Abstract: A deicing product comprising a mixture having, based upon the total weight of solid in said deicing product between 12% and 75% acetate salts, trace amounts and 36% carbonate salts, 1 and 24% formate salts, 1 and 32% pseudolactate salts. The cations of said salts are selected from the class consisting of sodium, magnesium, calcium, potassium. Lignin fractions and low molecular weight sugars may also be present, as well as other chemicals derived from the method of making black liquor and this new product. A method of making same is disclosed. It comprises using a black liquor obtained from a pulp mill operation, fractionating said black liquor into a low molecular weight fraction, concentrating said collected low molecular weight fraction to produce a concentrated deicing product.
Abstract: The cooperating surfaces defining a pressing nip in a chip crusher are formed with specific patterns to treat the chips by fissuring to facilitate penetration by cooking chemical for the making of pulp for papermaking and the like. One of the surfaces is provided with a plurality of land areas separated by valleys, the land areas being substantially continuous and extending in the direction of movement of the surface as it passes through the crushing nip. The surface cooperates with the surface of a roll which defines the other side of the nip, the roll surface is provided with a plurality of teeth with the crown of each tooth defining a line preferably extending substantially perpendicular to the direction of movement of the roll surface through the nip.
Abstract: The blank produces a box having on at least one of its sides, near its upper portion, a hand grasping aperture substantially vertically centered with respect to the side. Between the aperture of at least one side and the top edge of this side, on the innermost ply of the fibreboard, a load diffusing reinforcing band extends along the sides, thereby defining an endless circumferential band enabling diffusion of the load and tear prevention of the box, and particularly on portions having critical stress points. Between the aperture of at least one side and the top edge of this side, on one of the plies of the fibreboard, but away from the innermost ply and not adjacent thereto, vis-a-vis the load diffusing reinforcing band, a constraining reinforcing band extends along the sides thereby defining an endless circumferential band constraining the sides of the box and strengthening the fibreboard above the hand grasping aperture and its vicinity.
Abstract: The roll dispenser has as a box for receiving a roll of continuous sheet material, having a bottom, a pair of sides oriented longitudinal with respect to the roll, a pair of sides axial with respect to the roll. One of the longitudinal sides is adapted for receiving a cutting element, at least one tongue element is mounted on at least one of the sides of the box in space relation with the longitudinal side receiving the cutting element. The tongue prevents the recoil of the free end of sheet material onto the roll. In one embodiment, the roll dispenser further comprises a longitudinal side defining the top of the box, at least a portion of its longitudinal sides hingedly mounted to define a gap near the cutting and tongue elements. Also disclosed is a blank for constructing the box.
Abstract: An autoclave extraction apparatus where a supercritical fluid is used for supercritical fluid extraction of one or several compounds. The supercritical fluid containing the compoound(s) may then be processed in a pressurized, fluidized, bed reactor under supercritical conditions. The fluidized bed reactor is used to carry out a catalytic reaction of the compound(s). The method is particularly applicable to recover valuable lignin and other extractable components from kraft black liquor.
Abstract: An apparatus to automatically determine on-line, the shive content and shive size distribution of a wood pulp: The apparatus includes a line having an inlet and outlet, and a plug for closing the line. A motor and gear displaces the line with respect to the plug for defining a gap. A transducer measures the size of the gap. A sensor monitors impedances in the line caused by the accumulation of oversized shives at the gap. Responsive to the sensor, is a device for releasing the impedance by rapidly enlarging the gap, each release during a time period being registered by a counter. A controller correlates each of the counts with the corresponding size of gap to establish the content and size distribution of the shives.
Abstract: A method to make and a base mix fabric softener composition of a concentrate remaining substantially pumpable after transportation and on standing, said concentrate comprising: (a) between 80 to 20% by weight of at least one quaternary ammonium compound having the formula: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are each independently selected from the class consisting of alkyl and alkenyl groups having 12 to 20 carbon atoms, and R.sub.3 and R.sub.4 are each independently selected from the class consisting of C.sub.1 to C.sub.3 alkyl, (C.sub.n H.sub.2n O)H.sub.x where n=2 or 3 and x is from 1 to 3, and (b) between 20 to 80% by weight of at least one alkyl substitute imidazolinium compound having the general formula: ##STR2## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are each independently selected from the class consisting of alkyl and alkenyl groups having 12 to 20 carbon atoms, and X is Cl.sup.- or CH.sub.3 SO.sub.
Abstract: A wood substrate having good flame resistance characteristics while substantially maintaining its adherence characteristics for asphalt products. One surface of the wood substrate has a coating of an inorganic soluble silicate impregnating the wood substrate and forming a firm bonding with it. A process which is disclosed comprises: (a) coating at least one surface of a wood substrate with a concentrated solution of an inorganic soluble silicate, and (b) drying said coating as to leave on said surface the inorganic silicate impregnating the wood substrate and form a firm bonding with the wood substrate.
Abstract: A microwave vacuum oven for quickly removing volatile material from laboratory samples: The oven has a vacuum chamber for receiving the samples in a closed vessel and a vacuum source for expelling volatile material. This vessel has preferably a deformable gasket for sealing engagement with a top and bottom portion, and a gas passage is also provided therein for easily removing the top portion. Auxiliary components are also disclosed for gradually decreasing the microwave energy output in accordance with residual volatile material present at a given time in a system.
Abstract: The present invention relates to specialty pitches having low Q.I. content, lower viscosity, lower average Q.I. particle size, lower ash content, higher toluene insoluble and beta-resin content. They may be prepared by extracting the coal-tar material with a solvent, where the solvent contains at least one n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and the wash oil fraction of coal-tar distillate. The solvent-dissolved fraction of the coal-tar material is then distilled to obtain the specialty pitch material.
Abstract: The method enabling the quick determination of non-dissolved or free gas in a liquid sample. Involves measuring the density of a liquid sample in a closed vessel, subjecting this sample to a reduced pressure and thereby expanding the "free" gas in the liquid sample. After this expansion has taken place, but before allowing dissolved gas to come out of solution, the volume is fixed and a second density measurement is taken. An apparatus therefor is also disclosed. The apparatus comprises: a chamber wherein a liquid sample is subjected to a reduced pressure and an increased volume, and a means for density measurements of the said liquid sample. Also disclosed are means to transfer into the chamber a liquid sample while avoiding the entrapment of gas bubbles. Preferably the chamber has a flexible wall coupled to a suspended weight to enable quick expansion of the chamber while minimizing friction losses and liquid leakage. Once the "free" gas has expanded, the volume is fixed and a density measurement is taken.
Abstract: The carton is formed with a transverse partition formed by a first partition panel foldably connected to a glue panel of the box and having a second partition panel foldably connected thereto along the fold line substantially perpendicular to the fold line connection between the first partition panel and the glue panel. The second partition panel had a glue flap at its opposite end which is connected to its adjacent end wall of the carton. A transverse partition is formed in each of the first and second partition panels with the transverse partition panel formed from the first partition being at the end of the first partition remote from the said glue panel and the transverse partition in the second partition panel being formed adjacent the said glue panel. The transverse partitions are connected to their respective partition panels via fold lines substantially parallel to the fold line connection between the first partition panel and the glue panel.
Abstract: The present invention relates to a process for decreasing and modifying the quinoline-insoluble content (Q.I.) of coal-tar materials; and comprises extracting the coal-tar material with a solvent, where the solvent contains at least one of n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and the wash oil fraction of coal-tar distillate. Pitches with a diminished Q.I. content, lower viscosity and lower average Q.I. particle size, may be prepared from coal-tar materials which have been so treated.
Abstract: Hardboard-like panel having a core of wood fibres intimately mixed with asphalt forming 10-30% by weight of the core. The core is porous and contains 50% by volume of air cells. A resin-impregnated paper is glued to the core. The panel is preferably coated with a long life thermosetting acrylic finish, and used as an exterior siding. A process for making same is also described.
Abstract: A paper machine wet line monitor is provided by photographing the surface of the wire of a paper machine in the area of the wet line (sometimes known as the dry line) with a video camera to generate video signals. The video signals are digitized and define a line corresponding to the wet line of the machine and this line is displayed preferably while also indicating the average location of the wet line across the machine. The processed digitized signal may be imposed on an automatic headbox control to influence this control and maintain the position of the wet line.
Abstract: Method of stripping SO.sub.2 (sulfur dioxide) from flue gases by passing the SO.sub.2 containing gas through to a bed of particles to fluidize the particles and to form a fluidized bed, injecting a reaction chemical into the bed and reacting it with SO.sub.2 in the fluidized bed thereby to form particles of a combined product, combining the particles with other such particles in the fluidized bed to form bigger pellets and to exhaust gases from the bed relatively free of SO.sub.2 at a temperature as low as possible but high enough to prevent the condensation of the moisture present in the gas stream by adjusting the concentration and feeding rate of the reaction chemical. During that process at least some of the pellets so formed are discarded from the bed. In the preferred arrangement the reaction chemicals are injected into the bed in an aqueous medium and gas entering the bed is at elevated temperature in the order of 200.degree.-300.degree. C.
Abstract: A recovery system for residual liquor from a pulp mill, utilizing a fluidized bed to burn the organic material in the residual liquor and generate heat which may be recovered. Heat preferably from the flue gases is used to dry residual liquor sprayed to pellets extracted from the bed, thereby to provide pellets coated with dried residual liquor. The so coated and dried pellets are then reinjected into the bed and the organic material in the dried residual liquor is burned to generate the heat recovered from the bed.If the residual liquor is from a kraft mill sulfur compounds are in the form of sulfate and must be reduced to sulfide and a reducing stage will also be provided either in the reducing zone in existing conventional kraft system (if capacity is available) or in a separate reducing zone and some of the pellets from the bed may be directed to the reducing zone together with some of the pellets coated with dried residual liquor.
Abstract: A method and apparatus for liberating the latent properties of a mechanical pulp is disclosed. The method is a laboratory technique for sample preparation for further pulp testing. "Latency" is released by recirculating pulp from a pool thereof through a centrifugal pump at a rate of at least four times per minute for the period required to release all the latent properties of the pulp sample ("Latency"). This depending on the rate of circulation may be completed in as little as one minute.
Abstract: A chipper having improved means for separating debris from chips is formed by extending the chip slots radially outward beyond the effective cutting length of the knives and is provided with passage means to direct debris from within the chip slots into a front chamber on the infeed side of the disc. The front chamber is provided with a tangential outlet for debris and the chipper is provided with a separate tangential outlet for chips.
Abstract: At start-up, a bed of pellets derived from pulp mill residual liquor is fluidized by feeding preheated air to the bed to initially raise the temperature of the bed to a temperature at which a particulate ligno-cellulosic auxiliary solid fuel may be completely consumed (800.degree.-850.degree. F.