Abstract: An electrode precursor for lithium batteries includes a layer of an electrochemically active particulate material and a binder. The binder is soluble in the cell electrolyte so that the electrolyte extracts the binder from the particulate material after assembly, leaving a particulate layer substantially devoid of binder. Thus, the binder does not significantly decrease electrical conductivity of the layer in the cell and does not impede the ionic access to the layer. The soluble binder may be present in the electrode precursor in an amount sufficient to protect particulate which would otherwise react with the atmosphere.
Abstract: A reserve activated electrochemical cell with a cell condition checking apparatus uses a sealed electrolyte storage reservoir having an expandable pressurized capsule within the reservoir for pressurizing the electrolyte. The reservoir is provided with a rupturable diaphragm providing a fluid-tight seal across an opening in a wall of the electrolyte reservoir. The reservoir is formed integrally with a container for a reserve cell electrode assembly or stack with the wall therebetween containing the rupturable diaphragm. A selectively operable lance is arranged with a pointed first end adjacent to the diaphragm and a second or opposite end projecting out of the cell stack container. A resilient bellows is attached externally of the cell stack container to cover the projecting end of the lance while providing a fluid-tight seal to the external wall of the cell stack container.
Abstract: A battery cell including a cylindrical container having a cap assembly positioned in the open end thereof. The cap assembly includes a terminal extending into the container, a rigid plate, a thermal disconnect assembly and a contact cap. A seal fits about the cap assembly to electrically isolate the cap from the container and provide a sealing function and vent for the battery. A sleeve is associated with the seal to tightly seal the terminal. The terminal is associated with a spiral wrapped cell by means of a tab welded thereto. The cell is assembled in a flat layered arrangement and then wrapped about the terminal prior to placement in the container.
Abstract: The conventional sintered, thin hydrogen negative electrode of a nickel-hydrogen storage cell or the like is replaced by a thicker porous electrode having a greater volume to receive water produced at the negative electrode during discharge of the cell. As a result, the dilution of the electrolyte within the negative electrode is less as compared with the thinner electrode, so that the freezing point depression of the electrolyte within the negative electrode is maintained. Freezing of the electrolyte and reduced performance of the cell are thereby avoided. To maintain the low weight of the electrode and reduce its cost even though its thickness is increased, platinum particles are replaced by conductive particles upon which platinum has been deposited.
Abstract: An improved system for shutting down a fuel cell that cools the reformer catalyst bed by continuing to supply unreformed fuel to the catalyst bed after the supply of heat to the evaporator is discontinued for cooling the catalyst bed more rapidly through an endothermic reaction.
Abstract: VO.sub.2 (B) is prepared by heating NH.sub.4 VO.sub.3 to a decomposition temperature between about 200.degree. C. and about 537.degree. C. in an atmosphere comprising excess ammonia, whereby ammonia and water vapor are liberated, leaving a residue of VO.sub.2 (B), the liberated water vapor is removed and the VO.sub.2 (B) recovered. Non-aqueous secondary cells having a cathode including the resulting VO.sub.2 (B) resist loss of energy capacity upon cycling.
September 8, 1988
Date of Patent:
October 23, 1990
Moli Energy Limited
Jeffrey R. Dahn, Tony Van Buuren, Ulrich Vonsacken
Abstract: A packed battery includes a frame composed of a pair of substantially I-shaped frame members molded of synthetic resin and joined together to hold therein a power generating elements composed of a plurality of series-connected cells, and an end cap molded of synthetic resin and joined with the frame to close an open end of the frame. One of the frame members has in its one end face a pair of apertures through which a pair of external terminals is inserted for connection to positive and negative terminal end faces of the power generating element. With this construction, the packed battery has a high capacity per unit volume and the external terminals and the positive and negative terminal end faces can be welded easily and efficiently. Accordingly, the packed battery can be manufactured at a high rate of production.
September 27, 1989
Date of Patent:
October 23, 1990
Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
Fumio Daio, Yukimasa Niwa, Kenji Yoshida
Abstract: A hydrostatic pump for application in a battery experiencing sudden changes in velocity or direction such as in a golf cart. The cells of the battery are provided with hydrostatic pumps using the motion induced surface waves in the electrolyte to develop localized hydrostatic heads and create circulation in the electrolyte. The structure of the pumps additionally nullifies the otherwise detrimental effect of upward surge of electrolyte caused by the same change in velocity or direction.
Abstract: Protruding exposed edges of the foil carrier of an electrode in a jelly roll cell are specially indented inwardly at intervals to facilitate placement of an insulator ring at the top of the cell after insertion of the electrode in the container. Effective insulation of the exposed carrier edges from the container wall and good continuity of contact to the pressure contact means are achieved by the radial indenting of the axial ends of the exposed foil edges toward the axial center at intervals on at least a significant number of the outer turns of the foil coil to form sloped vallues and intermediate sloped ridges between said valleys, said outermost turns of the foil edges being pushed together at said valleys and spaced at said ridges.
Abstract: A fuel cell system in which fuel gas is supplied from a fuel gas reformer to a fuel electrode, while oxidizing gas is supplied from the air blower to a oxidizer electrode. The fuel cell system generates electricity by the reaction gas's electrochemical reaction through the electrolyte. The fuel cell system has a fuel gas circulating pipe that connects the piping for the offgas coming from the fuel electrode to the fuel gas inlet pipe of the fuel electrode through the blower and valve. It has a discharge resistance that is connected to the electric output terminal of the fuel cell. When the operation of the fuel cell is stopped, the valve at the side of offgas coming from the fuel is closed, and the valve of the fuel gas circulation pipe is opened. The fuel gas remaining in the fuel cell system circulates through this pipe. The electric power that has generated at that time is discharged through the discharge resistance.
Abstract: The invention relates to a battery comprising a rectangular housing containing two series connected cylindrical cell stacks disposed within the housing in parallel relationship and arranged such that the longitudinal axis of each cell stack is parallel to the width dimension of the housing and wherein the cells of the two cell stacks are connected in series to terminals on the exterior of the housing.
Abstract: A plastic sealing element for dry cells includes a radially symmetrical, centrally perforated base element, the upper side of which is provided with an elastomeric sealing material which is extruded in the form of a circumferential annular bead, and a process for its manufacture. After the sealing element is pre-assembled with the cell's metal housing cover and the cell is assembled, the annular bead is pressed flat during final crimping so that a sealing zone having a small cross section and defining a long leakage path is developed between the cover and the base element, effectively preventing the leakage of electrolyte or water vapor, which is especially diffuse from the cell's porous carbon rod conductor, into the cell's sealing zone.
Abstract: A zinc anode plate is completely wrapped in a cloth anode separator containing liquid electrolyte. A hydro-gel material packed in an inert mesh separator is sandwiched between the wrapped anode and an air cathode which is in the form of a carbon membrane. The gel material is sufficiently permeable to oxygen to allow oxygen flow therethrough during charging and discharging cycles of the battery, and provides chemical reactive communication between the air cathode and the electrolyte in the anode separator without allowing electrolyte to pass therethrough. The permeability of the gel material is selected such that during charging of the battery, oxygen generated by the anode exerts sufficient pressure at the interface of the anode separator and gel material to cause electrolyte to be recirculated through the edges of the cloth anode separator to the opposite layer thereof, thereby preventing depletion of electrolyte to the anode.
Abstract: A rechargeable metal oxide-hydrogen battery including an outer pressure vessel and a plurality of cell modules are disposed within the vessel. Each module is formed of a pair of back-to-back positive electrodes spaced apart by a separating layer, and a negative electrode having a hydrophilic surface is disposed adjacent each positive electrode and separated therefrom by a separator layer. An electrolyte, such as potassium hydroxide, is impregnated in the separator layers and is in contact with the positive and negative electrodes. Each module is semi-circular in planar configuration and is contained in an open-ended semi-cylindrical container formed of a polymeric material. A plurality of containers are stacked in side-by-side relation. The curved peripheral edges of the stacked containers are disposed adjacent the inner surface of the vessel, while the straight open ends of the containers are sealed and disposed in opposed relation to the sealed open ends of a second stack of module-containing containers.
Abstract: A non-aqueous secondary cell having a compound of manganese oxide, lithium salt and metal oxide as an active material of a positive electrode is disclosed. A negative electrode comprises lithium or lithium alloy. The above positive electrode improves the charge/discharge cycle characteristic and charge/discharge reversibility of the cell and can be produced at a low cost.
Abstract: There is disclosed a fuel cell cooling plate for eliminating waste heat generated by operation of a fuel cell. The cooling plate consists of an inner substrate layer composed of a soft, deformable plastic or low elastic carbonaceous material, sandwiched between outer substrate layers of a strong gas-impermeable carbonaceous material, and a sealing material. The inner substrate is chased with grooves, which house metal cooling pipes for passage of the cooling medium. The soft, deformable, plastic or low elastic material of the inner substrate can be formed so that the grooves fit tightly around the cooling pipes, preventing formation of any air gaps between the pipes and the grooves. This permits nearly complete circumferential contact between the pipes and the grooves, thereby reducing thermal resistance associated with air gaps, and maintaining a high degree of heat transfer.
Abstract: Deteriorated positive electrolyte containing Fe.sup.3 /Fe.sup.2+ ions for a redox flow battery is regenerated in a negative electrolyte chamber of an electrolyte regenerating apparatus. For this purpose, a formic acid solution is introduced into a positive electrolyte chamber of the electrolyte regenerating apparatus and a voltage is applied between a negative electrode of the negative electrolyte chamber and a positive electrode of the positive electrolyte chamber, whereby excessive Fe.sup.3+ ions in the deteriorated positive electrolyte are changed to Fe.sup.2+ ions for regeneration. The formic acid is changed into carbon dioxide which is not noxious. All gases generated by the regeneration are not noxious, whereby the regeneration can be carried out with safety.
June 2, 1989
Date of Patent:
September 11, 1990
Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd., The Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc.
Abstract: Novel additives are disclosed comprising a material capable of absorbing hydrogen and recombining oxygen, which additive is ideally suited for incorporation in sealed cells. The additive may be disposed in an energy storage device in several manners such as a coating on a negative electrode, a thin layer disposed between cell separators, an auxilliary electrode, and as one negative electrode in a device having a plurality of negative and positive electrodes.
August 26, 1988
Date of Patent:
August 28, 1990
The Standard Oil Company
Jonathan H. Harris, Allan V. Marse, Michael A. Tenhover, Richard M. Wilson
Abstract: A storage battery provided with an inverted U-shaped cover located over the generally flat top wall of the battery casing. The ends of the cover are open so that the space between the cover and the top wall of the battery casing communicates with the atmosphere. The cover is sufficiently flexible so that a downward force on the cover, even when applied repeatedly, can substantially flatten the cover against the top wall of the casing without cracking the cover. The cover is also sufficiently resilient so that upon removal of the downward force, the cover can return to its original inverted U-shape even after being maintained in a flattened condition for a substantial period of time.
Abstract: A process is provided for stabilizing a primary electrochemical generator comprising at least one reactive anode made from a metal chosen from the group comprising zinc, aluminum and magnesium, characterized in that to said electrode is added a percentage of 0.01% to 1% by weight with respect to the metal, of at least one .[.perfluorated.]. .Iadd.polyfluorated .Iaddend.organic compound of the ethoxylated fluoroalcohol type. It also relates to an anode obtained by the above mentioned process and a primary electrochemical generator, with alkaline or saline electrolyte, comprising an anode of this type.