Abstract: A method for flaw detection in solder joints, especially on printed circuit (PC) boards, by means of the application of sonic and ultrasonic energy, with or without an electrical current therewith, upstream of the solder joint and comparison of these acoustic and electrical inputs to their respective modulated outputs downstream of the joint.
Abstract: Suppression of calcium sulfate scale in wet lime and limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers and mist eliminators is accomplished by scrubbing in the presence of an oxidation inhibitor comprising gaseous nitric oxide (NO).
Abstract: A method of operating a fluidized bed system in a single vessel, typically as a combustor system for power or steam generation burning high-sulfur coal or as a gasifier for high-sulfur coal, which comprises forming an entrained fluidized bed in a first space region containing a first solid bed particle component, such as sand or hematite ore containing over 90% Fe.sub.2 O.sub.
Abstract: A stable, apparently polymeric, form of 1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-dipyridyl dichloride is non-reversibly produced on a solid, minigrid electrode surface by means of electrolysis of a solution of the dicationic species using a negative applied potential in the range where the cation radical is heterogeneously formed but not negative enough to produce the neutral species. For example, a thin film is formed on a gold electrode at a potential of between about -0.750 V and -0.950 V vs a Ag/AgCl reference electrode.The electrode and stable surface films are electro-active in heterogeneous reduction and oxidation of large biological molecules, making the modified electrode useful, for example, in the quantitative analysis of heme proteins in biological fluids (blood, urine).
October 25, 1977
Date of Patent:
March 13, 1979
Virginia Commonwealth University
Fredrick M. Hawkridge, Harlie L. Landrum
Abstract: Apparatus for furnishing weld material to a surface for welding thereto along a predetermined welding path, comprising an elongate guide (such as a tube) having a contacting surface (typically internal) substantially uniform in cross section and defining a longitudinal guide path (as by a slot opening) corresponding to the welding path, means for maintaining the guide in a position with the guide path adjacent to the surface to be welded and in registry with the welding path, weld material supply means in controlled contact with the guide (as inside the tube) and comprising an elongate flexible member having a contacting surface with its cross section (typically external) shaped to fit slidably in a predetermined position alongside the contacting surface of the guide (as inside the tube), a longitudinal opening through the elongate flexible member, and an elongate piece of flexible weld material (such as a wire) slidably positioned in and protruding from the opening, means for moving the weld material supplyi
Abstract: The ratio of fuel to oxidant in a gas mixture to main burners in a furnace, wherein the fuel is of variable composition, is controlled to a predetermined level by burning a portion of the fuel in a control burner, adjusting the oxidant to obtain a ratio of fuel to oxidant near the stoichiometric ratio in the control burner and supplying the main burners with independent preset multiples of the fuel and oxidant flow in the control burner such that the predetermined ratio of fuel to oxidant is achieved.The stoichiometric ratio is determined by automatic searching for the peak value of a burning or burned fuel property which has a maximum value as a function of the fuel/oxidant ratio at or near the stoichiometric ratio. For example, the temperature of the burned fuel is a property which may be used to find the stoichiometric ratio.
Abstract: The invention relates to a photovoltaic cell for converting solar energy into electrical power and which has, in sandwich construction, two different polycrystalline, semiconductor layers in intimate contact and disposed on a metal or metal-coated substrate, the cell being provided with a light-transmissive or grating-shaped electrode on the side toward the light. The cell layers comprise the semiconducting selenides of cadmium and tin.
Abstract: The invention relates to a process and device for catalyzing chemical reaction. The reaction system is brought into contact with the surface of a solid, electrically conducting layer provided with an underlying insulating or semi-conducting layer and an electric current is passed successively across both layers. The device comprises a stratified body having at least one electrically insulating or semi-conducting layer, covered at least partially with an electrically conducting layer suitable for contact with the reaction system, and means for applying a voltage for passage of a given electric current across said body.Heterogeneous catalysis of a desired reaction is achieved at the surface of the conducting layer due to said current passage.
Abstract: A method of operating a fluidized bed system, typically as a combustor system for power or steam generation by burning high-sulfur coal, which comprises forming an entrained fluidized bed in a first space region containg a first solid bed particle component, such as a hematite ore containing over 90% Fe.sub.2 O.sub.
Abstract: Process and apparatus for accurately measuring the volume or mass flow rate of each component phase of a two-phase mixture. In particular, mixtures of crude oil and natural gas in changing proportions and having fluctuating differential flow velocities are encountered at the wellhead. The volume rate of flow of the oil and gas components are separately determined by temporarily isolating successive fractions of the mixture, determining the component proportions and the volume flow rate of each successive fraction and calculating the product thereof. Mass flow rate may be determined by incorporating the densities of the components into the calculation. Total throughput may be calculated by summing the products of the component proportion and the flow rate for all successive fractions.
Abstract: An annular crucible for containing molten, inorganic crystalline material in an apparatus for growing a plurality of substantially monocrystalline articles including a plurality of spaced forming members disposed in a ring-like arrangement within the crucible, and a pair of annular resistance heating elements concentric with the annular crucible, one element proximate the crucible inner wall and one element proximate the crucible outer wall. In combination with the annular crucible, a thin, ring-shaped resistance heating element substantially conforming in outside and inside diameters to those of the crucible and being disposed at a predetermined distance above the crucible, the ring element having apertures for passing the monocrystalline articles and having means for an independently controllable heat output.
Abstract: Suppression of a high expansion cristobalite phase during sintering of high silica glass frits crystallizing in situ to predominantly a low-expansion .beta.-spodumene solid solution phase is accomplished by either melting a suppressant compound with the glass batch or adding the suppressant to the glass frit prior to sintering, the cristobalite suppressant being selected from the oxides of the alkali metals, the alkaline earth metals, yttrium, lanthanum, titanium, niobium, tantalum, boron, zinc, lead and antimony. The oxides with divalent and tetravalent cations are selected in quantities of up to about 0.02 moles of suppressant per 100 grams of glass and the other suppressants are selected in quantities up to about 0.01 moles per 100 grams of glass.
Abstract: Coarse porosity is imposed in fired ceramic bodies containing cordierite (2MgO.2Al.sub.2 O.sub.3.5SiO.sub.2) primary phase by substituting pyrophillite, kyanite, quartz, or fused silica in the batch composition in place of the usual raw talc or clay or a portion thereof.
Abstract: A refractory of fused or dead-burned dolomitic grain bonded with fine magnesite. The dolomitic grain is divided into three coarse and intermediate particle size fractions in the batch, while the magnesite is alone in the fine fraction. The four particle fractions are separated by three discrete gaps in the size distribution of particles resulting in a burned refractory of high hot strength and corrosion resistance to furnace slags in basic oxygen furnaces. The width of each gap is at least equivalent to the gap created by removing, from a ground raw material batch with continuous particle size distribution, the raw material retained on one primary Tyler sieve after screening (sizing) the batch.
Abstract: Fusion-cast articles of refractory material are formed with cavities or hollow portions by means of apparatus and method employing a core formed of material more refractory than the fusion-cast refractory material, which core is disengaged from the refractory material solidifying therearound when such solidified portion has the capability of maintaining its integrity and shape absent support of the core, but before cooling shrinkage of the solidified portion onto the core has caused cracking of such portion. A stored energy device is connected to the core through an aperture in the mold which is sealably engaged by the core, and upon release of the stored energy, the disengagement of the core is effected, e.g. by at least partial removal from the mold through the aperture.
Abstract: A refractory of fused or dead-burned dolomitic grain bonded with fine magnesite. The dolomitic grain is divided into one coarse and one intermediate particle size fraction in the batch, while the magnesite is alone in the fine fraction. The fine, intermediate and coarse fractions are separated by large discrete gaps in the size distribution of particles resulting in a burned refractory of high hot strength and corrosion resistance to slags in basic oxygen furnaces. The width of each large gap in the particle size distribution is at least equivalent to the gap created by removing from a ground raw material batch, with a continuous particle size distribution, the particles retained on at least three consecutive primary Tyler sieves after screening (sizing) the batch.
Abstract: Basic refractory batch of coarse and intermediate sized fused or dead-burned dolomitic grain with 20-35% of a fine fraction of dead-burned magnesia and an effective amount of a compound yielding not more than 4% by weight (preferably 0.5-2.5%) zirconia, silica, or mixtures thereof. The dolomitic grain is separated into 2 size fractions (both collectively in the range of -4+65 Tyler mesh) while the magnesite is all -100 Tyler mesh and preferably at least 75% -325 Tyler mesh. The zirconia and silica yielding materials are preferably substantially all -325 Tyler mesh. Formed shape made from the batch and burned at 1600.degree.C is characterized by a modulus of rupture at 1340.degree.C (hot strength) consistently above 1800 psi and occasionally approaching 3000 psi without a significant loss in corrosion resistance to molten basic oxygen furnace slags.