Patents Assigned to Michigan Biotechnology Institute
  • Patent number: 4869819
    Abstract: An improved process for the biomethanation of an organic substrate includes treating the substrate in a first reactor to form organic acid anions, passing an aqueous preparation containing dissolved organic anions through an ion exchanger so that the organic acid anions are adsorbed and separated from the remainder of the aqueous preparation, desorbing; the organic acid anions and passing the desorbed acids to a second reactor containing methanogenic bacteria which convert the acids to methane. In a preferred embodiment, a bicarbonate solution is produced in the second reactor and it is used to desorb the organic acid anions and regenerate the anion exchanger into the bicarbonate form. A preferred apparatus first and second reactors, and a pair of anion exchangers connected by tubing to both reactors also is disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 5, 1988
    Date of Patent: September 26, 1989
    Assignee: Michigan Biotechnology Institute
    Inventors: Jurgen Thiele, Joseph G. Zeikus
  • Patent number: 4830963
    Abstract: A formate salt is used as part of the fermentable carbon-containing material in an anaerobic fermentation to produce acetic acid. Acetate salt formed in the fermentation is converted to free acetic acid with formic acid, which in turn is changed to formate salt. This formate salt then is used as a carbon source for another fermentation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 20, 1985
    Date of Patent: May 16, 1989
    Assignee: Michigan Biotechnology Institute
    Inventors: Phillip J. Brumm, Rathin Datta
  • Patent number: 4820880
    Abstract: A process for the production of 3,4-dideoxyhexitol and for its cyclodehydration to 2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydrofuran. The 3,4-dideoxyhexitol is obtained by hydrogenolysis in the presence of a copper chromite catalyst, of hexitols, or of compound which undergo reaction with hydrogen to give hexitols.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 18, 1987
    Date of Patent: April 11, 1989
    Assignee: Michigan Biotechnology Institute
    Inventor: Branko Urbas
  • Patent number: 4814267
    Abstract: An improved method of preparing high maltose conversion syrups and other sweeteners from starch substrates comprises saccharifying the starch at higher temperatures than presently used with environmentally compatible thermostable .beta.-amylase and other thermostable enzymes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 29, 1986
    Date of Patent: March 21, 1989
    Assignee: Michigan Biotechnology Institute
    Inventors: Joseph G. Zeikus, Badal C. Saha
  • Patent number: 4814273
    Abstract: Acetic, propionic, and butyric acids are produced by a two-step fermentation process. Lactate salts formed in the second fermentation step, a biochemical acidification step, are used as the carbon source in the first fermentation step.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 20, 1985
    Date of Patent: March 21, 1989
    Assignee: Michigan Biotechnology Institute
    Inventors: Phillip J. Brumm, Rathin Datta
  • Patent number: 4781836
    Abstract: An improved process for the biomethanation of an organic substrate includes treating the substrate in a first reactor to form organic acid anions, passing an aqueous preparation containing dissolved organic anions through an anion exchanger so that the organic acid anions are adsorbed and separated from the remainder of the aqueous preparation, desorbing the organic acid anions and passing the desorbed acids to a second reactor containing methanogenic bacteria which convert the acids to methane. In a preferred embodiment, a bicarbonate solution is produced in the second reactor and it is used to desorb the organic acid anions and regenerate the anion exchanger into the bicarbonate form.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 16, 1986
    Date of Patent: November 1, 1988
    Assignee: Michigan Biotechnology Institute
    Inventors: Jurgen Thiele, Joseph G. Zeikus
  • Patent number: 4737459
    Abstract: A method is disclosed for producing catabolite repression-resistant mutant strains of C. thermosulfurogenes and C. thermohydrosulfuricum. The method comprises challenging a wild strain of the organism with nitrosoguanidine, followed by enrichment on 2-deoxyglucose and culturing an iodine stained starch-glucose containing agar. The colonies which convert starch most efficiently are catabolite repression-resistant. Pure cultures of the mutants and methods employing the mutants to prepare enzymes are also described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 26, 1985
    Date of Patent: April 12, 1988
    Assignee: Michigan Biotechnology Institute
    Inventors: Joseph G. Zeikus, Hyung-Hwan Hyun
  • Patent number: 4647538
    Abstract: A thermostable and thermoactive, extracellular .beta.-amylase is produced by Clostridium thermosulfurogenes. Methods of producing the .beta.-amylase and using it to convert starch to maltose are also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 18, 1984
    Date of Patent: March 3, 1987
    Assignee: Michigan Biotechnology Institute
    Inventors: Joseph G. Zeikus, Hyung-Hwan Hyun
  • Patent number: 4628031
    Abstract: A thermostable pullulanase and a thermostable glucoamylase are produced by Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum. Methods of producing the enzymes and using them to hydrolyze starch are also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 18, 1984
    Date of Patent: December 9, 1986
    Assignee: Michigan Biotechnology Institute
    Inventors: Joseph G. Zeikus, Hyung-Hwan Hyun
  • Patent number: 4604352
    Abstract: Starch is converted directly to ethanol by growing a co-culture of Clostridium thermosulfurogenes and Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum under anaerobic conditions on a starch containing substrate in a medium comprising essential vitamins, minerals and growth factors. The co-culture also produces the thermostable enzymes .beta.-amylase, glucoamylase and pullulanase.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 18, 1984
    Date of Patent: August 5, 1986
    Assignee: Michigan Biotechnology Institute
    Inventors: Joseph G. Zeikus, Hyung-Hwan Hyun