Abstract: The separation of polyunsaturated triglycerides from monounsaturated triglycerides is performed by an adsortive chromatographic process in liquid phase using hydrogen-, copper-, or potassium-exchanged omega zeollites or carbon as the adsorbent. A ketone, toluene or ketone/n-aliphatic hydrocarbon can be selected as the desorbent.
Abstract: A C.sub.4 -C.sub.6 feed to an isomerization zone containing substantial amounts of cyclic hydrocarbons is contacted with a high chloride, platinum alumina catalyst to simultaneously open cyclic hydrocarbon rings and isomerize paraffins to more highly branched paraffins. The process can operate at relatively low severity conditions that provide favorable equilibrium conditions for isoparaffin conversion. The ring opening is also obtained without excessive generation of light hydrocarbons. Multiple stage reaction zones may be used to operate the first stage at slightly higher severity than the second stage to maximize ring opening and obtain favorable equilibrium of iso to normal paraffins.
Abstract: A process is disclosed for the production of a desired xylene isomer, preferably paraxylene, and high quality benzene. The desired isomer (11) is recovered from the feed (1) and recycle (3) streams in a xylene separation zone (2). The raffinate (5) from the separation zone is passed into a catalytic xylene isomerization zone (6). The isomerization zone effluent stream is passed into a high severity transalkylation zone (14) which contains a catalyst comprising both a ZSM-5 zeolite and mordenite. Ethylbenzene in the feed stream is subjected to staged conversion in the two catalytic reaction zones to both xylenes and benzene. The overall ethylbenzene conversion efficiency is improved.
Abstract: A hydrocarbon conversion process is disclosed which extends the useful life of a regenerable zeolite-containing hydrocarbon conversion catalyst. In one aspect of this process, a hydrocarbon feed containing fluorides is passed through a fluoride removal system which reduces the fluoride concentration of the feed to below 100 ppb. The hydrocarbon feed containing less than 100 ppb fluorine is then converted over a regenerable zeolite-containing hydrocarbon conversion catalyst. The zeolite-containing hydrocarbon conversion catalyst is regenerated with an oxygen-containing gas stream as necessary to burn off carbonaceous deposits on the catalyst so as to return the zeolite catalyst to a high level of activity.
August 28, 1987
Date of Patent:
November 8, 1988
Joseph A. Kocal, David C. Martindale, Paul J. Kuchar
Abstract: The polyureas resulting from curing polyfunctional isocyanates having at least three isocyanate groups with a N,N'-dialkylmethylenedianiline are broadly useful as coatings on the surface of objects made of metal, wood, glass, or plastic. The diamine N,N'-di(2-butyl)4,4'-methylenedianiline is a particularly useful diamine. Biurets are an especially desirable class of polyisocyanates for the polyureas of this invention, particularly those arising from polymethylene diisocyanates and aromatic diisocyanates.
Abstract: A novel liquid acid catalyzed alkylation process is disclosed which incorporates a fixed bed of contact material to improve the alkylation reaction zone efficiency. The fixed bed of contact material also allows the process to be efficiently operated at lower acid to olefin mole/mole feed ratios than normally used.
Abstract: A process for the dehydrogenation of a dehydrogenatable hydrocarbon feedstock having small quantities of higher boiling range hydrocarbons which comprises: (a) introducing the dehydrogenatable hydrocarbon feedstock into a fractionation zone having at least a portion of reflux to a fractionation column supplied by a hereinafter-described recycle stream to provide a dehydrogenatable hydrocarbon stream having a reduced concentration of higher boiling range hydrocarbons and a stream comprising the higher boiling range hydrocarbons; (b) introducing the dehydrogenatable hydrocarbon stream having a reduced concentration of higher boiling range hydrocarbon recovered in step (a) into a dehydrogenation zone containing dehydrogenation catalyst and operated at dehydrogenation conditions to provide a hydrocarbon stream comprising dehydrogenated hydrocarbons and unconverted dehydrogenatable hydrocarbons; (c) separating the hydrocarbon stream comprising dehydrogenated hydrocarbons and unconverted dehydrogenatable hydrocarbo
Abstract: More efficient mixing, more complete hydrogen consumption, and more thorough cooling of a dehydrogenation zone effluent is obtained by educting a portion of the dehydrogenation effluent from the reaction and externally cooling the withdrawn effluent in a heat exchanger and externally admixing the withdrawn effluent with an oxygen-containing stream. Eduction of the hydrogenation effluent by the oxygen-containing stream provides the necessary pressure drop for passing the dehydrogenation effluent through the heat exchanger and then admixing the effluent and oxygen-containing stream.
Abstract: Superior isomerization performance is obtained in an isomerization process employing a catalytic composition comprising a Group VIII noble metal and a hydrogen form mordenite incorporated with alumina. The superior isomerization performance is achieved using a catalyst composition having a surface area of at least 580 m.sup.2 /g. A novel method of preparing an isomerization catalyst having a surface area of at least 580 m.sup.2 /g is characterized by contacting a formed catalytic composite with an acidic aqueous solution prior to addition of the Group VIII noble metal. The isomerization process is particularly useful in the isomerization of a dimethylnaphthalene containing feedstock into a product that contains a higher concentration of the 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene isomer than did the feedstock.
Abstract: A process for the removal of hydrocarbonaceous compounds from an aqueous feed stream comprising less than about 1 volume percent of the hydrocarbonaceous compounds which comprises the steps of: (a) contacting the aqueous stream with an adsorbent to remove the hydrocarbonaceous compounds from the aqueous stream to provide an aqueous stream having a reduced concentration of hydrocarbonaceous compounds; (b) contacting spent adsorbent which has accumulated the hydrocarbonaceous compounds from the aqueous stream with an elution solvent to remove the hydrocarbonaceous compounds from the spent adsorbent thereby regenerating the adsorbent; (c) contacting the elution solvent in admixture with the hydrocarbonaceous compounds which were removed from the spent adsorbent in step (b) in the presence of hydrogen with a hydrogenation catalyst in a hydrotreating reaction zone; (d) contacting the hydrotreating reaction zone effluent with an aqueous scrubbing solution; and (e) introducing a resulting admixture of the reaction z
Abstract: This invention relates to a non-oxidative method of sweetening a sour hydrocarbon fraction. The method comprises treating a sour hydrocarbon fraction containing mercaptans with an acid-type catalyst in the presence of an unsaturated hydrocarbon at reaction conditions thereby converting said mercaptans to thioethers. Acid type catalysts which may be used include polymeric sulfonic acid resins, intercalate compounds, sollid acid catalysts and acidic inorganic oxide catalysts.
Abstract: Problems associated with the formation of polycyclic aromatic compounds within hydrocracking reaction zones are reduced by a feed pretreating sequence which comprises first contacting the feed with a metal-free alumina to produce polycyclic compounds or their precursors followed by their removal by contacting the feed with a bed of adsorbent such as charcoal. The feed pretreatment steps are operated at an elevated temperature but at a very reduced pressure and preferably substantially free of hydrogen.
Abstract: A process using selective hydrogenation and HF alkylation in combination that employs a multifunction alkylation stripper for removal of light ends from the selective hydrogenation and a alkylation operations. The process combines the effluent from the selective hydrogenation operation, an isobutane feed stream and a bottoms stream from the HF stripper in the alkylation feed stripper. The feed stripper provides a C.sub.4 -plus bottoms stream that serves as the feed to the alkylation zone and a C.sub.3 -minus overhead that can be recovered as fuel gas. Significant benefit is obtained from this process when processing a mixed olefin feed of C.sub.3 /C.sub.4 hydrocarbons and recovering a high purity C.sub.3 product stream ahead of the selective hydrogenation zone. Another variation of this process allows a C.sub.3 product stream to be withdrawn from the alkylation feed stripper either directly as a sidecut or downstream of an overhead condensor.
December 11, 1987
Date of Patent:
September 27, 1988
Harold U. Hammershaimb, Joel B. Spinner
Abstract: An alkylation-transalkylation process for the production of a monoalkylated aromatic compound is disclosed which maximizes the production of desirable monoalkylaromatic compounds, while limiting transalkylation catalyst deactivation. The process entails the combination of an alkylation reaction zone, a first separation zone, a second separation zone, and a transalkylation reaction zone wherein the alkylation catalyst and transalkylation catalyst are dissimilar and where the alkylation catalyst is comprised of phosphoric acid material and the transalkylation catalyst is comprised of a crystalline aluminosilicate material. The transalkylation catalyst deactivation is reduced by transalkylating only dialkylated aromatic compounds.
September 11, 1987
Date of Patent:
September 27, 1988
Paul T. Barger, Gregory J. Thompson, Raymond R. Herber, Tamotsu Imai
Abstract: Chlorine-resistant semipermeable membranes which comprise an interfacial polymerized reaction product composited on a porous support backing material may be prepared by contacting a porous support material such as polysulfone with an aqueous solution of an aromatic polyamine containing a chlorine substituent on the aromatic ring. The coated support material is then contacted with an organic solvent solution of aromatic polycarboxylic acid chloride for a period of time sufficient to form an interfacial polymerized reaction product on the surface of the support material. The resultant membrane composite may be used in separation processes such as desalination of brackish or sea water, the membrane being resistant to attack by chlorine which is present in the water.
Abstract: The separation of diglycerides from triglycerides is performed by an adsorptive chromatographic process in liquid phase with Li-, K-, or hydrogen-exchanged omega zeolites or silica as the adsorbent. A ketone/n-aliphatic hydrocarbon mixture can be selected as the desorbent.
Abstract: An improved process for the isomerization of non-equilibrium C.sub.8 aromatics is presented which utilizes a catalytic composition prepared by a novel method of incorporating magnesium into a crystalline aluminosilicate. The catalyst comprises an alumina matrix, a magnesium-containing zeolite, and a Group VIII metal component. It has also been found that the method of magnesium addition can dramatically affect the selectivity to para-xylene, as measured by the loss of C.sub.8 aromatics due to undesirable side-reactions. The method of the instant invention involves addition of the magnesium to a hydrogel comprising pseudoboehmite and zeolite.
Abstract: A novel catalytic composite comprising a platinum group metal component; a modifier metal component selected from the group consisting of a tin component, germanium component, rhenium component and mixtures thereof; an alkali or alkaline earth metal component or mixtures thereof, an optional halogen component, and an optional catalytic modifier component on a refractory oxide support having a nominal diameter of at least about 850 microns. The distribution of the platinum group metal component is such that the platinum group component is surface-impregnated where substantially all of the platinum group metal component is located at most within a 400 micron exterior layer of the support. The effective amount of the modifier metal component may be uniformly impregnated throughout the refractory oxide support, surface-impregnated, or located in any other appropriate fashion.
Abstract: A process is disclosed for the simultaneous alkylation of light hydrocarbons to produce gasoline blending components and the etherification of an isoolefin to produce an ether. The etherification zone effluent stream contains normal olefins and isoparaffins consumed in an acid-catalyzed alkylation zone. The etherification zone effluent stream is separated in a fractionation column in a manner which provides a small amount of ether in the hydrocarbon-rich overhead stream. The presence of the ether in the acid-catalyst is beneficial to the alkylation reaction by providing a higher octane number product.
Abstract: An improved process for the catalytic dehydrogenation of paraffinic hydrocarbons is disclosed. Feed paraffinic hydrocarbons are dehydrogenated to yield an olefin containing vapor stream which is partially condensed to produce a liquid phase process stream which contains byproduct diolefins along with the intended product monoolefins. The liquid phase process stream in admixture with hydrogen and a sulfur compound is passed through a selective hydrogenation zone in which diolefins are catalytically converted to monoolefins. This selective hydrogenation in the presence of trace quantities of a sulfur compound increases the quality of the product monoolefin stream. The selective hydrogenation zone is located between the vapor-liquid separator and the stripper column of the dehydrogenation zone.