Abstract: A metal gasket for an internal combustion engine is formed of at least one metal plate for constituting the metal gasket. The metal plate includes a hole and a bead formed around the holes for sealing the same. A thermal sprayed layer is formed integrally on and/or under the bead to locally increase the surface pressure of the bead when the bead is compressed. Thus, the surface pressure of the bead can be adjusted individually as desired.
Abstract: The present invention comprises methods and apparatus for assessment of the effects mental stress involving the measurement of periodic changes in skin perfusion. Using a remotely mounted infrared camera, dynamic area telethermometry (DAT) measures the autonomic nervous activity by monitoring and quantitatively analyzing the modulation of cutaneous perfusion. When people gets "nervous" their sympathetics "act up" and they blush (vasodilates) or becomes pale (vasoconstricts). A DAT test of the face proves to be a superior "lie detector" test since emotional stress is reflected in an autonomic nervous response that can be measured remotely. DAT is much more sensitive than any visual assessment of skin color or than instrumental measurement of diaphoresis. Not only is it more reliable than currently used polygraph tests, but its non-contact administration is so simple and innocuous that it could be done without the subject's awareness.
Abstract: A fuel level indicator is mounted on a casing (2) in a fuel tank (1) and includes a float lever (6) connected to a lever arm (17), the float lever (6) having an elbow portion (16) passing through an opening (18) in lever arm (17) and projecting into a hole (15) in a holder (9) for rotation therein. At its lower edge (19) the lever arm (17) engages a collar (20) of holder (9) and at its upper edge (21) the lever arm (17) engages a collar (22) of holder (9). In this way, the lever arm (17), and thereby float lever (6), is guided radially and axially on the holder (9). The float lever (6) is releasably secured to the lever arm (17) by resilient snap tabs (23). Accordingly, precise support of the float lever is obtained with a simple construction and with easy assembly and disassembly of the float lever.
Abstract: A temperature sensor which contacts with a curved-surface body to be measured to sense a temperature thereof is provided with a support member having a bow-shaped surface; a thin film strung and laid between both ends in a direction of curvature (e.g., bow-shaped direction) of the bow-shaped surface; and a heat sensitive element disposed at a portion of the thin film. The portion being opposed to the bow-shaped surface. Also, the space portion side of the heat sensitive element may be coated with aluminum foil and a protect plate formed of aluminum, phosphorous bronze or copper is disposed on the body to be measured side of the heat sensitive element. Further, the temperature sensor may be incorporated in an apparatus that fixes the temperature sensors to the bow-shaped surface.
Abstract: A calibration instrument for calibrating a temperature probe, such as pyrometer, uses a stable light source and a filter to simulate a blackbody of a known temperature. An alignment tool aligns a light-emitting surface of the calibration instrument to the input of the temperature probe. The calibration instrument may include a fiber optic bundle to transmit light from the light source to the light emitting surface.
Abstract: Two electrical wires are connected to the surface of an electrically conductive solid body at two measurement points located on either side of a crack in the surface of the body. The two wires form a thermoelectric couple. A constant DC current is applied to the body. The two wires are connected to a device for measuring the extent of the crack and another device for measuring the temperature of the crack. By measuring the potential difference during application and interruption of the DC electric current to the body, it is possible to simultaneously obtain a measurement of the extent of the crack and a measurement of the temperature of the crack.
June 3, 1996
Date of Patent:
June 2, 1998
Societe Nationale d'Etude et de Construction de Moteurs d'Aviation "Snecma"
Abstract: In an instrument for measuring the energy of optical radiation, particularly laser radiation, a number of radiation absorbing plate-like foraminous elements are disposed in a tubular housing such that the radiation entering at one end of the housing is successively absorbed by the radiation absorbing elements which are heated thereby, and a fan disposed at the other end of the housing moves cooling air through the housing and through the radiation absorbing elements whereby the air is heated. From the temperature increase of the cooling air which is measured by a temperature measuring element, the energy of the optical radiation entering the housing is determined.
Abstract: A sensor arrangement for measuring the temperature of molten masses uses a receptacle having at least one strip-shaped or wire-shaped carrier and an opening on its upper side, with a thermoelement placed inside the receptacle. In order to make available a sensor arrangement for the exact determination of the liquidus temperature of molten cryolite, the receptacle is made of metal. A temperature measuring device with a sensor arrangement of this type, has at least one carrier mounted at its end facing away from the receptacle in a sleeve, the sleeve being detachably connected to a mounting device. In addition, a process for measuring the liquidus temperature of molten cryolite in a receptacle vibrates the receptacle during the cooling of the molten cryolite.
Abstract: An apparatus to retain integrated circuit modules during the preparation for a cycling of temperature, during the cycling of temperature, and during the post-handling after the cycling of temperature, is described. The apparatus has a specimen basket to contain the integrated circuit modules, a plurality of specimen retaining rods coupled to the specimen basket to prevent the integrated circuit modules from movement within the basket, a plurality of integrated circuit module retaining means coupled to the specimen retaining rods to secure each of the integrated circuit modules within the specimen basket, and a specimen securing rod retaining means to fasten each of the specimen retaining rods to the specimen basket.
Abstract: A device for measuring the microwave power produced by a microwave oven so as to determine whether the oven is producing its rated or set power, to prevent inadvertent undercooking of food, includes a calorimeter employing tap water as a working medium and a thermometer that can be set initially to read zero for any initial temperature of the working medium. In accordance with the invention, an enclosure containing a quantity of gaseous neon is connected to the calorimeter, and the gaseous neon glows only when radiation is present. The actual irradiation time, which may be less than the set cooking time due to start-up delay, may be accurately determined by timing the duration of the neon glow as observed through the window of the oven.
Abstract: The present invention generally includes a thermal sensor assembly for a vehicle application including an insert molded part having a thermistor/wire sub-assembly and terminal that are assembled with a "F" crimp and resistance welded that are insert molded to a pre-mold or connector that has a shut-off plate seal on the terminal's insulation crimp. The invention provides a more robust package that is resistant to vibration, insulates the terminals from shorting and permits further handling of the sub-assembly without damage to the terminals. Further, the thermistor can be very small and a very small wire can be used to connect the terminal to the thermistor element. Because a smaller thermistor can be utilized, a much smaller probe tip can be design into the thermal sensor assembly. The insert molded part can either be a preform for press-fit applications or a male sensor connector for applications requiring a metal housing.
August 18, 1997
Date of Patent:
May 12, 1998
General Motors Corporation
Michael James Boehm, Peter John Straub, Richard Darrell Kirkwood
Abstract: A temperature calibration substrate for producing increased temperature measurement accuracy. The temperature calibration substrate includes cavity means located below the surface of said substrate and thermocouple means disposed in the cavity for measuring the temperature of the substrate. The cavity means includes a cavity opening, an inner perimeter, and a length. Heat transfer means is disposed in the cavity means between the thermocouple means and the inner perimeter of the cavity means for transferring heat from the substrate to the thermocouple means. The cavity means is shaped to allow the thermocouple means to lay in close proximity to the substrate, and the thermocouple means is positioned substantially adjacent the inner perimeter of the cavity means and traverses the length of the cavity means thereby enhancing heat transfer efficiency from the substrate to the thermocouple means.
Abstract: A tire pyrometer including a control box (12) and a tire probe (14), wherein the control box (12) includes a display panel (18) that can display up to twelve tire temperature readings at the same time. Display panel (18) can also display average temperatures for various temperature combinations of temperatures taken by tire probe (14).
Abstract: A liquid level monitor uses a tube to confine a float to a vertical path with a canister containing a lower liquid and an upper liquid which meet at a liquid boundary, the level of which is to be monitored. Light from a light-emitting diode is conveyed to a vertical position of the tube by an optical fiber. A second optical fiber is arranged in a diametrically opposed position of the tube to detect light transmitted across the tube from the first optical fiber. The float is more transmissive than either liquid. When the level of the boundary falls to the level of the optical fibers, received light increases. The second optical fiber conveys this return light to a photodetector, the output of which can be used to trigger an alarm indicating that the boundary level is low.
Abstract: A pacifier thermometer includes a thermometer that is removable from a base portion, which includes a nipple, to allow thorough cleaning of the base portion. The thermometer includes a flexible conductor that has a thermistor at its end, and the thermistor rests on the nipple when assembled. In a second embodiment, the nipple includes a metal sensor that is molded into the silicone nipple and provides a hole for removably receiving the thermistor.
Abstract: A method for compensating measured earth surface temperatures for the effects which skyward temperatures have upon such measured temperatures. Also, methods for employing compensated earth surface temperatures to determine the likelihood of subsurface features existing beneath locations within a selected geographical area.
Abstract: In a valve used in a nuclear power plant, a valve body from which a valve stem projects upwards is connected with a valve drive device for driving the valve stem by a hollow cylinder which is provided concentrically with the valve stem. On the hollow cylinder, strain gauges are attached to detect both torque and thrust, thereby detecting load exactly.
Abstract: To provide a temperature measuring apparatus making it possible to automatically calculate a correction multiplier by assuming the data measured by a contact-type thermometer as a true value and always accurately measure temperature by the noncontact method in accordance with the correction multiplier. The temperature measuring apparatus comprises noncontact- and contact-type thermometers for measuring the temperature of a temperature measurement object, arithmetic means for calculating a correction multiplier for correcting an error of data measured by the noncontact-type thermometer in accordance with the data measured by the noncontact-type thermometer and a value measured by the contact-type thermometer and moreover calculating a correction value by correcting the data measured by the noncontact-type thermometer in accordance with the correction multiplier, and display means for displaying the measured value and the correction value.
Abstract: A sensor (100) for measuring semiconductor wafer (10) temperature in semiconductor processing equipment (30), comprising a first laser (104) to provide a first laser beam at a first wavelength and a second laser (106) to provide a second laser beam at a second wavelength. The sensor also includes a laser driver (108) and an oscillator (110) to modulate the wavelength of the first and second laser beams as the laser beams are directed to and reflected from the wafer (10), and a detector module (130) to measure the change in specular reflectance of the wafer (10) resulting from the modulation of the wavelength of the first and second laser beams.
Abstract: A radiator cap for closing the filler neck of a vehicle cooling system includes a numerical display assembly embedded in the top surface of the cap. A temperature probe extends from the bottom surface of the cap and is connected to the display assembly, the assembly being powered by a solar cell battery in the cap. Upon securing the cap to the filler neck the temperature probe senses the temperature of the associated cooling system, this information being delivered to the display assembly for conversion into numerical form. The cap enables a user to ascertain the cooling system temperature at the filler neck site.