Abstract: A fluid pumping system including a variable-volume, fluid-reception chamber having an inlet conduit leading from a fluid supply site and an outlet conduit leading to a fluid delivery site. An elongated plunger body is drivingly coupled with the chamber and linearly reciprocable along its longitudinal axis so as to alternately expand and contract the volume of the chamber, thereby alternately drawing a fluid into the chamber through the inlet conduit from the fluid supply site and pumping the fluid through the outlet conduit towards the delivery site. The linear reciprocation of the plunger body is effected by an electromagnetically operated drive, preferably a linear motor drive, at a rate of reciprocation in the range of 0.01 to 10 Hz.
Abstract: A capacitor-type power supply for electrical machining has a capacitor connected across a machining gap and in the region thereof while a high-frequency power generator is disposed at a location remote from the machining gap and provides a high-frequency electric power. A feeder connects the power generator with the capacitor to permit the capacitor to be charged with pulses of the high-frequency electrical power. The system permits the high-frequency source to be located distally from the machining gap.
Abstract: A TW-EDM method and apparatus wherein a continuous electrode wire is axially transported from a supply side to a takeup side to travel through an electrically conductive workpiece while a relative displacement is effected between the traveling wire and the workpiece such that the wire is advanced in the workpiece along a prescribed cutting path transverse to the traveling axis of the wire as electroerosive material removal proceeds by the action of electrical discharges across a machining gap flooded with a weakly conductive aqueous machining fluid and maintained between the advancing wire and the workpiece, thereby progressively cutting the workpiece along the cutting path and developing a groove of cutting behind the advancing electrode wire. The rate of advance of the electrode wire for a given machining current is increased by stripping a portion of the flooding fluid which is present in the cutting groove in a region immediately behind the advancing electrode wire.
Abstract: An improved method and apparatus for automatically resetting a wire electrode (E) in an operating setup on a traveling-wire electroerosion machine (e.g. a TW-EDM machine) is disclosed. Upon termination of a given machining operation with the machine commenced with a starting hole (h1) in the workpiece (W), the wire electrode spanning in a continuous stretch between a supply side (5) and a collection side (27) is broken in a region adjacent to the workpiece and at one of the opposite sides thereof by forming in the wire electrode in the said region at least two coplanar grooves disposed substantially symmetrically about the longitudinal axis thereof, and then applying a tension to the wire electrode to break the latter at a neck formed by the said grooves.
Abstract: A novel method of polishing a workpiece surface comprises passing over the surface in elastically compressive abrasive contact therewith a mass of discrete, elastically deformable pieces each individually consisting of a matrix of elastomeric material containing finely divided abrasive particles substantially uniformly distributed at least along a surface region of the individual piece.
Abstract: A method of and apparatus for chemically depositing a metal to a substrate in the presence of a rapidly flowing chemical-depositing solution furnishing the metal. A narrow light beam is directed onto the substrate and intercepted by a localized area thereon to activate an interface between the area and the flowing solution. The metal in the solution is thereby chemically deposited on the localized area. The beam and the substrate are relatively displaced to successively shift the area of interception of the beam until a desired surface region on the substrate is rapidly deposited. Preferably, the thickness of the solution passing rapidly and traversed by the beam incident on the localized area is limited not to exceed a preselected dimension.
Abstract: A method of and an apparatus for electrical-machining a conductive workpiece with an axially traveling wire electrode displaced transversely to the workpiece along a predetermined cutting path to advance electroerosion effected across the machining gap supplied with a machining liquid, wherein the rate of supply of the machining liquid to the gap is controlled as a function of the shape of the cutting path.
Abstract: An improved EDM method and apparatus in which a hydrocarbon liquid such as kerosene is decomposed, outside of an EDM gap, to produce therefrom gases containing gaseous hydrocarbons, which gases are injected into the machining gap immersed in a deionized water liquid coolant. The liquid hydrocarbon is so decomposed, e.g. thermally, as to yield these gases which contain 30 to 85% hydrogen and the balance essentially the gaseous hydrocarbons. The thermal decomposition uses heating the liquid hydrocarbon at a temperature not in excess of 300.degree. C. The liquid hydrocarbon decomposition gases may be entrained in a stream of a deionized water for delivery into the EDM gap whose region is immersed in a continuous volume of the deionized water. The decomposition of the liquid hydrocarbon may be carried out in a separate thermal decomposition system connected to the machining gap via a continuous conduit communicating a source of the liquid hydrocarbon with the machining gap.
Abstract: An improved machining method and electrode for use in the traveling-wire EDM process utilizing an aqueous machining fluid medium which is decomposed by erosive electrical discharges into gaseous oxygen and hydrogen. Breakage of the traveling-wire electrode is reduced or eliminated through the use of an improved electrode element comprising a continuous electrode wire substrate and a layer of a polymeric substance having a temperature of thermal decomposition of 100.degree. to 500.degree. C. attached thereto in a distributed manner such as to partially cover the surface of the substrate.
Abstract: A method of and apparatus for machining a workpiece such as ceramic with an energy beam, e.g. a beam of energetic ions or a laser beam, produced by a beam generator. A carriage having the workpiece securely mounted thereon and the beam generator are relatively displaced to cause the beam to move in a scanning manner along a prescribed path on the workpiece surface. An acoustic emission from the workpiece being machined is sensed by a transducer disposed in contact therewith to provide a control signal which is applied to the generator for controlling the energy or energy density of the beam and/or to a drive unit for displacing the workpiece relative to the beam generator to control the rate of relative scanning displacement between the energy beam and the workpiece.
Abstract: A wire-cut electric discharge machine having an improved nozzle system for supplying working fluid into a working gap between a workpiece and wire electrode. The improved nozzle system comprises a working fluid nozzle coaxial with the wire electrode and an auxiliary nozzle for producing an intense jet stream in the back portion of the wire electrode, namely, into the slit formed by the spark erosion. The jet stream pressure acts on the semicylindrical surface opposite the front surface at which the discharge pressure is produced to preserve the linearity of the wire electrode.
Abstract: A power-supply circuit for electrical machining of all types in which a tool is juxtaposed with a workpiece, the circuit having an alternating current input connected to the mains and receiving the alternating current at the mains' frequency, a rectifier connected to the input for converting the commercial alternating current to direct current, a solid-state switching device for converting the direct current to a high-frequency signal, a transformer whose primary winding receives the high-frequency signal and which produces a high-frequency output at a desired voltage level, a rectifier connected to this transformer at its secondary, and switch means for transforming the direct-current output of the latter device into the machining signal. The system permits the transformer to be of substantially reduced size by comparison with transformers used in earlier high-power electrical machining systems.
Abstract: A dynamic balancing machine having a full-automatic reforming unit is disclosed. The machine includes a pair of oscillatory bearing units for resiliently supporting a workpiece rotatably about a horizontal axis. Pickups are provided to sense the oscillations of the rotating workpiece about the axis. A computing unit responds to oscillation signals to determine therefrom and from signals representing the rotation of the workpiece the amounts and positions of local unbalance of the workpiece. For reforming operation, a fluid-actuated piston/cylinder arrangement is used to fix the axis of rotation of the workpiece in alignment with the horizontal axis to enable the workpiece to rotate without oscillations.
Abstract: A method of and apparatus for electroerosively machining a 3D cavity in workpiece, in which a coil is wound on a tool electrode and energized by a current source to produce a magnetic field therein. The magnetic field of flux density in excess of 100 Gauss and preferably not less than 300 Gauss is passed through the ferromagnetic electrode body and applied to the machining gap formed between the tool electrode and the workpiece which are relatively displaced multiaxially under commands of a NC unit to cause the frontal end portion of the tool electrode to sweep in a scanning manner over the workpiece while following a prescribed 3D path to progressively develop the desired cavity electroerosively machined with a succession of electrical discharges affected by the magnetic field.
Abstract: EDM method and apparatus in which the electrical discharge machining pulses are triggered by the application across the machining gap of a succession of pulse trains of discrete elementary pulses whose duration and peak current are preset for a desired machining result. At least one of the elementary pulses in each train is increased with respect to its energy content, i.e. the energy discharged through the machining gap, substantially higher than the preset value to permit machining to continue with stability or for restoration of the stable machining action when the gap becomes unstable due to its reduced spacing. The increase of the energy is effected by increasing one or both of pulse duration and pulse peak current. The proportion of the number of increased energy pulse over the number of preset elementary machining pulses or the proportion in energy content or consumption of increased energy pulses to preset elementary machining pulses is set to be not greater than 15%, preferably not greater than 10%.
Abstract: Electrodeposition is carried out using an electric current which is applied in the form of pulses between a workpiece and an electrode in an electrolyte from which metal is to be deposited upon the workpiece. The pulses have a pulse duration not greater than 100 microseconds and the pulse duration is preferably between 1-50 microseconds while the off time or interval between adjacent pulses is more than twice as long as the on time of the pulses.
Abstract: A wire-cut electroerosion machining method and apparatus in which the rate of axial travel of the electrode wire is temporarily increased immediately upon a change by the electrode wire of its course at a corner in a prescribed cutting path. The axial travel rate is preferably increased as a function of the angle of intersection defining the corner. Also, the time period in which the wire axial travel rate is increased should advantageously be varied as a function of, e.g. in inverse proportion to, the angle of intersection defining the corner.
Abstract: A novel EDM method is disclosed in which a gas such as compressed air is dissolved in a water liquid to form a solution which is pumped into the machining gap formed between a tool electrode and a workpiece. An EDM power supply provides a succession of electrical discharges across the gap through the supplied solution to electroerosively remove stock from the workpiece with the decomposition of oxygen and hydrogen gases from the water liquid. The dissolved gas in the solution is liberated in the machining gap upon exposure to the electrical discharges to add to these gases, thereby increasing the electroerosive stock removal. The gas is dissolved into the water in an amount of at least 20% by volume of the oxygen and hydrogen gases normally decomposed from the water liquid by the electrical discharges.
Abstract: An improved apparatus for magnetically filtering a magnetically susceptible component in a fluid with a matrix of magnetizable material which, when magnetized, provides a multiplicity of regions of high magnetic field gradient. A sequence of time-spaced impulsive magnetic fluxes are produced in an electromagnetic coil by periodically charging and discharging capacitor connected to the coil, the fluxes being concentrated across the magnetic matrix to magnetically collect the magnetically susceptible component in the regions of high field gradient therein. A static magnetic flux may also be provided in the magnetic matrix by a permanent magnet included in a magnetic circuit with the matrix.
Abstract: A method of contour-machining a workpiece by axially transporting an electrode wire through the workpiece while advancing the workpiece relative to the axis of travel of the electrode wire in a plane substantially orthogonal to the axis of travel to electroerosively cut a groove progressively along a programmed closed-loop path of a predetermined contour whereby the workpiece is eventually severed into a central portion and a peripheral portion with respect to the contour-cut groove. The workpiece and wire support/guide members are positioned to enable the workpiece to move relative to the traveling electrode wire in a vertical plane in a two-dimensional coordinate system. The programmed closed-loop path is arranged on the positioned workpiece in the two-dimensional coordinate system and divided into an upper path and a lower path.