Patents Represented by Attorney Law Office of Robert M Wallace
  • Patent number: 7910013
    Abstract: For each one of plural plasma parameters, such as ion density, wafer voltage, etch rate, wafer current, a relevant surface of constant value is fetched from a memory. The relevant surface of constant value corresponds to a user-selected value of one of the plasma parameters, the surface being defined in a space of which each one of plural, chamber parameters (e.g., source power, bias power and chamber pressure) is a dimension. An intersection of these relevant surfaces is found, the intersection corresponding to a target value of source power, bias power and chamber pressure. The source power, the bias power and the chamber pressure, respectively, are set to their corresponding target values.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 11, 2006
    Date of Patent: March 22, 2011
    Assignee: Applied Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: Daniel J. Hoffman, Ezra Robert Gold
  • Patent number: 7911603
    Abstract: In a spectrographic workpiece metrology system having an optical viewing window, the viewing window is calibrated against a reference sample of a known absolute reflectance spectrum to produce a normalized reflectance spectrum of the reference sample, which is combined with the absolute reflectance spectrum to produce a correction factor. Successive production workpieces are measured through the window and calibrated against the viewing window reflectance, and transformed to absolute reflectance spectra using the same correction factor without having to re-load the reference sample.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 18, 2009
    Date of Patent: March 22, 2011
    Assignee: Applied Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: Edgar Genio, Edward W. Budiarto
  • Patent number: 7910499
    Abstract: Apparatus for thermally processing a substrate includes a source of laser radiation comprising a plurality diode lasers arranged along a slow axis, optics directing the laser radiation from the source to the substrate, and an array of photodetectors arranged along a fast axis perpendicular to the slow axis and receiving portions of the laser radiation reflected from the substrate through the optics.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 5, 2005
    Date of Patent: March 22, 2011
    Assignee: Applied Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: Dean Jennings, Timothy N. Thomas
  • Patent number: 7901952
    Abstract: The invention concerns a method of processing a wafer in a plasma reactor chamber by controlling plural chamber parameters in accordance with desired values of plural plasma parameters. The method includes concurrently translating a set of M desired values for M plasma parameters to a set of N values for respective N chamber parameters. The M plasma parameters are selected from a group including wafer voltage, ion density, etch rate, wafer current, etch selectivity, ion energy and ion mass. The N chamber parameters are selected from a group including source power, bias power, chamber pressure, inner magnet coil current, outer magnet coil current, inner zone gas flow rate, outer zone gas flow rate, inner zone gas composition, outer zone gas composition. The method further includes setting the N chamber parameters to the set of N values.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 11, 2006
    Date of Patent: March 8, 2011
    Assignee: Applied Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: Daniel J. Hoffman, Ezra Robert Gold
  • Patent number: 7884025
    Abstract: In a plasma reactor chamber a ceiling electrode and a workpiece support electrode, respective RF power sources of respective VHF frequencies f1 and f2 are coupled to either respective ones of the electrodes or to a common one of the electrodes, where f1 is sufficiently high to produce a center-high non-uniform plasma ion distribution and f2 is sufficiently low to produce a center-low non-uniform plasma ion distribution. Respective center ground return paths are provided for RF current passing directly between the ceiling electrode and the workpiece support electrode for the frequencies f1 and f2, and an edge ground return path is provided for each of the frequencies f1 and f2. The impedance of at least one of the ground return paths is adjusted so as to control the uniformity of the plasma ion density distribution.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 11, 2007
    Date of Patent: February 8, 2011
    Assignee: Applied Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: Kenneth S. Collins, Hiroji Hanawa, Kartik Ramaswamy, Douglas A. Buchberger, Jr., Shahid Rauf, Kallol Bera, Lawrence Wong, Walter R. Merry, Matthew L. Miller, Steven C. Shannon, Andrew Nguyen, James P. Cruse, James Carducci, Troy S. Detrick, Subhash Deshmukh, Jennifer Y. Sun
  • Patent number: 7879250
    Abstract: The disclosure concerns a method of processing a workpiece or in a plasma reactor chamber, using independent gas injection at the wafer edge.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 5, 2007
    Date of Patent: February 1, 2011
    Assignee: Applied Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: Dan Katz, David Palagashvili, Michael D. Willwerth, Valentin N. Todorow, Alexander M. Paterson
  • Patent number: 7879731
    Abstract: A method is provided for processing a workpiece in a plasma reactor chamber having electrodes including at least a ceiling electrode and a workpiece support electrode. The method includes coupling respective RF power sources of respective VHF frequencies f1 and f2 to either (a) respective ones of the electrodes or (b) a common one of the electrodes, where f1 is sufficiently high to produce a center-high non-uniform plasma ion distribution and f2 is sufficiently low to produce a center-low non-uniform plasma ion distribution. The method further includes adjusting a ratio of an RF parameter at the f1 frequency to the RF parameter at the f2 frequency so as to control plasma ion density distribution, the RF parameter being any one of RF power, RF voltage or RF current.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 11, 2007
    Date of Patent: February 1, 2011
    Assignee: Applied Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: Kenneth S. Collins, Hiroji Hanawa, Kartik Ramaswamy, Douglas A. Buchberger, Jr., Shahid Rauf, Kallol Bera, Lawrence Wong, Walter R. Merry, Matthew L. Miller, Steven C. Shannon, Andrew Nguyen, James P. Cruse, James Carducci, Troy S. Detrick, Subhash Deshmukh, Jennifer Y. Sun
  • Patent number: 7863193
    Abstract: Post-laser annealing dopant deactivation is minimized by performing certain silicide formation process steps prior to laser annealing. A base metal layer is deposited on the source-drain regions and the gate electrode, followed by deposition of an overlying compression cap layer, to prevent metal agglomeration at the silicon melting temperature. Thereafter, a rapid thermal process is performed to heat the substrate sufficiently to form metal silicide contacts at the top surfaces of the source-drain regions and of the gate electrode. The method further includes removing the remainder of the metal-containing layer and then depositing an optical absorber layer over the substrate prior to laser annealing near the silicon melting temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 9, 2007
    Date of Patent: January 4, 2011
    Assignee: Applied Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: Yi Ma, Philip Allan Kraus, Christopher Sean Olsen, Khaled Z. Ahmed, Abhilash J. Mayur
  • Patent number: 7846846
    Abstract: High aspect ratio contact openings are etched while preventing bowing or bending of the etch profile by forming a highly conductive thin film on the side wall of each contact opening. The conductivity of the thin film on the side wall is enhanced by ion bombardment carried out periodically during the etch process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 25, 2007
    Date of Patent: December 7, 2010
    Assignee: Applied Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: Kallol Bera, Kenny L. Doan, Stephan Wege, Subhash Deshmukh
  • Patent number: 7836986
    Abstract: In a high speed mode of operating and electric-gas hybrid car, the combustion engine is directly engaged to the wheels without a transmission and that vehicle speed is controlled without a throttle by electric generator loading of the engine.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 7, 2009
    Date of Patent: November 23, 2010
    Inventor: Marsaili Gillecriosd
  • Patent number: 7832354
    Abstract: The disclosure concerns a wafer support for use in a plasma reactor chamber, in which the wafer support has a wafer edge gas injector adjacent and surrounding the wafer edge.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 5, 2007
    Date of Patent: November 16, 2010
    Assignee: Applied Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: Dan Katz, David Palagashvili, Michael D. Willwerth, Valentin N. Todorow, Alexander M. Paterson
  • Patent number: 7820020
    Abstract: A method of performing physical vapor deposition of copper onto an integrated circuit in a vacuum chamber of a plasma reactor includes providing a copper target near a ceiling of the chamber, placing an integrated circuit wafer on a wafer support pedestal facing the target near a floor of the chamber, introducing a carrier gas into the vacuum chamber having an atomic weight substantially less than the atomic weight of copper, maintaining a target-sputtering plasma at the target to produce a stream comprising at least one of copper atoms and copper ions flowing from the target toward the wafer support pedestal for vapor deposition, maintaining a wafer-sputtering plasma near the wafer support pedestal by capacitively coupling plasma RF source power to the wafer-sputtering plasma, and accelerating copper ions of the wafer sputtering plasma in a direction normal to a surface of the wafer support pedestal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 25, 2005
    Date of Patent: October 26, 2010
    Assignee: Applied Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: Karl M. Brown, John Pipitone, Vineet Mehta, Ralf Hofmann
  • Patent number: 7813103
    Abstract: An electrostatic chuck in a reactor chamber has a cathode electrode insulated from ground, a chucking electrode insulated from the cathode electrode and a dielectric layer overlying the chucking electrode that provides a workpiece support surface. A D.C. chucking voltage supply is coupled to the chucking electrode. An RF power generator is coupled to the cathode electrode. A voltage sensing apparatus is coupled to the chucking electrode and to the cathode electrode to monitor the voltage difference between them during discharge after removal of RF and DC power at the conclusion of processing. The reactor includes a controller programmed to raise the lift pins during electrode discharge as soon as the voltage sensing apparatus detects equal voltages simultaneously on the chucking and cathode electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 11, 2007
    Date of Patent: October 12, 2010
    Assignee: Applied Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: Steven C. Shannon, Michael G. Chafin, Dennis S. Grimard
  • Patent number: 7804042
    Abstract: In a laser annealing system for workpieces such as semiconductor wafers, a pyrometer wavelength response band is established within a narrow window lying between the laser emission band and a fluorescence emission band from the optical components of the laser system, the pyrometer response band lying in a wavelength region at which the optical absorber layer on the workpiece has an optical absorption coefficient as great as or greater than the underlying workpiece. A multi-layer razor-edge interference filter having a 5-8 nm wavelength cut-off edge transition provides the cut-off of the laser emission at the bottom end of the pyrometer response band.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 18, 2007
    Date of Patent: September 28, 2010
    Assignee: Applied Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: Jiping Li, Bruce E. Adams, Timothy N. Thomas, Aaron Muir Hunter, Abhilash J. Mayur, Rajesh S. Ramanujam
  • Patent number: 7804040
    Abstract: A physical vapor deposition reactor includes a vacuum chamber with a sidewall, a ceiling and a retractable wafer support pedestal near a floor of the chamber, and a vacuum pump coupled to the chamber, the retractable wafer support pedestal having an internal electrode and a grounded base with a conductive annular flange extending from the base. A metal sputter target at the ceiling is energized by a high voltage D.C. source. The reactor has an RF plasma source power generator with a frequency suitable for exciting kinetic electrons is coupled to either the sputter target or to the internal electrode of the pedestal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 22, 2006
    Date of Patent: September 28, 2010
    Assignee: Applied Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: Karl M. Brown, Semyon Sherstinksy, Vineet H. Mehta, Wei W. Wang, John A. Pipitone, Kurt J. Ahmann, Armando Valverde, Jr.
  • Patent number: 7795153
    Abstract: The invention involves a method of processing a workpiece on workpiece support pedestal in a plasma reactor chamber in accordance with user-selected values of plural (i.e., N) plasma parameters by controlling plural chamber parameters. The plasma parameters may be selected from of a group including ion density, wafer voltage, etch rate, wafer current and possibly other plasma parameters. The chamber parameters may be selected from a group including source power, bias power, chamber pressure, magnet coil current of different coils, gas flow rate in different gas injection zones, gas species composition in different gas injection zones, and possibly other chamber parameters. The method begins with a first step carried out for each one of the selected plasma parameters.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 11, 2006
    Date of Patent: September 14, 2010
    Assignee: Applied Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: Daniel J. Hoffman, Ezra Robert Gold
  • Patent number: 7780814
    Abstract: A plasma reactor for processing a workpiece in a reactor chamber having a wafer support pedestal within the chamber and process gas injection apparatus, an RF bias power generator coupled to the wafer support pedestal and having a bias frequency, a source power applicator, an RF source power generator having a source frequency and a coaxial cable coupled between the RF source power generator and the source power applicator includes a filter connected between the coaxial cable and the source power applicator that enhances uniformity of etch rate across the wafer and from reactor to reactor. The filter includes a set of reflection circuits coupled between the source power applicator and a ground potential and being tuned to, respectively, the bias frequency and intermodulation products of the bias frequency and the source frequency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 8, 2005
    Date of Patent: August 24, 2010
    Assignee: Applied Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: John A. Pipitone, Kenneth D. Smyth, Mei Po (Mabel) Yeung
  • Patent number: 7780864
    Abstract: A method of processing a workpiece in the chamber of a plasma reactor in which the plasma ion density radial distribution in the process region is controlled by adjusting the ratio between the amounts of the (VHF) capacitively coupled power and the inductively coupled power while continuing to maintain the level of total plasma source power. The method can also include applying independently adjustable LF bias power and HF bias power to the workpiece and adjusting the average value and population distribution of ion energy at the surface of the workpiece by adjusting the proportion between the LF and HF bias powers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 24, 2006
    Date of Patent: August 24, 2010
    Assignee: Applied Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: Alexander Paterson, Valentin N. Todorow, Theodoros Panagopoulos, Brian K. Hatcher, Dan Katz, Edward P. Hammond, IV, John P. Holland, Alexander Matyushkin
  • Patent number: 7780866
    Abstract: A method for processing a workpiece in a plasma reactor. The method comprises constraining plasma in the chamber away from the floor of the pumping annulus, providing an annular baffle while compensating for asymmetry of gas flow attributable to the pumping port, and providing a gas flow equalizer below the baffle having an eccentrically shaped opening. The method further includes modifying the radial distribution of plasma ion density and providing a magnetic plasma steering field having an edge high plasma ion density distribution tendency. The method further comprises locating the baffle at a sufficient distance below the workpiece to provide an edge low plasma ion density distribution tendency that compensates the edge high plasma ion density distribution tendency of the magnetic plasma steering field.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 21, 2007
    Date of Patent: August 24, 2010
    Assignee: Applied Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: Matthew L. Miller, Daniel J. Hoffman, Steven C. Shannon, Michael Kutney, James Carducci, Andrew Nguyen
  • Patent number: 7777152
    Abstract: An RF blocking filter isolates a two-phase AC power supply from at least 2 kV p-p of power of an HF frequency that is reactively coupled to a resistive heating element, while conducting several kW of 60 Hz AC power from the two-phase AC power supply to the resistive heating element without overheating, the two-phase AC power supply having a pair of terminals and the resistive heating element having a pair of terminals. The filter includes a pair of cylindrical non-conductive envelopes each having an interior diameter between about one and two inches and respective pluralities of fused iron powder toroids of magnetic permeability on the order of about 10 stacked coaxially within respective ones of the pair of cylindrical envelopes, the exterior diameter of the toroids being about the same as the interior diameter of each of the envelopes. A pair of wire conductors of diameter between 3 mm and 3.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 6, 2007
    Date of Patent: August 17, 2010
    Assignee: Applied Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: Valentin N. Todorov, Michael D. Willwerth, Alexander Paterson, Brian K. Hatcher, James E. Sammons, III, John P. Holland