Abstract: An electron beam generator particularly adapted for direct-write semiconductor lithography applications is disclosed which includes a photoemissive cathode, a modulable laser for illuminating the photoemissive cathode, and light optics to create an optical pattern on the cathode. The photoemissive cathode is composed of a light transmissive substrate onto which is deposited an optically semitransparent, electrically conductive film. This film in turn is coated with a thin layer of a photoemissive substance such as cesium antimonide so that the photoemissive cathode emits an intense and substantially monochromatic beam of electrons upon laser light illumination. The emitted electron beam is configured in accordance with the optical pattern created on the cathode, and in passing through successive electron optical devices is further shaped and sized for use, for example, in lithographically generating very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuits on semiconductors.
Abstract: A suction dewatering system for a papermaking machine has a suction device with an opening extending longitudinally in a direction transverse to the path of material travel through the machine. Elongated wear strips are supported on opposite sides of the opening to define a suction slot therebetween. A guide channel extends longitudinally through at least one of the wear strips in a direction parallel to the suction slot. An adjusting plate is shiftable longitudinally within the guide channel. Oblique cam slots in the adjusting plate coact with fixed guide members to laterally adjust the position of the one wear strip relative to the other wear strip to thereby vary the width of the suction slot.
Abstract: Reaction product of an aliphatic organic diisocyanate, a high molecular weight polyether polyol (poly tetra methylene ether glycol) and 1,4 butane diol. The resulting polymers have thromboresistant properties, a long flexural life and are extrudable. The polyurethane polymer is ideal for forming transvenous cardiac pacemaker leads, blood bags, intravenous and intra-arterial catheters and tubing, and other shaped devices which must be formed of a blood compatible material.
Abstract: Disclosed are a method and apparatus for delivering a solvent in the liquid state to a surface to be cleaned. The volume of the solvent and the time interval during which it is applied to the surface are selected so that the solvent reaches the surface in the liquid state. In a preferred embodiment, the solvent is water which is sprayed at selected time intervals onto the lower surface of the distributor plate supporting a fluidized bed of glass batch material for preheating.
March 14, 1983
Date of Patent:
May 1, 1984
Thermo Electron Corporation
William E. Cole, Drew P. O'Connell, James L. Griffith
Abstract: A heat-actuated air conditioner/heat pump is disclosed which includes a sealed, rotatable tube. The sealed tube contains a working fluid and includes an evaporator leg and a condenser leg, the condenser leg extending a greater distance from the axis of rotation than the evaporator leg. As the tube is rotated, a vapor pressure differential is created between the evaporator and condenser legs with the higher pressure in the condenser leg. Because of this pressure differential, the working fluid will evaporate in the evaporator leg at a lower temperature than that at which it will condense in the condenser leg. The evaporator leg thus can be used for cooling a stream of house air (house air conditioning) while the condenser leg rejects heat to a stream of ambient air. When all of the working fluid has evaporated, the system may be recharged for another cooling cycle by supplying heat to the condenser leg to drive the working fluid back into the evaporator leg.
Abstract: A reaction product of 4,4' dicyclohexylmethane diisocyanate, polytetramethylene ether glycol and ethylene oxide-capped trimethylol propane. The resulting polyurethane is optically clear and suitable for use as an artificial cornea, or a permanently implantable lens.
Abstract: Disclosed are a method and apparatus for recovering tin from tin smelter dust without the need for pre-agglomerating the dust particles. Dust containing tin oxides is directed into the tail flame of a plasma reactor, and the tin oxides are reduced to liquid tin using hydrogen and/or hydrocarbon gases supplied to the reactor as dust carrier and plasma gases. Tin is removed from a collection vessel at the bottom of the plasma reactor, preferably while in liquid form so that the recovery process may be run continuously. The plasma recovery process has demonstrated yields of about 94.5% and metal containing 99.7% tin, and analysis has indicated low operating costs relative to the current market price of tin.
Abstract: Process for forming optically clear lenses or artifical corneas from a reaction product of 4,4' dicyclohexylmethane diisocyanate, polytetramethylene ether glycol and ethylene oxide-capped trimethylol propane. The resulting polyurethane is optically clear and suitable for use as an artificial cornea, or a permanently implantable lens.
Abstract: A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting amine compounds from air samples without loss due to formation of nitrosamine artifacts. The apparatus includes a cartridge having a separation zone between a first port and a second port. The separation zone contains an air pervious packing of a granular, solid phase amine complexing agent. The method includes a first step of driving an air sample through the separation zone of the cartridge from the first port to the second port, and a second step of driving an eluent through the separation zone from the second port to the first port, or backflushing the cartridge. To extract amine compounds, the eluent is a solvent for the amine complexing agent in the separation zone of the cartridge. The method may contain the further step of determining the amine compound concentration of at least a portion of the eluate which passes from the separation zone following the second step of the method.
Abstract: A glass batch preheater in one stage of which hot flue gases from a glass melting furnace are passed through a bed of cullet and a bed of glass batch material. The bed of cullet, while being heated, filters dust and other particles from the hot flue gases while the bed of glass batch materials is simultaneously heated and fluidized. An alternative preheater includes a first stage and a second supplementary stage to further heat the glass batch material. A separate stage may also be used for elutriation of glass particles. Steam may be injected to provide moisture to the glass batch and for other purposes.
August 18, 1981
Date of Patent:
February 22, 1983
Thermo Electron Corporation
Ravinder K. Sakhuja, William E. Cole, Dimitris Pavlakis
Abstract: A thermally pumped laser. The laser features an emitter, a collector spaced apart from the emitter, and reflecting elements adjacent to the space between the emitter and collector to form a cavity. A heat source is provided for heating the emitter to drive electrons from the emitter to the collector. Vapor such as cesium vapor is disposed in the cavity between the emitter and the collector to form the lasing medium. An additive selected to be in resonance with specific excited states of the atoms may be intermixed with the chosen vapor. The additive assists in depopulating the specific states of the atoms, thereby creating or enhancing a population inversion in the atoms of the vapor so that lasing may occur. The laser may be operated both in a pulsed and in a d.c. mode.
Abstract: Apparatus is disclosed for generating high density pulses of electrons thermionically. The apparatus includes a metallic target maintained within a low pressure cesium vapor atmosphere. A laser rapidly heats the cesiated target surface to a high temperature in a time short compared with the residence time of cesium atoms adsorbed on the target surface. This rapid surface heating in combination with the adsorbed cesium atoms emits copious quantities of electrons forming a high current density pulse.
Abstract: A fuel slurry and engine systems for using the slurry are disclosed. The fuel slurry is a uniform mixture of water and 20 to 50 percent by weight of particulate coal of maximum size equal to 20 microns, the small size promoting complete combustion of the coal and minimizing engine wear due to particles of ash. Engine systems for utilizing the slurry of micronized coal and water are described, the preferred system including a slow-speed, two-stroke turbo-charged diesel engine. Preferred compositions of the fuel slurry are discussed and their behavior in engine systems is analyzed. Also disclosed are techniques for enhancing its ignition.
Abstract: A plasma method and apparatus produce oxide particles having average diameters determined by adjustment of process conditions. Feed material is fed into a dual chamber reaction zone in which a plasma environment is established to cause the feed material to be vaporized. Subsequently, effluent containing the vaporized feed from the reaction zone is passed into a quenching zone where it is subjected to a quenching medium, the volume, velocity and direction of which are adjustable to determine output particle size characteristics. Feed material may be an oxide per se or one which forms an oxide in situ through reduction and/or oxidation.
Abstract: A dual mode solar tracking method and system in which a sensor of radiation from the sun normally tracks the sun at a rate determined by a priori information, departure from normal tracking and correction for tracking rate errors being introduced only when the errors exceed a predetermined value and the strength of radiation from the sun exceeds a predetermined threshold value.
Abstract: A molecular sieve trap is disclosed for selective trapping of substances in a gas stream, the trap being particularly useful in systems for detecting nitrogen compounds such as N-nitrosamines or nitrogen oxides in a sample. The trap comprises a cartridge containing a packing of a granular adsorbent molecular sieve material with a carefully controlled pore size of about ten angstroms and a preference for adsorbing polar substances. The packing readily passes NO and NO.sub.2 gases in a gas stream directed through the trap while trapping and retaining larger and/or more polar molecules such as those of double-bonded carbon compounds and sulfur compounds which could otherwise interfere with subsequent measurement of the NO or NO.sub.x content of the gas stream. An N-nitroso compound detection system incorporating the molecular sieve trap is described wherein the molecular sieve trap is interposed between a pyrolyzer and a chemiluminescent NO detector to selectively trap substances in the reactor effluent.
Abstract: An inhalation device for use in respiratory therapy is described. The inhalation device or incentive breathing exerciser includes an inner bellows whose deflection allows accurate measurement of the initial volume of air inhaled by a patient and an outer bellows for measuring larger volumes of air after a valve in the inner bellows opens. The exerciser permits measurement of the true volume of air inhaled by a patient and is equipped with a simple timer for measuring the interval of time an inhaled breath is held. Removable handles and the flexible bellows permit collapse of the device for storage and shipment as a compact unit.
Abstract: A method and apparatus are described for producing negative deuterium ions for use in controlled thermonuclear reactions such as fusion. Negative ions are obtained by bombarding the surface of an ionization electrode with positive ions and extracting negative ions from the electrode. The unique surface layer of the electrode is formed by depositing onto a substrate the products of thermal decomposition of cesium carbonate. This layer, which is easily formed and renewed, is characterized by a very low value of work function of about 1.05 electron volts, which facilitates formation of large quantities of negative ions. Properties of the surface layer, particularly the low value of work function, are reproducible and relatively insensitive to variations in the thickness of the layer and to the substrate material selected for the electrode.
Abstract: A method and system for continuously extracting metals from sea water by deploying adsorber sheets in a suitable current of sea water, recovering the adsorber sheets after they become loaded with metal and eluting the metal from the recovered sheets. The system involves the use of hollow, perforated bobbins on which the sheets are rolled as they are recovered and through which elutant is introduced.
May 14, 1980
Date of Patent:
October 6, 1981
Thermo Electron Corporation
Dean T. Morgan, Chryssostomos Chryssostomidis, George J. LaRue
Abstract: A reaction product of methylene diisocyanate, polytetramethylene ether glycol and ethylene oxide-capped trimethylol propane. The resulting polyurethane is optically clear and suitable for use as an artificial cornea, or a permanently implantable lens.