Abstract: A passive optical network. The optical network has an optical fiber ring with ends terminating at an optical line terminal. The optical line terminal transmits signals through the fiber ring to optical network units passively connected to the fiber ring. The optical network units receive signals from the optical line terminal through the fiber ring. In one embodiment, the optical line terminal transmits redundant signals in opposite directions through the fiber ring and the optical network units receive the redundant signals from opposite directions through the fiber ring. In another embodiment, the optical network units receive TDM signals from and transmit TDMA signals to the optical line terminal through a fiber line. A first WDM coupler passively connected to the fiber line multiplexes an overlay signal with at least one of the TDM signals and the TDMA signals for transmission through the fiber line. The overlay signal has a wavelength different than the signals with which it is multiplexed.