Abstract: A smart card has a repository having a first data element and a value added function. The card further has an operating system having a data element access function for sequencing to said repository and a microprocessor for executing said data element and said value added function in accordance with said access function.
Abstract: A method for the interconnection of stacked packages encapsulating, for example, a semiconductor chip containing an integrated circuit, for example a memory. Packages with connection pins (21) are stacked and fixedly joined to each other by means of a coating of resin for example. The pins of the packages are cut so as to be flush with the faces (31, 32) of the stack (3). The connection (C) of the packages with one another and their connection to connection pads (35) of the stack is done on the faces of the stack. The connection pads are, if necessary, provided with connection pins (36).
Abstract: The invention relates to exchangeable memory or PC-cards with several integrated circuits for personal computers. These PC-cards are used as a large capacity mass memory for replacing floppy disks and other exchangeable magnetic supports. To protect the content of these PC-cards against unauthorized use, the invention proposes the incorporation into the card (CC) of a specific security integrated circuit chip (MPS), which performs a clearance function for access to the memory chips (MEM). A microcontroller (MPC) also placed in the card comnunicates with the computer and with the security circuit. It makes the security chip validate a confidential code introduced from the computer, whilst also supplying memory chip control signals as a function of the validation result.
Abstract: A method and device for interconnecting stacked semiconducting plates, in which each of the plates has an integrated circuit. The semiconducting plates (P) are stacked and made solid with each other. In one embodiment, their connecting contacts are connected by a wire (F) to any one of the faces of the stack except one (B), which is to be in contact with a printed circuit. Connections of the plates together and with the printed circuit is made on the faces (F.sub.V, F.sub.S, F.sub.L) of the stack.
Abstract: A process for comparison of computer files, ordinary or special, e.g., of executable type, data files, system files and setup files, stored in at least one external storage memory, structured under the form of directory trees containing the files, having the following steps: (1) memorization at time t.sub.0 of a first state of at least one external storage memory which has at least one first table whose rows refer to the directories, and at least one second table whose rows refer to the files, (2) memorization at time t.sub.1 =t.sub.0 +T of a second state of at least one similar external storage memory, and (3) comparison of the first state with the second state, which has at least temporary memorization step of the informations stored in the states concerning respectively directories and files that have been deleted, directories and files that have been added, directories and files that have been modified, directories and files that are identical.
Abstract: Observation window, especially for checking the temperature of objects using infrared thermography, including a parallel-faced transparent insert made of a single crystal suitable for radiation to pass through without being substantially modified and/or attenuated, which radiation, whose wavelength may range from the visible to the relatively far infrared emanates from an object whose temperature is to be monitored, housed in a screened cabinet provided with a door or panel against which the window is arranged, wherein the insert is fitted into a support which surrounds it at its periphery and is immobilized with respect to the support, this support being applied in a sealed manner against an aperture made in the door and then locked in position by means which are only accessible from inside the cabinet, the support comprising an external protective cover capable of pivoting about a pin connecting it to this support, so as to reveal the insert and allow observation through it of the object to be monitored by
Abstract: A method for producing food products made from a basic alginate or pectin gel by means of gelatinization extrusion. A cylinder is extruded from an extrusion die with a predetermined section. The cylinder has a basic mixture, including a natural food ground product such as a fruit or vegetable, a gelatinizing agent: e.g. alginate or pectin and water. The cylinder is extruded directly from the extrusion outlet die into a vertically elongated receiving bath that contains free calcium ions which ensure the immediate gel setting of an outer wall of the extruded cylinder. The bath has a density such that the extruded cylinder remains free from any stress which might cause the cylinder to warp before the cylinder has sufficiently hardened.
Abstract: A process to protect against tampering with integrated circuits. During manufacture, a secret code is written in a secret address (102) of a memory (101) of the integrated circuit and an internal logic (103-108) blocks writing into this portion of memory, the testing of the integrated circuit and the read-out of data. In order to unlock the integrated circuit, the secret address is read while applying a secret code to an input of the integrated circuit. A comparison (207) of the secret code as read and the secret code applied to the integrated circuit then either locks or unlocks the integrated circuit. This unlocking is done in irreversible manner. Thus, it is possible to transport integrated circuits between a manufacturer and a remote users, without fear of the circuits being stolen, because if stolen, they would be inoperable without the secret codes.
Abstract: A method of enhancing the migration and proliferation of keratinocytes in wound healing or in the growth of artificial skin grown in vitro. The wound is contacted with (a) an effective amount of purified Clostridiopeptidase A collagenase that is substantially free from other proteinases and (b) an amount of a growth factor that increases the effects of said collagenase. The artificial skin is grown upon biomatrices previously synthesized by living cells and digested with Clostridiopeptidase A collagenase while in the presence of (a) an effective concentration of purified Clostridiopeptidase A collagenase substantially free from other proteinases and (b) a growth factor in a concentration effective to increase the effectiveness of said collagenase.
Abstract: A memory or PC-cards serve as a large capacity mass memory for replicating floppy disks and other exchangeable magnetic supports. In order to improve these cards, there is added a microprocessor (MPC) with the direct wiring of the operational bus (BD2) of said microprocessor to the card memory (MEM). In this way, the card contains performable programs previously loaded by the computer (PC). Thus, the cards microprocessor functions not only with an internal set program memory, but also with performable programs loaded into the card by the computer. These programs can be modified as needed (provided that the user clearance procedures are respected).