Abstract: The paraffin, olefin and aromatic compounds in a gasoline containing hydrocarbons up to about C.sub.13 can be analyzed and identified by gas liquid chromatography. The aromatics are reversibly absorbed from the gasoline sample by N,N-bis(2-cyanoethyl) formamide while the olefins are irreversibly absorbed by sulfuric acid. Following separation by compound type, each group is resolved and identified by gas liquid chromatography.
Abstract: Whole crude and residual fractions from distillation of petroleum and like feed stocks are subjected to selective vaporization to prepare heavy fractions of reduced Conradson Carbon and/or metals content by short-term, high temperature riser contact with a substantially inert solid contact material of low surface area in a selective vaporization zone. High boiling point components of the charge which are of high Conradson Carbon number and/or high metal content remain on the contact material as a combustible deposit which is then burned off in a combustion zone whereby the contact material is heated to a high temperature for return to the selective vaporization zone to supply the heat required therein. Equilibrium FCC catalyst, previously treated to reduce catalytic cracking activity and surface area, is used as the substantially inert solid.
Abstract: An improved process is provided for decarbonizing, demetallizing and/or desalting a hydrocarbon feed stock by: contacting, in a selective vaporization step, for a short hydrocarbon residence time at an elevated contact temperature, the feed stock with an inert solid contact material in a confined rising vertical column to vaporize a major portion of the feed stock and to provide, as combustible deposits on the contact material, an unvaporized minor portion of the feed stock which includes high Conradson Carbon components and/or metal-containing components of the feed stock; separating the vaporized major portion of the feed stock from the contact material bearing the combustible deposits; contacting in a combustion step the contact material, bearing the combustible deposits, with an oxidizing gas to oxidize the combustible deposits and generate heat, whereby the contact material is heated by combustion of the combustible deposits; and recycling the so-heated contact material to contact further feed stock in t
Abstract: A novel sorptive clay product is formed by treating attapulgite clay with sodium silicate and heating to expel moisture such that the product contains about 7-20% total volatile matter. Acid may also be added such that the pH of aqueous slurry is in the range 5 to 10. This sorptive clay product exhibits water and oil absorption and resistance to wet breakdown equivalent to higher-temperature activated attapulgite products.
Abstract: An improvement is disclosed on selective vaporization for decarbonizing and demetallizing heavy petroleum stocks by short time riser contact with hot inert solid contact material. Flexibility is imparted to that process by suspending the contact material in steam or other carrier gas and adding the heavy petroleum stock at variable levels in the riser.
Abstract: Metals deposited on an inert contact material during high temperature decarbonizing and demetallizing of heavy petroleum stocks are inactivated by mixing the contact material with a silica donor and reacting the mixture at high temperature in the presence of steam to induce migration of silica from the donor to mask metal on the contact material.
Abstract: A system is described for control of sulfur oxide in emissions to the atmosphere from the combined flue gases of selective vaporization and FCC cracking of the improved charge stock resulting from selective vaporization. The invention provides for reduction in sulfur oxide content of the waste gases from the FCC regenerator and the selective vaporization burner and adds a new controllable variable for a heat balanced FCC Unit. The cracking catalyst used has the capability of reversibly reacting with sulfur oxides in the combined flue gases to carry the sulfur back into the reactor where it is converted, at least in part, to hydrogen sulfide which is removed from reaction products in the normal course of treating the cracked products from the reactor. By the disclosed system, the blend of flue gas is cooled and then contacted with hot regenerated catalyst from the regenerator for sorption of sulfur oxides by the catalyst and to cool the catalyst for control of reaction parameters in the FCC reactor.
Abstract: This invention provides an improvement in the operation of an FCCU such as to maintain the octane rating of the gasoline fraction from the cracker at a high level over repeated cycles of cracking charge and regeneration by using fresh zeolitic catalyst particles having an alkali metal oxide less than about 1.5% (based on the zeolite content) and controlling the amount of alkali metal oxide that comes into contact with catalyst inventory throughout cracking, stripping and regeneration so as to maintain alkali metal oxide content of equilibrium catalyst below 2.0%, based on the weight of zeolite in the fresh zeolitic catalyst.
Abstract: Liquid unsaturated polyester resins may be thickened and made thixotropic by addition of a colloidal, gelling grade clay such as attapulgite and a quaternary ammonium surfactant under moderate shear. This thixotropic polyester composition is formed without making provision for first chemically reacting clay and surfactant. For enhanced long-term stability a tertiary amine surfactant having an alkyl group and two polyoxyethylene groups attached to the nitrogen may be added to the above composition. For polyester resins having a styrene monomer content greater than 35%, the clay and surfactant are mixed with styrene first, to form a pregel, prior to addition of the polyester resin to be thickened.
Abstract: A perm-selective membrane is used in an electrokinetic cell of an electrically augmented vacuum filter (EAVF) to prevent the migration of anions from the anode and optionally cathode compartments. The perm-selective membrane in the form of a film laminated to a support grid effectively prevents migration of anions into the filter cake and migration of fine particle solid to be filtered from the slurry into the anolyte and/or catholyte.
Abstract: Gasoline and a heavier fraction from selective vaporization of crude or residual petroleum stocks are separately supplied to a riser reactor of the FCC type. The crude or resid is contacted at low cracking severity with hot inert solids in a riser. The vaporized product is fractionated to provide a gasoline injected to the bottom of an FCC riser and a bottoms fraction introduced at a higher point in the FCC riser.
Abstract: Whole crude and residual fractions from distillation of petroleum and like feed stocks are subjected to selective vaporization to prepare heavy fractions of reduced Conradson Carbon and/or metals content by short-term, high temperature riser contact with a substantially inert solid contact material of low surface area in a selective vaporization zone. High boiling point components of the charge which are of high Conradson Carbon number and/or high metal content remain on the contact material as a combustible deposit which is then burned off in a combustion zone whereby the contact material is heated to a high temperature for return to the selective vaporization zone to supply the heat required therein. The system is dynamically controlled for fuel supply in the combustion zone by the lower hydrogen content, least valuable components of the feed.
Abstract: Residual fractions from distillation of petroleum are rendered suitable for charge to catalytic cracking by high temperature, short time contact in a decarbonizing zone with fluidizable solid particles of essentially inert character and low surface area to deposit high boiling components of the crude and metals on the fluidizable solid particles whereby Conradson Carbon values and metal content of the hydrocarbon feedstock are reduced to levels tolerable in catalytic cracking and carbon laid down on the inert fluidizable particles is burned in a burning zone separate from the decarbonizing zone. Heated inert particles are recycled at least in part to the decarbonizing zone and then to the burning zone.
Abstract: An improved method of extracting titanium from titaniferous materials by reaction with thionyl chloride to form titanium tetrachloride which is separated from the reaction products by volatilization or by extraction.
Abstract: Monolithic honeycomb structures are made by heating to a fluid condition an admixture comprising an inorganic powder and a temporary vehicle, forcing the fluid admixture through a stencil having a plurality of masking islands thereby forming a thin lamina beneath the stencil which is cooled immediately to form an essentially solid structure. This process is repeated to form a composite of successive cohered laminae thereby forming a monolithic honeycomb structure, which is heated to remove the vehicle and subsequently sintered to form a self-supporting honeycomb structure.
Abstract: A process for the recovery of valuable metals or their compounds from an aqueous medium, such as a metals refinery process waste solution. Metals are recovered in water-insoluble form from aqueous solutions of metal salts by contacting the aqueous solution with a killed fungus of the type commonly called molds for a period of time sufficient to convert soluble metal components in the aqueous solution to a water insoluble form sequestered by the dead fungus. After treatment, metals-containing fungus is separated from the treated aqueous medium and processed for the recovery of metal values.
Abstract: A process for recovering metals from aqueous media containing metal in solution, and especially from industrial waste water. The process includes the steps of contacting the aqueous medium with fungus for a period of time sufficient to allow the fungus to extract metal in a water-insoluble form from the solution. The metal may then be recovered from the fungus. Fungi of the species Cladosporium, Penicillium, Trichoderma, Black Mycelium and Aureobasidium, have been found to be particularly useful in the process of the present invention. The process is useful, both as a water purification process and as a metals recovery process.
Abstract: Platinum, palladium and other precious metals are recovered from aqueous media containing precious metal ions in solution by contacting the metal-containing solution with a proteinaceous material selected from the group consisting of feathers, hair, hoof meal and horn meal to collect the metals in concentrated insoluble form, and recovering metal from the proteinaceous material.
Abstract: Metal contaminated heavy oils such as residual fractions from petroleum distillation are economically converted to gasoline and other light products in catalytic cracking by practice of a novel catalyst makeup policy of adding controlled proportions of both an active cracking catalyst and a substantially inert, large pore solid to replace the amount of catalyst withdrawn from the inventory of a continuous cracking unit wherein catalyst inventory is continuously circulated between a reactor for cracking charge hydrocarbons and a regenerator for burning off the carbonaceous deposit laid down on catalyst in the cracking reaction.
Abstract: Cis-diammineplatinum(II) orthophosphate complexes are prepared by reaction of diaquo-cis-diammineplatinum(II) salts with alkali metal orthophosphates. The resulting complexes possess pronounced activity against tumors in mice combined with low animal toxicity.