Abstract: Taxol and radiolabelled taxol are produced from sterilized Yew trees by contacting sterilized Yew tree stock with a reactor solution comprising a taxol precursor under a reducing environment. The reactor solution may also contain a reducing agent, an energy source, a buffer to maintain pH in the range of 6.0 to 8.0, and a steroid inhibitor. A radiolabelled precursor may be included in the reactor solution to produced radiolabelled taxol.
November 3, 1992
Date of Patent:
August 29, 1995
Research and Development Institute at Montana State University
Abstract: Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure's contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host's species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes.
Abstract: A hydrochloric acid acidizing composition for treating a subterranean formation penetrated by a well bore to increase the production of desired materials (e.g., hydrocarbons) therefrom that includes a corrosion inhibitor for protecting both ferrous based alloy surfaces (e.g., low alloy steel surfaces) and titanium based alloy surfaces associated with the treatment from corrosion by the acid. The corrosion inhibitor includes an effective amount of a first inhibitor component for inhibiting corrosion of ferrous based alloys, the first inhibitor component including at least one chemical reducing compound, and an effective amount of a second inhibitor component for inhibiting corrosion of titanium based alloys, the second inhibitor component including at least one source of molybdate ions such as sodium molybdate. A method of treating a subterranean formation penetrated by a well bore to increase the production of desired materials therefrom is also provided.
Abstract: An aqueous gellable composition capable of producing gels resistant to syneresis in the presence of divalent ions, contains:a water-soluble acrylamide polymer or copolymer,a crosslinking agent formed by a water-soluble aldehyde, or a water-soluble aldehyde and a water-soluble phenol,a water-soluble anti-syneresis agent selected from: organic carboxy acids, organic hydroxy acids and aminoacids, or among aminophosphonic acids and their alkali-metal or ammonium salts.When malonic acid is used, a delay in aqueous composition gelation is additionally obtained.
Abstract: Oil and water emulsions containing alkylphosphoryl choline or alkylglycerophosphoryl choline surfactants are disclosed. The surfactants have the following general structures: ##STR1## In the above general structures, R.sub.1, R.sub.2 or R.sub.3 is alkyl, alkenyl, fluoroalkyl and alkenyl; and PC is the phosphoryl choline. The emulsions are useful as oxygen transport agents, artificial bloods or red blood cell substitutes.The emulsions are also useful as contrast agents for biological imaging by the modalities of nuclear magnetic resonance, x-ray and ultra sound.
Abstract: A method of extracting corrosion inhibiting constituents from tobacco comprises the steps of soaking tobacco in an aqueous solution under certain extraction conditions, followed by filtration to remove tobacco residue from the resultant aqueous tobacco solution. This tobacco solution is used as a corrosion inhibitor to minimize the amount of corrosion occurring at galvanic corrosion cells that are established at areas of union of metals having different electrochemical potentials.
Abstract: A method of producing oil soluble surfactants from lignin is disclosed, along with a method for recovering oil from underground formations by means of a surfactant flooding system containing these lignin surfactants. Lignin is reduced in the presence of a carbon monoxide or hydrogen reducing agent at high temperature and pressure, alkoxylated with an .alpha.-olefin epoxide and then changed into oil soluble lignin surfactants by a reaction selected from the group consisting of sulfonation, sulfation and alkoxysulfation.
January 12, 1990
Date of Patent:
July 27, 1993
Douglas G. Naae, Michael G. DaGue, Nancy G. Dunn
Abstract: An aqueous gellable composition having a delayed gelling time is disclosed, which contains a water-soluble polymer crosslinkable with Cr.sup.3+ and a crosslinking/retardant system containing a Cr.sup.3+ ion and a salicylic acid ligand, wherein said ligand can be in free form, or in the form of a complex with Cr.sup.3+, or partially in free form and partially in complexed form.Such a composition is useful for modifying the permeability in petroleum reservoirs, within a wide range of temperatures, of from about 60.degree. C. to 120.degree. C., or higher temperatures.
Abstract: The permeability of high-permeability zones in a oil reservoir can be reduced by using a gellable aqueous composition with delayed gelation. The composition comprises:a) water;b) a high-molecular weight natural or synthetic water-soluble polymer cross-linkable by means of Cr.sup.3+ ions;c) a water-soluble inorganic Cr.sup.
Abstract: The present invention relates to a new process for preparing boron zirconium chelate solutions which are stable on the addition of acid bases, boiling, high dilution and/or aging. These chelates are useful in several industries, especially in the petroleum industry for frac fluids for treating oil or gas bearing strata especially deep hot wells. The boron zirconium chelates are prepared by forming a mixture of ammonium hydroxide, water soluble amines, sodium or potassium zirconium alpha hydroxy carboxylates selected from lactates, citrates, tartrates, glycolates, maliates, saccharates, gluconates, glycerates and mandelates, with polyols such as glycerin, erythritol, arabitol, xylitol, sorbitol, dulcitol, mannitol, inositol, monosaccharides and disaccharides and with water. This mixture is blended and then boric acid or borax as a source of boron is added and the pH is adjusted using inorganic or organic bases and/or inorganic carbonates and bicarbonates. The boron zirconium chelate solutions contain 0.1-3.
Abstract: An aqueous gel comprising an aqueous fluid containing a polymeric gelling agent, a buffer, an aluminum-based crosslinking composition and a xanthan containing retardant composition. The gel is useful for fracturing and carrying propping agents within subterranean formations.
November 26, 1991
Date of Patent:
May 18, 1993
The Western Company of North America
Robert L. Horton, D. V. Satyanarayana Gupta
Abstract: Polymers (and especially hydroxyethylcellulose) are crosslinked using a lanthanide as a crosslinking agent. The crosslinked polymers have utility in well completion, well stimulation, enhanced oil recovery, and subterranean fluid containment operations.
Abstract: Coatings compositions, which are useful as buffer layers between ceramic layers derived from polysilazane-containing compositions and ceramic layers derived from organoborosilazane polymer-containing compositions, are obtained by dissolving (A) a Group IIIa metal hydrocarbyloxide, such as aluminum sec-butoxide, (B) a Group IVb metal hydrocarbyloxide, such as zirconium propoxide, (C) a bis-, tris-, or tetrakis(dialkylamino)metal of Group IVb, such as tetrakis(diethylamino)titanium, (D) a polysilazane and/or a bis-, tris-, or tetrakis(dialkylamino)silane, such as tetrakis(dimethylamino)silane, and (E) optionally also a cyclopentadienyl Group IVb metal halide, such as bis(cyclopentadienyl)zirconium dichloride, in an organic solvent, the amounts of ingredients A-D being such that each constitutes 1-50% of their combined weights, and the amount of ingredient E being such that it constitutes 0-20% of the combined weights of the ingredients.
Abstract: A method of breaking crude oil emulsions using a water-in-oil emulsion breaker obtained by the reaction, in anhydrous conditions, for at least one hour, of an alkyl substituted phenol-formaldehyde polymer having the structure: ##STR1## wherein R is a linear or branched alkyl group having from 4-20 carbon atoms, and wherein m and n are both independent integers, the sum of which is sufficient to achieve a molecular weight of at least 1000 and further that m, but not n, may be zero with (b) ethylene carbonate, said reaction being further accomplished in a common oleophilic solvent having a boiling point of at least 180.degree. C., the reaction further at a temperature of at least 160.degree. C. in the presence of an alkaline catalyst, said catalyst being present at a concentration, based on total weight of reactants a & b, of at least about 0.1 weight percent.
Abstract: A water based drilling fluid composition and an additive for water based drilling fluid compositions having as components poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone/sodium 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonate) and ferrous sulfate useful in controlling high temperature water loss in drilling a well to recover oil and gas from a subterranean formation in a hostile environment and their methods of use.
Abstract: A liquid aluminum phosphate salt gelling agent comprising the reaction product of: a dialkyl phosphate formed from the reaction product of (1) a polyphosphate intermediate produced by reacting triethyl phosphate and phosphorous pentoxide and (2) a mixture of aliphatic alcohols having 6 to 10 carbons in their alkyl groups; an aluminum sulfate; and a solvent.
Abstract: An invert oil emulsion drilling fluid containing oil, an emulsifier such as a fatty acid soap, clay or polymer, and an alcohol such as glycerol or cyclicetherpolyol as the internal phase of the emulsion. A method using substantially water-free drilling fluid and monitoring the influx of formation water into the drilling fluid.
Abstract: A process for halogenating copolymers of an isoolefin having from 4 to 7 carbon atoms and a para-alkylstyrene in the melt phase is provided in which the halogenation reaction is performed in a continuous flow device, such as an extruder-reactor. Halogenated copolymers produced by the process are also provided.
July 2, 1990
Date of Patent:
August 1, 1995
Neil F. Newman, Donald A. White, Lawrence W. Flatley, William M. Davis