Patents Represented by Attorney Albert Brent
  • Patent number: 4808386
    Abstract: A process for the simultaneous partial oxidation and desulfurization of an ash-containing solid carbonaceous fuel comprising (basis solid fuel) 0.2 to 8.0 wt. % sulfur and 0.1 to 30 wt. % of silicate compounds for the production of gaseous mixtures comprising H.sub.2 and CO and entrained molten slag. In the process, the solid carbonaceous fuel and supplemental iron-containing material are reacted by partial oxidation in the reaction zone of a free-flow unobstructed down-flowing vertical refractory lined gas generator with a controlled amount free-oxygen containing gas and a temperature moderator so that an equilibrium oxygen concentration is provided in the gas phase in the reaction zone having a partial pressure which is less than about 10.sup.-7 atmospheres. The partial oxidation and desulfurization reactions take place simultaneously at a temperature which is above 1900.degree. F. and about 10.degree. to 200.degree. F. above the fluid temperature of the slag at an increased thermal efficiency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 24, 1987
    Date of Patent: February 28, 1989
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Mitri S. Najjar, Roger J. Corbeels
  • Patent number: 4803061
    Abstract: Synthesis gas is produced by the partial oxidation of a feedstock comprising petroleum coke and/or heavy liquid hydrocarbon fuel containing sulfur and having an ash that contains nickel, vanadium and silicon. An iron-containing or an iron and calcium-containing additive is introduced into the reaction zone along with the feed. The additive combines with at least a portion of the iron and nickel constituents and sulfur found in the feedstock to produce a liquid phase washing agent that collects and transports at least a portion of the vanadium-containing oxide laths and spinels and other ash components out the reaction zone. Slag and other particulate matter is separated from the effluent gas stream and ground to produce a heterogeneous mixture of magnetic and non-magnetic solid particles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 29, 1986
    Date of Patent: February 7, 1989
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Mitri S. Najjar, Michael W. Becker
  • Patent number: 4801440
    Abstract: A process for the simultaneous partial oxidation and desulfurization of sulfur and silicate-containing solid carbonaceous fuel for the production of gaseous mixtures comprising H.sub.2 and CO and containing less than about 0.05 volume % of H.sub.2 S and COS. In the process, the solid carbonaceous fuel and a calcium-containing compound are reacted by partial oxidation in the reaction zone of a free-flow unobstructed gas generator with a controlled amount of free-oxygen containing gas and a temperature moderator so that an equilibrium oxygen concentration is provided in the gas phase in the reaction zone having a partial pressure which is less than about 10.sup.-12 atmospheres. The total moles of calcium in the reaction zone is at least equal to about 1.0 times the moles of sulfur in the solid carbonaceous fuel. The partial oxidation and desulfurization reactions take place simultaneously at a temperature which is about 10.degree. to 200.degree. F.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 2, 1987
    Date of Patent: January 31, 1989
    Assignee: Texaco, Inc.
    Inventors: Mitri S. Najjar, Roger J. Corbeels
  • Patent number: 4801438
    Abstract: A process for the simultaneous partial oxidation and desulfurization of an ash-containing solid carbonaceous fuel comprising (basis solid fuel) 0.2 to 6.0 wt. % sulfur and 0.1 to 30 wt. % of silicate compounds for the production of gaseous mixtures comprising H.sub.2 and CO and entrained molten slag. In the process, the solid carbonaceous fuel and first and second types of supplemental calcium-containing materials are reacted by partial oxidation in the reaction zone of a free-flow unobstructed down-flowing vertical refractory lined gas generator with a controlled amount of free-oxygen containing gas and a temperature moderator so that an equilibrium oxygen concentration is provided in the gas phase in the reaction zone having a partial pressure which is less than about 10.sup.-9 atmospheres. The partial oxidation and desulfurization reactions take place simultaneously at a temperature above about 1900.degree. F. and about 10.degree. to 100.degree. F.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 15, 1987
    Date of Patent: January 31, 1989
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Mitri S. Najjar, Roger J. Corbeels
  • Patent number: 4801402
    Abstract: Synthesis gas is produced by the partial oxidation of a feedstock comprising petroleum coke containing metal sulfide compounds and metal oxy-sulfide compounds and having an ash that contains nickel, vanadium and silicon. In the process, a petroleum coke addition agent, such as elemental iron and/or iron compounds, is introduced into the upper section of a delayed coker and above the level of the nickel and vanadium ash-containing heavy liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel being simultaneously introduced upwardly from the bottom of said delayed coker. By this means the petroleum coke addition agent is distributed uniformly across the surface of liquid hydrocarbonaceous material being coked and then uniformly distributed throughout the liquid fuel. In the delayed coker, a portion of the petroleum coke addition agent is reacted with a portion of the sulfur in the heavy liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel to produce metal oxy-sulfides and metal sulfides.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 3, 1986
    Date of Patent: January 31, 1989
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Mitri Salim Najjar, Walter C. Gates, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4801307
    Abstract: An assembly of a quench liquid distribution ring and dip-tube with or without a draft tube for use in a hot effluent gas quench cooling zone containing a pool of quench liquid in the bottom in combination with a vertical cylindrical free-flow refractory lined reaction zone of a partial oxidation gas generator. The hot effluent gas from the reaction zone passes through a bottom central discharge outlet and passage and then through a coaxial vertical dip-tube that extends down into a pool of quench liquid. A quench liquid distribution ring that includes an annular rectangular shaped bottom feed quench liquid distribution channel, surrounds the outside diameter of the dip-tube at its upstream end. A quench ring face and cover is provided that comprises a vertical cylindrical shaped leg portion and a top horizontal flat ring plate portion that extends perpendicularly outward from the upstream end of the leg portion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 12, 1985
    Date of Patent: January 31, 1989
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: James R. Muenger, Americo R. Catena, John S. Stevenson, Anthony E. Bergin, John M. Veillon, Michael W. Becker
  • Patent number: 4788003
    Abstract: This invention pertains to the use of an ash-removal additive in the production of hot raw gaseous mixtures comprising H.sub.2 +CO and containing entrained molten slag by the partial oxidation of a feedstock comprising a heavy liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel having a nickel and vanadium-containing ash or petroleum coke having a nickel and vanadium-containing ash. Sticking and build-up of molten slag on the surfaces of a steel quench ring and heat exchanger which may be contacted by the molten slag entrained in the hot raw effluent gas stream is prevented by the high temperature electrodeposition of a protective metal e.g. aluminum or titanium. The protective metal is electrodeposited from an electrolytic bath comprising molten fluorides and diffuses beneath the surface and forms an alloy or solid solution with the subsurface metal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 4, 1987
    Date of Patent: November 29, 1988
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Mitri S. Najjar, John Stevenson, Michael W. Becker
  • Patent number: 4784670
    Abstract: Synthesis gas is produced by the partial oxidation of a feedstock comprising sulfur-containing petroleum coke and/or liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel and having ashes that contain nickel and a comparatively low level of silicon. The production of toxic nickel subsulfide (Ni.sub.3 S.sub.2) in the slag is prevented, and there is substantially no increase in the mole ratio H.sub.2 S+COS/H.sub.2 +CO in the raw product gas stream by introducing an additive comprising about 2 to 100 wt. % of a sulfur-containing material and any remainder comprising a supplemental iron-containing material into the reaction zone along with the feed. The additive combines with substantially all of the nickel constituents and most of the iron constituents and sulfur found in the feedstock to produce molten slag substantially comprising a fluid sulfide phase and a relatively minor amount of an Fe, Ni alloy phase.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 22, 1987
    Date of Patent: November 15, 1988
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventor: Mitri S. Najjar
  • Patent number: 4778484
    Abstract: Synthesis gas, fuel gas, or reducing gas is produced by the noncatalytic partial oxidation of a sulfur-containing liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel or a slurry of sulfur-containing solid carbonaceous fuel with a free-oxygen containing gas in the first free-flow reaction zone located in a refractory lined gas generator at an autogenous temperature in the range of about 1900.degree. F. to 2900.degree. F. and above the ash-fusion temperature of the slag formed in the reaction zone. About 85 to 99 weight percent of the carbon in the fuel feed to the reaction zone is converted into carbon oxides. At least a portion of the hot effluent gas stream from the reaction zone is passed through a free-flow second reaction zone R.sub.2 in admixture with a second portion of sulfur-containing fuel and an iron-containing additive. In the second reaction zone the carbon in the second portion of fuel, unconverted fuel and particulate matter from R.sub.1 react with H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2 to produce supplemental H.sub.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 28, 1987
    Date of Patent: October 18, 1988
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Mitri S. Najjar, Robert M. Suggitt
  • Patent number: 4778485
    Abstract: Synthesis gas, fuel gas, or reducing gas is produced by the noncatalytic partial oxidation of a sulfur-containing liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel or a slurry of sulfur-containing solid carbonaceous fuel with a free-oxygen containing gas in the free-flow reaction zone of a refractory lined gas generator at an autogenous temperature in the range of about 1900.degree. F. to 2900.degree. F. and above the ash-fusion temperature of the slag formed in the reaction zone, so that about 75 to 95 weight percent of the carbon in the fuel feed to the reaction zone is converted into carbon oxides. At least a portion of the hot effluent gas stream from the reaction zone is passed through a free-flow radiant cooler in admixture with an iron-containing additive. In the radiant cooler at least a portion of the sulfur-containing gases e.g. H.sub.2 S and COS react with the iron-containing additive to produce particulate matter comprising iron oxysulfide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 28, 1987
    Date of Patent: October 18, 1988
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Robert M. Suggitt, Mitri S. Najjar, Roger J. Corbeels
  • Patent number: 4776860
    Abstract: Synthesis gas, fuel gas, or reducing gas is produced by the noncatalytic partial oxidation of a sulfur-containing liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel or a slurry of sulfur-containing solid carbonaceous fuel with a free-oxygen containing gas in a first free-flow reaction zone R.sub.1 located in a refractory lined gas generator at an autogenous temperature in the range of about 190.degree. F. to 2900.degree. F. and above the ash-fusion temperature of the slag formed in the reaction zone. About 85 to 99 weight percent of the carbon in the fuel feed to the reaction zone is converted into carbon oxides. At least a portion of the hot effluent gas stream from the first reaction zone is passed through a free-flow second reaction zone R.sub.2 in admixture with a second portion of sulfur-containing fuel and a calcium-containing additive. An equilibrium oxygen concentration with a partial pressure which is less than about 10.sup.-12 atmosphere is provided in the gas phase in the first and second reaction zones.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 13, 1987
    Date of Patent: October 11, 1988
    Assignee: Texco Inc.
    Inventors: Mitri S. Najjar, Robert M. Suggitt
  • Patent number: 4774021
    Abstract: A process for the simultaneous partial oxidation and desulfurization of sulfur and silicate-containing solid carbonaceous fuel for the production of gaseous mixtures comprising H.sub.2 and CO and containing less than about 0.05 volume % of H.sub.2 S and COS. In the process, an aqueous slurry of the solid carbonaceous fuel and a copper-containing compound are reacted by partial oxidation in the reaction zone of a free-flow unobstructed down-flowing vertical refractory lined gas generator with a controlled amount of free-oxygen containing gas and with optionally a temperature moderator so that an equilibrium oxygen concentration is provided in the gas phase in the reaction zone having a partial pressure which is less than about 10.sup.-6 atmosphere. The O/C atomic ratio is in the range of about 0.5 to 2.0. The H.sub.2 O/solid carbonaceous fuel weight ratio is in the range of about 0.2 to 0.7. Further, the total moles of copper in the reaction zone is at least equal to about 1.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 27, 1987
    Date of Patent: September 27, 1988
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Mitri S. Najjar, Roger J. Corbeels
  • Patent number: 4749381
    Abstract: A pumpable slurry of solid carbonaceous fuel and water with reduced viscosity and increased resistance to sedimentation comprising about 50 to 75 weight percent of comminuted solid carbonaceous fuel having less than 10.0 weight percent of combined oxygen, about 0.1 to 10.0 weight percent of a surfactant comprising an anionic or nonionic adduct of a mono or dialkyl phenol and polyoxyethylene or polyoxypropylene, and the remainder of the slurry is water.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 26, 1984
    Date of Patent: June 7, 1988
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Farrokh Yaghmaie, Ronald J. McKeon
  • Patent number: 4732700
    Abstract: Process for the production of gaseous mixtures comprising H.sub.2 +CO e.g. synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas by the partial oxidation of a vanadium-containing liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel, solid carbonaceous fuel, or mixtures thereof in a free-flow vertical refractory lined gas generator. The feed mixture to the gas generator comprises (i) a vanadium-containing fuel; (ii) supplemental copper-containing additive; and (iii) at least a portion of the remainder of the copper-containing slag after separation of an enriched vanadium-containing coarse slag fraction. Materials (ii) and (iii) combine in the partial oxidation reaction zone with at least a portion of the nickel and iron constituents and the sulfur found in the feedstock to produce a liquid phase washing agent that collect and transports at least a portion of the vanadium-containing oxide laths and spinels and other ash components out of the reaction zone as molten vanadium-containing slag.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 27, 1986
    Date of Patent: March 22, 1988
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Mitri S. Najjar, Michael W. Becker, John S. Stevenson
  • Patent number: 4708819
    Abstract: An aqueous dispersion of unreacted particulate petroleum coke substantially comprising carbon and containing a small amount of ash substantially comprising vanadium constituents and other materials from a process for the partial oxidation of petroleum coke to produce synthesis gas is mixed with a hydrocarbon alkoxy sulfate and a frothing agent. After pH adjustment, if necessary, the mixture is subjected to aeration with or without mechanical agitation in a froth flotation zone. About 5 to 25 wt. % of the unconverted particulate petroleum coke (basis carbon) particles float in the froth layer that is formed. The remainder of the unconverted petroleum coke comprising coarser particles is suspended in a bottom aqueous dispersion on which the froth layer floats. In addition, selective separation of the vanadium constituents in the unconverted petroleum coke ash takes place. The vanadium content of the ash in the floated portion of unconverted petroleum coke is unexpectedly increased about 10 to 50 weight percent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 26, 1985
    Date of Patent: November 24, 1987
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Stephen R. Vasconcellos, Mitri S. Najjar, Ronald J. McKeon
  • Patent number: 4705539
    Abstract: An ash fusion temperature reducing agent principally comprising at least 50.0 wt. % of a manganese compound, such as MnO, and the remainder of the agent comprising a silicon compound, such as SiO.sub.2 is mixed with an ash-containing fuel comprising a pumpable liquid hydrocarbonaceous material and/or petroleum coke to produce Mixture A. In one embodiment, the ash fusion temperature reducing agent comprises a comminuted pyrolusite ore in which the following elements are present in weight percent basis ore: manganese in the range of about 50-75, calcium in the range of about 0-1.0, silicon in the range of about 0-3.0, magnesium in the range of about 0-1.0, and aluminum in the range of about 0-1.0. Mixture A is reacted with a free-oxygen containing gas in a free-flow refractory lined reaction zone of a partial oxidation gas generator. A hot raw effluent gas stream comprising H.sub.2 +CO along with molten ash having a reduced initial deformation temperature are produced at a lower temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 2, 1985
    Date of Patent: November 10, 1987
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Mitri S. Najjar, Michael W. Becker, Arnulf Muan
  • Patent number: 4705538
    Abstract: An ash fusion temperature increasing agent principally comprising a silicon and/or titanium compound, such as SiO.sub.2 and/or TiO.sub.2 is mixed with an ash-containing fuel comprising a pumpable liquid hydrocarbonaceous material and/or petroleum coke to produce Mixture A. In one embodiment, the ash fusion temperature increasing agent comprises about 55-100 wt. % of silicon compound selected from the group consisting of fine silica or quartz, volcanic ash, and mixtures thereof; and the remainder, if any, of said ash fusion temperature increasing agent comprises a member of the group consisting of aluminum compound such as Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, magnesium compound such as MgO, and mixtures thereof. Mixture A is reacted with a free-oxygen containing gas in a free-flow refractory lined reaction zone of a partial oxidation gas generator. A hot raw effluent gas stream comprising H.sub.2 +CO along with fly-ash having an increased initial deformation temperature are produced at a higher temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 4, 1985
    Date of Patent: November 10, 1987
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Mitri S. Najjar, Richard V. Kessler
  • Patent number: 4705536
    Abstract: Process for the production of gaseous mixtures comprising H.sub.2 +CO e.g. synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas by the partial oxidation of a vanadium-containing liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel, solid carbonaceous fuel, or mixtures thereof in a free-flow vertical refractory lined gas generator. The feed mixture to the gas generator comprises (i) a vanadium-containing fuel; (ii) supplemental iron-containing ash fusion temperature reducing agent; and (iii) at least a portion of the remainder of the iron-containing slag after separation of an enriched vanadium-containing coarse slag fraction. The coarse slag fraction has a decreased Fe/V weight ratio and is formed by depositing a portion of the slag entrained in the hot raw effluent gas stream from the partial oxidation reaction zone on the walls of a slag separation chamber located between the bottom discharge outlet in the reaction zone and the effluent gas quench tank located at the bottom of the gas generator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 2, 1986
    Date of Patent: November 10, 1987
    Assignee: Texaco, Inc.
    Inventors: Michael W. Becker, John S. Stevenson, Mitri S. Najjar
  • Patent number: 4705537
    Abstract: Separation of clarified water and rapid settling of the particulate solids e.g. ash, slag, char and mixtures thereof from aqueous dispersions of quench cooling and/or scrubbing water as produced in the partial oxidation process for ash-containing solid carbonaceous fuels is effected by mixing with said dispersion a sulfonated product of humic acids and their salts and adjusting the pH of the mixture to a value in the range of about 2 to 6.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 2, 1985
    Date of Patent: November 10, 1987
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Farrokh Yaghmaie, Mitri S. Najjar, Louis S. Sorell
  • Patent number: 4704137
    Abstract: This process relates to the upgrading of at least one stream of condensate water by removing water soluble gaseous impurities from the group consisting of HCN, COS, HCOOH, and mixtures thereof as produced in a process for the production of synthesis gas by the partial oxidation of solid carbonaceous fuel and/or liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel. In the process, at least one internally produced condensate stream of water containing the aforesaid water soluble gaseous impurities is mixed with and vaporized into a stream of synthesis gas. The vaporized mixture is then introduced into at least one bed of catalyst where the gaseous impurities are removed by hydrolysis. The upgraded water stream is then recycled in the process for use in cooling and/or scrubbing the hot raw effluent gas stream from a partial oxidation gas generator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 9, 1987
    Date of Patent: November 3, 1987
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventor: George N. Richter