Abstract: The invention is a method of introducing an aggressive liquid additive into a vapor-containing process stream including (a) heating the liquid additive by a heating means thereby producing a heated additive; (b) passing the heated additive to an injection quill in fluid communication with the vapor-containing process stream; and (c) passing the heated additive from the injection quill into the vapor-containing process stream.
Abstract: An apparatus for multistage, hot stripping of spent FCC catalyst in a regenerator having a stripper supported by the regenerator is disclosed. A secondary stripper, under the conventional primary stripper, is heated indirectly by immersion in a dense bed of hot regenerated catalyst, or heat exchange with a dilute phase transport riser encompassing the primary stripper standpipe and secondary stripper, or by direct contact heat exchange with added hot regenerated catalyst. Vapor from the secondary stripper passes through the primary stripper without contacting spent catalyst in the primary stripper.
Abstract: A system for removing SO.sub.2, NO.sub.2, and other contaminants from flue gases uses hydrogen peroxide (H.sub.2 O.sub.2) as the reagent to convert the oxides of sulfur and some of the oxides of nitrogen (NO, NO.sub.2, etc.) to more stable oxidation states. Acids formed as a result of this conversion, namely sulfuric acid (H.sub.2 SO.sub.4) and nitric acid (HNO.sub.3) can then be neutralized with limestone or, alternatively, the sulfuric and nitric acids can be collected and processed for sale as an industrial product.
Abstract: A process is described for the industrial synthesis of urea, making the ammonia (NH3) and the carbon dioxide (CO2) react, in at least one reaction space, at high pressures and temperatures and recycling at least in part the unreacted products obtained in a recycle section, characterized by: a) a synthesis reaction between reactants of high purity; and b) a synthesis reaction between less pure reactants, substantially recycled by the so-called recycle section.The corresponding new plant includes a reactor (R1) of high yield "once through"), a reactor (R2) of lower yield and a section of recovery and recycle.The application of the process to preexisting plants requires the simple addition of a reactor of high yield and of pumping devices.
Abstract: A process is described for the industrial synthesis of urea, making the ammonia (NH3) and the carbon dioxide (CO2) react, in at least on reaction space, at high pressures and temperatures and recycling at least in part the unreacted products obtained in a recycle section, characterized by: a) a synthesis reaction between reactants of high purity; and b) a synthesis reaction between less pure reactants, substantially recycled by the so-called recycle section. The corresponding new plant includes a rector (R1) of high yield ("once through"), a reactor (R2) of lower yield and a section of recovery and recycle. The application of the process to preexisting plants requires the simple addition of a reactor of high yield and of pumping device.
Abstract: A functionally gradient material for a membrane reactor for converting methane gas into value-added-products includes an outer tube of perovskite, which contacts air; an inner tube which contacts methane gas, of zirconium oxide, and a bonding layer between the perovskite and zirconium oxide layers. The bonding layer has one or more layers of a mixture of perovskite and zirconium oxide, with the layers transitioning from an excess of perovskite to an excess of zirconium oxide. The transition layers match thermal expansion coefficients and other physical properties between the two different materials.
September 27, 1994
Date of Patent:
November 12, 1996
The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
Uthamalingam Balachandran, Joseph T. Dusek, Mark S. Kleefisch, Thadeus P. Kobylinski
Abstract: A method and apparatus for producing TiO.sub.2 by reacting O.sub.2 and TICl.sub.4 in a reactor tube wherein pressure fluctuations in the flow of fluids through the reactor tube are sensed and output signals are generated proportional to the sensed pressure fluctuations. The flow of at least one of the TiCl.sub.4 or O.sub.2 is then varied through the reactor tube in response to predetermined pressure fluctuations so as to increase the efficiency of the reaction between TiCl.sub.4 and the O.sub.2. The efficiency of the reaction between O.sub.2 and TiCl.sub.4 in the reactor tube is achieved by a control apparatus operably connected to the reactor assembly which is capable of monitoring pressure fluctuations in TCl.sub.4 and O.sub.2 through the reactor assembly so that the flow of at least one of the TiCl.sub.4 or O.sub.2 can be varied in response to predetermined pressure fluctuations. The control apparatus includes a sensor assembly, a signal conditioning unit and a signal processing unit.
Abstract: A fluid centrifuge device for separating fluids and/or solids comprises a non-rotatable containment vessel (6) and a rotatable shroud (6A) of conical or other form within said vessel (6). The vessel (6) is located between an inlet assembly (2) including a manifold (8) which leads to the interior of a tubing housing (14) of a turbocharger and an outlet assembly (4) including two outlets (10, 10A) for respectively clean and dirty gases. The shroud (6A) is mounted on a drive shaft (20) for rotation therewithin. The shaft (20) and the shroud (6A) are driven by turbine blades (16) or by other drive.
Abstract: An electrical heating type catalytic device having a metallic catalyst carrier constituted by layering metallic foils, surfaces of the metallic foils being coated by an insulation film, adjoining metallic foils being joined conductively in only some regions of the metallic catalyst carrier.
Abstract: A method and apparatus are described for contacting solid particles and fluid. A liquid is sprayed as liquid droplets from the discharge tip of a nozzle into hot solid particles passing upwardly in a vertical pipe. A venturi is formed in the pipe, and the venturi has an entrance portion which is upwardly convergent to the throat and an exit portion which is upwardly divergent from the throat. The tip of the nozzle is so located relative to the venturi that liquid droplets commence vaporization, due to heat transfer from the hot solid particles, no further up stream (relative to the direction of movement of solid particles up the pipe) than the throat of the venturi thereby resulting in a high degree of turbulence which causes good mixing of particles and vapor downstream of the venturi throat. The particles-vapor mixture leaving the exit portion of the venturi is well mixed and particles are substantially uniformly mixed with vapor in radial planes of the pipe downstream of the venturi.
Abstract: An assay method, compositions and test kits using a hydroxyaryl cyclic diacylhydrazide is described. A hydrogen peroxide and peroxidase enzyme. The preferred compositions incorporate enhancer compounds and a chelating agent which suppresses light production prior to addition of a peroxidase enzyme. The assay method can test for a peroxidase enzyme, a peroxide or can be used in immunoassays and probe assays.
Abstract: An extremely compact, energy efficient air purifier for incinerating volatile organic chemical contaminants, and airborne organic particulates comprises a cylindrical ceramic heat transfer/storage element having many substantially identical axially parallel flow passages with very large surface area per mass, and a rotating guide for guiding the inlet air flow to a preset radial segment of the ceramic element. The air flow exiting from the preset radial segment is directed to the remaining segment in the opposite direction. The air flow exiting from the remaining segment is exhausted from the air purifier. Included is a pre-heater for heating the ceramic element at start up, and maintaining the air flow at a stable incineration temperature.
Abstract: A cross-head die for applying a coating layer to a filamentary member, e.g., plastic insulation to an electrical wire, includes a die body with an axial bore in which a tip holder is removably positioned with tapered surfaces of the holder in engagement with like-tapered surfaces of the bore. The holder is maintained in position by a lock nut on a threaded portion of the holder extending out of the die body. In order to assist in removal of the tip holder, an auxiliary nut, engageable with the threads on the tip holder, is provided. The threads on the collar and lock nut are right-hand, while those on the tip holder and auxiliary nut are left-hand, or vice versa. In order to remove the tip holder, the lock nut is backed off a few turns and the auxiliary nut is threaded on the tip holder until it engages the lock nut. As torque is applied to the auxiliary nut an axial force is exerted on the tip holder, pulling it free of the body bore and permitting its easy removal after both nuts are removed.
Abstract: A tip holder for assembly in a through axial bore of a cross-head die body to hold a die tip in a predetermined position and to control flow of a molten coating material about the die tip and filamentary member which is moved axially through the die for coating purposes. An annular groove is formed about the surface of the tip holder adjacent a radial bore in the body through which the molten material is introduced. In a first embodiment, the annular groove communicates through a plurality of axial grooves in the tip holder with an annular cavity through which the material flows to the die orifice through which the filamentary member and coating material exit the die body. In a second embodiment, the material flows from the annular groove over an annular lip at the forward end of the tip holder.
Abstract: A method for controlling gas flow direction through a regenerative incinerator system coupled to a flow reversing valve, and for reversing the flow direction of the gas stream through the regenerative incinerator system. The regenerative incinerator system having a combustion zone and one or more heat accumulating and heat exchanging zones. The method establishes a combustion zone base temperature set-point, or T.sub.CB for referencing combustion zone temperatures, or T.sub.C 's, and an outlet base temperature set-point, or T.sub.OB, for referencing outlet temperatures, or T.sub.O 's, from the regenerative incinerator system. A switching temperature, or T.sub.S, is also established as a function of T.sub.C, T.sub.CB and T.sub.OB such that the slope of said function, i.e. dT.sub.S /dT.sub.C, is never negative over a predetermined range of combustion zone temperatures, or T.sub.C 's. The switching temperature being equal to T.sub.OB when the combustion zone temperature is equal to T.sub.CB.
Abstract: A closed cylindrical housing defining a transport chamber has a top plate with a first opening communicating with an entry and exit chamber, and a second opening communicating with a coating chamber. A turntable rotatable about an axis in the transport chamber carries a holder to a first position below the first opening as it carries a like holder to a second position below the second opening. Each holder has thereon a container with a diameter smaller than the first opening but larger than the second opening. A first lifter raises a holder sealingly against the top plate around the first opening, the container thereon passing through the first opening to load or unload substrates. A second lifter raises the other holder so that the container thereon abuts a mask defining the second opening in order to coat a substrate in the container.
Abstract: A solubilizing apparatus includes a fluid permeable sleeve having opposed openings therein wherein a spray nozzle is in flow communication with one opening and a second opening is disposed to receive solids. The spray nozzle is designed to spray a fluid in a swirling spray sweeping the insides of the sleeve wall as it travels toward the opposite end. The solubilizing apparatus is specifically useful for dissolution of chemicals utilized in cleaning reverse osmosis membranes.
October 17, 1994
Date of Patent:
July 16, 1996
International Purification Systems, Inc.
Abstract: A regenerating system, for the removal of water and potentially harmful organic constituents from a dehydration fluid used to dehydrate natural gas. The system includes a device to assure positive flow of the water and organic constituent vapor out of the regenerator, to, in turn, control back pressure associated with the regenerator during the distillation process.
Abstract: A polymer synthesis apparatus (20) for building a polymer chain including a head assembly (21) having an array of nozzles (22) with each nozzle coupled to a reservoir (23) of liquid reagent (24), and a base assembly (25) having an array of reaction wells (26). A transport mechanism (27) aligns the reaction wells (26) and selected nozzles (22) for deposition of the liquid reagent (24) into selected reaction wells (26). A sliding seal (30) is positioned between the head assembly (21) and the base assembly (25) to form a common chamber (31) enclosing both the reaction well (26) and the nozzles (22) therein. A gas inlet (70) into the common chamber (31), upstream from the nozzles (22), and a gas outlet (71) out of the common chamber (31), downstream from the nozzles (22), sweeps the common chamber (31) of toxic fumes emitted by the reagents.
July 13, 1995
Date of Patent:
June 25, 1996
The Board of Trustees of The Leland Stanford Junior University
Abstract: A system of mounting a plurality of wall panels to a soffit layout which defines the building module's layout, utilizes exterior and interior wall panels which are hingedly mounted at the bottom and are actively displaced to permit the casting to be removed. The panels are movable through the use of manual or hydraulic actuators. When the interior panels are positioned to receive the mold material they are exactly vertical. To permit the creation of orthogonal corners, the invention employs a trapezoidal corner panel for use in each interior corner. This corner panel is movable independently of the wall panels although it fits in precise confronting relation with specially designed terminal sections of the wall panels. A spacer or filler segment is also utilized above each interior wall panel and outwardly of the marginal roof panels with the filler segment defining a horizontal junction for the casting wall and roof.