Abstract: Gas separation membranes comprising an inorganic compound-organic polymer blend may be prepared by admixing an organic polymer such as poly(vinyl alcohol) with a phosphoric acid or sulfuric acid in a mutually miscible solvent. After allowing the mixture to proceed for a period of time sufficient to form a blend, the solution may be cast on an appropriate casting surface and, after the solvent has been evaporated, the desired membrane which may have a thickness of from about 0.1 to about 100 microns, is recovered.
Abstract: Method for effecting multiple treatment steps needed to regenerate spent hydrocarbon conversion catalyst. Catalyst is contacted with a hot oxygen-containing gas stream in order to remove coke which accumulates on the catalyst while it is in a hydrocarbon conversion zone. After the coke is burned off in a combustion zone, catalyst is passed into a halogenation zone wherein a halogen is deposited on the catalyst. Catalyst leaving the halogenation zone is passed into a drying zone for removal of water formed in the combustion zone which has remained on the catalyst instead of being carried off with combustion gases. Water removal is accomplished by passing a hot dry air stream through the catalyst in the drying zone.
Abstract: A catalytic hydrocracking process which comprises (a) introducing a reduced crude into a fractionation zone to produce a vacuum gas oil stream having a propensity to form polynuclear aromatic compounds in a hydrocracking zone and a slop wax stream; (b) contacting the vacuum gas oil stream in a hydrocracking zone with added hydrogen and a metal promoted hydrocracking catalyst at elevated temperature and pressure sufficient to gain a substantial conversion to lower boiling products; (c) partially condensing the hydrocarbon effluent from the hydrocracking zone and separating the same into a low boiling hydrocarbon product stream and an unconverted hydrocarbon stream boiling above about 650.degree. F. (343.degree. C.
Abstract: A process is disclosed for the production of a desired xylene isomer, preferably paraxylene, and high quality benzene. The desired isomer is recovered from the feed and recycle streams in a xylene separation zone. The net effluent or raffinate from the separation zone is passed into a catalytic xylene isomerization zone. The isomerization zone effluent stream is passed into a high severity transalkylation zone. Ethylbenzene in the feed stream is subjected to staged conversion in the two catalytic reaction zones and thereby converted to both xylenes and benzene.
Abstract: A process is disclosed for the catalytic dehydrogenation of propane or butanes. The vapor phase reaction zone effluent stream is contacted with a heavy absorption liquid and then with a light absorption liquid. The light absorption liquid is composed of hydrocarbons recovered from the reaction zone effluent stream. This secondary contacting removes components of the heavy absorption liquid from the recycle gas, thus eliminating the deleterious effects of these compounds on the dehydrogenation catalyst. The heavy absorption liquid may be produced within the process by a catalytic olefin-consuming reaction zone.
Abstract: A composition is presented for a catalyst useful in the selective hydrogenation of unconjugated diolefinic hydrocarbons to monoolefinic hydrocarbons. The catalyst comprises nickel and sulfur deposited on the surface of an alumina support. The preferred catalyst does not contain halogens, noble metals, alkaline earth metals, or alkali metals and is characterized by having only a very low percentage of the total pore volume being provided by pores having an average pore diameter less than 150 angstroms. The great majority of the pore volume is present in the form of macropores having diameters of 500 to 1500 angstroms.
Abstract: An improved process for the isomerization of non-equilibrium C.sub.8 aromatics is presented which utilizes a novel catalytic composition. This catalyst comprises phosphorus-containing alumina, a gallium component, and crystalline aluminosilicate zeolite having a silica to alumina ratio of at least 12. The isomerization process has a particular utility for the conversion of ethylbenzene without the deleterious loss of xylene.
December 22, 1986
Date of Patent:
September 22, 1987
Tai-Hsiang Chao, J. W. Adriaan Sachtler
Abstract: A process flow is presented for a hydrocarbon conversion process in which a relatively volatile hydrocarbon is separated from less volatile feed and product hydrocarbons present in a reaction zone effluent stream. The preferred usage is in the alkylation of benzene with propylene. The reaction zone effluent stream is passed into a lower portion of a rectified separation zone. Recycle aromatic hydrocarbon is passed into a contact exchanger/absorber present in the top portion of the rectified separation zone. The liquid collected at the bottom of the contact exchanger is removed as a sidecut stream and passed into the reaction zone.
Abstract: A process for the liquid phase adsorptive separation of psicose from an aqueous feed mixture of monosaccharides containing psicose along with other aldoses and ketoses. The feed is contacted with a calcium-Y type zeolite in two stages. In the first, psicose and fructose are selectively adsorbed to the substantial exclusion of other aldoses and ketoses. In the second, psicose is adsorbed to the substantial exclusion of fructose, which is recovered in high purity in the raffinate. The process can be carried out on a commercial scale by means of a simulated moving bed flow scheme.
Abstract: An improvement in a process for the isomerization of cresols may be obtained by effecting the isomerization reaction of a cresol in the presence of a phosphorous containing crystalline aluminosilicate zeolite catalyst. The added phosphorous provides stability and longer life to the catalyst as well as more stable selectivity to the desired isomers. The isomerization reaction is effected at temperatures ranging from about 350.degree. C. to about 500.degree. C., pressures ranging from about 1 to about 60 atmospheres, a Liquid Hourly Space Velocity that ranges from 1 to about 5 hours.sup.-1, with the abovementioned catalyst containing from about 1% to about 8% by weight phosphorous.
Abstract: Dehydrogenatable hydrocarbons may be subjected to a dehydrogenation reaction by treating the hydrocarbons in the presence of a dehydrogenation catalyst comprising an alkaline metal-promoted iron compound. The effluent is then subjected to a selective oxidation step in which the hydrogenation produced from the first reaction is oxidized in preference to the dehydrogenated and unconverted hydrocarbons. The catalyst which is used to effect this selective oxidation comprises a Group VIII noble metal, a Group IVA metal and a Group IA or IIA metal composited on a metal oxide support. The present invention is concerned with the use of a cerium-containing alumina as a support for this selective oxidation catalyst.
Abstract: Apparatus and method for detecting and measuring hydrogen and gaseous compounds capable of dissociating into or combining with hydrogen ions using a solid electrolyte concentration cell. A novel solid electrolyte membrane is used which comprises an organic polymer-inorganic compound blend prepared by admixing an organic polymer such as poly(vinyl alcohol) with a heteropoly acid or salt thereof such as dodecamolybdophosphoric acid in a mutually miscible solvent.
Abstract: Apparatus for effecting multiple treatment steps needed to regenerate spent hydrocarbon conversion catalyst. Catalyst is contacted with a hot oxygen-containing gas stream in order to remove coke which accumulates on the catalyst while it is in a hydrocarbon conversion zone. After the coke is burned off in a combustion zone, catalyst is passed into a halogenation zone wherein a halogen is deposited on the catalyst. Catalyst leaving the halogenation zone is passed into a drying zone for removal of water formed in the combustion zone which has remained on the catalyst instead of being carried off with combustion gases. Water removal is accomplished by passing a hot dry air stream through the catalyst in the drying zone.
Abstract: Using an aged IMAG in series with fresh IMAG affords a saccharification product containing increased yields of glucose. In particular, using such a combination it is possible to obtain a product containing glucose at levels of at least about 94.0%. Such a process is readily adaptable to present industrial processes requiring glucose levels of at least 94.0%.
Abstract: A process is disclosed for the conversion of at least a portion of the light hydrocarbons, such as propane, present in a natural gas feed stream into C.sub.6 -plus hydrocarbons including benzene. Noncondensibles such as hydrogen and nitrogen are separated from both the natural gas feed stream and from a reaction zone effluent stream in a common vapor-liquid separation vessel. The liquid stream produced in this initial separation is subjected to fractional distillation which recovers the C.sub.6 -plus product hydrocarbons and a stream of lighter hydrocarbons, which is passed into a dehydrocyclodimerization reaction zone.
Abstract: A novel hydrocarbon alkylation process is disclosed wherein the feed hydrocarbons are dried to maintain the water content of the alkylation catalyst at less than 2.0 wt. %, where said alkylation catalyst is comprised of a mineral acid and an ether component selected from the group consisting of tert-butyl ether, methylphenyl ether, tert amylmethyl ether (TAME), or methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). This process also incorporates a method of regenerating at least a portion of the alkylation catalyst to prevent build-up of more than 15 wt. % of polymer products therein.
Abstract: A novel dehydrogenation process is disclosed. This process comprises contacting dehydrogenatable hydrocarbons with a catalytic composite comprising a platinum component, a tin component, a potassium component, a lithium component, and an alumina support, wherein the lithium to potassium atomic ratio of said catalytic composite is in the range of from 3:1 to 5:1. The process of the invention has particular utility for the dehydrogenation of C.sub.3 -C.sub.30 paraffins.
Abstract: A novel trimetallic catalytic composite, a method of manufacture and process use thereof is disclosed. The composite comprises a refractory support having a nominal diameter of at least 650 microns and having deposited thereon a uniformly dispersed platinum component, a uniformly dispersed tin component and a surface-impregnated metal component selected from the group consisting of rhodium, ruthenium, cobalt, nickel, iridium and mixtures thereof. When this catalytic composite is used in the reforming of hydrocarbons at low pressures significant improvements in activity stability is observed compared to catalysts of the prior art.
Abstract: An improved method for processing the effluent of a hydrocarbon conversion zone. The invention is particularly useful in a catalytic reforming reaction, wherein practice of the invention results in an increased recovery of butane and propane. The effluent is separated into vapor and liquid components, which are then recontacted at a higher pressure. Several recontacting steps may be employed. Liquid product is then subjected to fractionation. Overhead vapor from the fractionation zone is recycled back to a recontacting step in order to recover a portion of the hydrocarbons contained therein, instead of routing the vapor to the plant fuel gas system.
August 26, 1985
Date of Patent:
June 16, 1987
Robert B. Turner, Kenneth D. Peters, Richard W. Bennett
Abstract: A novel catalytic composite is disclosed. Also disclosed is a use for the novel composite and a method for preparing the same. The catalytic composite comprises a Group VIII, noble metal component, a co-formed IVA metal component, an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal component and an alumina support having a surface area of from 5 to 150 m.sup.2 /g. Additionally the alumina support is such that less than about 18% of the total pore volume of the support is associated with pores having mean diameters of about 300 Angstroms or less and more than about 55% of the total pore volume of the support is associated with pores having mean diameters of about 600 Angstroms or more. The novel catalytic composite has particular utility as a paraffin dehydrogenation catalyst.