zone so as to keep the partial pressure of oxygen and/or S.sub.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 29, 1988
    Date of Patent: October 24, 1989
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Mitri S. Najjar, Roger J. Corbeels
  • Patent number: 4863489
    Abstract: A process for the production of demercurized synthesis gas, reducing gas or fuel gas. Mercury-containing fossil fuels e.g. coal were reacted by partial oxidation to produce gaseous mixtures comprising H.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2 O, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2 S, COS, entrained slag and/or ash, mercury vapor, and optionally CH.sub.4, NH.sub.3, N.sub.2 and Ar. Unexpectedly, the mercury vapor was produced in the reaction zone; and it was found to be thermodynamically stable even in the presence of H.sub.2 S under the strong reducing conditions that prevailed in the gas generator. No new sulfides of mercury were formed. The mercury vapors were removed from the main body of the process gas stream in a pressurized solvent scrubber at a relatively low temperature. By this means, the mercury vapor was condensed and simultaneously the mercury and sulfur contents of the clean process gas stream were reduced to low levels.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 3, 1989
    Date of Patent: September 5, 1989
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventor: Robert M. Suggitt
  • Patent number: 4857229
    Abstract: Synthesis gas is produced by the partial oxidation of a fuel feedstock comprising a heavy liquid and/or petroleum coke having a sulfur, nickel and vanadium-containing ash. An additive comprising basalt is introduced into the reaction zone along with the feed. The basalt additive interacts with the ash and sulfur in the feedstock to produce molten slag comprising a minor amount of oxysulfide liquid phase washing agent and a major amount of liquid silicate phase. The minor oxysulfide liquid phase washing agent collects and transports at least a portion of the vanadium-containing oxide laths and spinels and other ash components out of the reaction zone. The remainder of the vanadium is washed or dissolved by the major silicate phase. In another embodiment, the basalt additive is uniformly dispersed in petroleum coke having a sulfur, nickel and vanadium-containing ash.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 17, 1988
    Date of Patent: August 15, 1989
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Mitri S. Najjar, James Roland
  • Patent number: 4851152
    Abstract: A sulfur-containing heavy liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel and/or solid carbonaceous fuel with nickel, vanadium, and silicon containing ashes is mixed with a copper and/or cobalt-containing material to provide a weight ratio of copper and/or cobalt to nickel in the range of about 0.2 to 10; and the weight ratio of copper and/or cobalt to silicon in said mixture is in the range of about 0.0001 to 0.04. The mixture is reacted by partial oxidation in a down-flowing free-flow unobstructed vertical reaction zone with refractory lined walls at a temperature in the range of about 1800.degree. F. to 2900.degree. F., an equilibrium oxygen concentration in the gas phase in the reaction zone with a partial pressure in the range of about 1.7.times.10.sup.-15 to 2.3.times.10.sup.-8 atmospheres; and an equilibrium sulfur concentration in the gas phase in the reaction zone with a partial pressure in the range of about 2.53.times.10.sup.-7 to 8.1.times.10.sup.-2 atmospheres. A raw effluent gas stream is produced comprising H.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 12, 1988
    Date of Patent: July 25, 1989
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventor: Mitri S. Najjar
  • Patent number: 4826627
    Abstract: Synthesis gas is produced by the partial oxidation of a feedstock comprising petroleum coke and/or heavy liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel containing sulfur and having an ash that contains nickel, vanadium and silicon. An iron-containing additive is introduced into the reaction zone along with the feed. A first portion of the additive combines with at least a portion of the nickel, iron and sulfur constituents found in the feedstock to produce a first liquid phase washing agent. A second portion of the additive combines with at least a portion of the silicon, aluminum, calcium, sodium, and/or potassium and iron constituents found in the feedstock to produce a second liquid phase washing agent. The first and second liquid phase washing agents collect and transport at least a portion of the vanadium-containing oxide laths and spinels and other ash components out of the reaction zone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 19, 1987
    Date of Patent: May 2, 1989
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventor: Mitri S. Najjar
  • Patent number: 4808198
    Abstract: Asbestos-containing hazardous waste materials are known causes of cancer and other serious diseases. By the subject process, asbestos-containing wastes are rendered harmless by altering the physical form of the fibers, by (i) melting the asbestos, and by (ii) incorporating the molten asbestos into the slag phase produced by the partial oxidation of ash-containing liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel and/or solid carbonaceous fuel. Further, gaseous mixtures comprising H.sub.2 +CO e.g. synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas, are simultaneously produced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 1, 1988
    Date of Patent: February 28, 1989
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventor: George N. Richter
  • Patent number: 4808194
    Abstract: A pumpable aqueous suspension of slag, fly-ash, char, and mixtures thereof which contains a surfactant and has a reduced viscosity and increased resistance to sedimentation. The aqueous suspension is produced by quench cooling and/or scrubbing a raw effluent gas stream from the partial oxidation of solid carbonaceous fuel. It may have a solids content of about 1.0 to 50.0 weight percent. The surfactant comprises an anionic or nonionic adduct of an alkyl phenol and polyoxyethylene or polyoxypropylene. In one embodiment, a solid carbonaceous fuel is wet ground with the aforesaid aqueous suspension and make-up water, if any, to produce a stable aqueous slurry feed to the partial oxidation gas generator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 26, 1984
    Date of Patent: February 28, 1989
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Mitri S. Najjar, Farrokh Yaghmaie, Louis S. Sorell