Abstract: A process for recovering hydrocarbons from a subterranean hydrocarbon-bearing formation by injecting into the formation via an injection well an aqueous alkaline flooding medium such as water, steam, etc. containing a small amount of a sulfonated, oxyalkylated interfacial tension reducer, forcing the said flooding medium through the formation and recovering hydrocarbons via a production well.
Abstract: The effectiveness of an aqueous, saline surfactant fluid, especially one containing as essentially the only surfactant an alkylpolyalkoxyalkyl sulfonate or an alkylarylpolyalkoxyalkyl sulfonate for oil recovery by surfactant flooding is increased substantially if the fluid is subjected to a high shear rate for a predetermined period of time prior to injecting the fluid into the oil containing formation. The surfactant fluid should be subjected to a shear rate of at least 150 and preferably at least 250 reciprocal seconds for a period of time of at least 0.1 minutes and preferably at least 0.5 minutes. The improvements obtained by shearing the surfactant fluid include increased stability of the solution, i.e.
Abstract: A process is disclosed for making a cured epoxy resin which has improved adhesion and peel strength. The cured resin is made by combining an epoxy resin with a polyether diureide having terminal ureido or monosubstituted ureido groups and having a molecular weight of from about 2000 to 3000 and an aminoalkylene derivative of a polyoxyalkylenepolyamine. The cured resin is useful, for example, for bonding metals.
Abstract: A process for recovering hydrocarbons from a subterranean formation in which in situ combustion is first initiated in the formation by injection of air, for example, through an injection well, the injection of air is terminated, carbon dioxide or nitrogen is injected into the formation via the injection well to displace unconsumed air and in a final step a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen is injected into the formation where reaction of the carbon monoxide with steam generated from the formation water forms additional hydrogen and carbon dioxide and finally hydrocarbons are recovered via a production well.Optionally, after injection of the mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into the formation has been terminated the heat stored in the formation may be recovered by injecting water as a drive fluid into the formation.
Abstract: Covers the use of quaternary ammonium carboxylate salts as polyisocyanurate catalysts. Said catalysts are useful in promoting the reaction between a polyol and an aromatic polyisocyanate to prepare a polymer containing recurring isocyanurate and urethane linkages.
Abstract: Sensible heat in the hot effluent gas stream leaving a partial oxidation gas generator for the production of gaseous mixtures comprising H.sub.2 +CO i.e. synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas, is used at maximum temperature to heat a stream of gaseous heat transfer fluid comprising a portion of the product gas circulating in the substantially closed loop. The heat transfer fluid serves as the working fluid in a turbine that produces mechanical work, electrical energy, or both. Further, the heat transfer fluid leaving the turbine may be used to preheat hydrocarbonaceous feed and free-oxygen containing gas which is then introduced into the gas generator. Optionally, by-product superheated steam may be produced at high temperature levels for use in the gas generator and as the working fluid in an expansion turbine. The high steam superheat temperatures result in higher conversion efficiencies.
Abstract: The conformance of an aqueous flooding oil recovery process, including steam, hot water or surfactant or other chemicalized water flood process, in a formation containing at least two zones of different permeability, the permeability of one zone being at least 50 percent greater than the permeability of the other zone, is improved by flooding until the higher permeability zone has been depleted, after which a fluid is injected into the depleted, high permeability zone, said fluid having relatively low viscosity at the time of injection and containing a mixture of at least two surface active agents which promotes the formation of a coarse emulsion in the flow channels of the formation which reduces the permeability of the high permeability zone. Since the viscosity of the fluid injected into the previously water flooded, high permeability zone is no greater than water, it is injected easily into the zone and moves through substantially the same flow channels as water would move in the formation.
Abstract: Covers novel polyols comprising the reaction product of a 2,3-morpholinedione and a polyoxypropylene polyamine. Said polyols or alkoxylated derivatives thereof may be used in preparing polyurethane or polyisocyanurate polymers, particularly those polymers in cellular or foam form.
Abstract: Novel thermoplastic adhesive components, prepared from inexpensive and readily available synthetic materials, having melting points between about 20.degree. C. to about 180.degree. C. and broad ranges of hardness, flexibility and compatibility are disclosed. The novel thermoplastic compounds useful in adhesive formulations are comprised of a resinous polyamide reaction product of a polyoxypropylene polyamine having an average molecular weight of from about 190 to about 3,000 and being selected from diamines, triamines, or mixtures thereof, piperazine and an aliphatic or aromatic dicarboxylic acid, ester or anhydride having from about 4 to about 20 carbon atoms per molecule. The resinous polyamide reaction product is prepared by mixing and reacting the polyoxypropylene polyamine, piperazine, and dicarboxylic acid materials in a total amine:acid molar ratio within the range of from about 0.25:1.0 to about 4.0:1.0 at a temperature of from about 175.degree. C. to about 270.degree. C.
Abstract: Covers a polymeric amine having the following structural formula: ##STR1## where x is an average number ranging from about 6 to 50, and y and z are average numbers ranging from about 1 to about 20, with the sum of y and z being from about 6 to about 40. Also covers a method of preparing said amine polymer.
Abstract: Covers certain aromatic-amine amides which comprise the reaction product of an alkylene polyoxypropylene diamine, triamine, or tetramine and an isatoic anhydride of the formula: ##STR1## where R" is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl, nitro, halo, hydroxy, amino, and cyano, and n is a number of 1-4. Also covers the use of said compounds as chain-extenders in polyurethane compositions. Such chain-extenders provide for the production of polyurethane elastomers having improved tensile strength, tear strength and elongation properties.
Abstract: Sensible heat in the hot effluent gas stream leaving a partial oxidation gas generator for the production of raw synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas is used at its maximum temperature to produce a continuous stream of superheated steam at a pressure which may exceed the pressure in the gas generator. The by-product superheated steam may be used as a dispersant or carrier of the fuel feed to the generator or as a temperature moderator. Optionally, a portion of the by-product superheated steam may be used as the working fluid in a turbine to produce mechanical work or electrical energy or both. The high steam superheat temperature results in a higher conversion efficiency. A shell and tube heat exchanger in which a stream of steam or cleaned generator gas is continuously bled from inside the tubes to the outside, or the reverse is employed. The bleed stream mixes with the effluent gas stream passing through the heat exchanger.
Abstract: A process for the accelerated cure of an epoxy resin is disclosed. The resulting epoxy resin may be used in protective coatings, adhesives, seamless and terrazo flooring and caulking and sealing compositions. The resulting resin is also useful, for example, in casting, potting, in escapulating, grouting and patching. The process involves mixing an epoxy resin of the polyhydric phenol, polyglycidyl ether type with a curing agent comprising the reaction product of an epoxy resin with an excess of an aminoalkylene derivative of a polyoxyalkylenepolyamine.
Abstract: Synthetic lubricating oil composition having improved oxidation stability comprising a major portion of an aliphatic ester base fluid having lubricating properties, formed by the reaction of pentaerythritol and an organic monocarboxylic acid and containing a hydrocarbyl phosphate ester, a polyhydroxy anthraquinone, a dialkyl sulfide and either a phenylnaphthylamine or a dialkyldiphenylamine.
Abstract: As a fuel additive, the oxidation product of a polymer having an amine group. Also disclosed herein is a fuel component, especially gasoline, containing such an amine oxide polymer as a detergent.
Abstract: A water based epoxy resin is disclosed. The epoxy resin is useful in protective coatings. It should have little or no utility in casting, encapsulating, etc. applications because of difficulty in removal of solvent, i.e., water. The cured epoxy resin is made by curing an epoxy resin of the polyhydric phenol, polyglycidyl ether type by combining the resin with a reactive water-compatible polyamide in an aqueous medium. The polyamide is prepared from fatty acids and an aminopropyl derivative of a polyoxyalkylenepolyamine.
Abstract: The adhesion properties of amine-cured epoxy resins are enhanced by addition of certain polyether diureide additives in combination with specific amine curing agents. The adhesively superior epoxy resin composition comprises a vincinal polyepoxide, a curing amount of an aminopropyl ethylenediamine curing agent, and an effective amount of a polyether diureide having terminal ureido or monosubstituted ureido groups and a molecular weight of from about 2000 to about 3000.