Abstract: The orientation of an image display device is maintained fixed relative to the viewer, the image display device is enclosed in a transparent body, and by detecting rotation angles of the image display device with respect to the transparent body, an image that is to be viewed when the transparent body is held in a hand or the like is displayed on the image display device, thereby enabling the viewer to view a displayed object from any desired direction as if he is holding the object in his hand.
September 15, 1995
Date of Patent:
April 21, 1998
Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
Abstract: A Method and apparatus is provided for producing and displaying pairs of spectrally-multiplexed gray-scale or color images of 3-D scenery for use in stereoscopic viewing thereof. In one illustrative embodiment of the present invention, pairs of spectrally-multiplexed color images of 3-D scenery are produced using a camera system records left and right color perspective images thereof and optically processes the spectral components thereof. In another illustrative embodiment of the present invention, pairs of spectrally-multiplexed color images of 3-D imagery are produced within a computer-based system which generates left and right perspective images thereof using computer graphic processes, and processes the pixel data thereof using pixel-data processing methods of the present invention.
Abstract: A film image reproducing apparatus for reproducing a film image of each frame of a film, includes: an image pick up device which picks up a film image; a reproducer which is operable to reproduce specified areas of the picked up film image; an information reader which reads information recorded on the film concerning the orientation of the film image; a reproducing direction designator which designates a reproducing direction of images in the areas; and a controller which controls the reproducer based on the read information and the designated reproducing direction so as to reproduce the image areas in the designated reproducing direction while keeping an image in each image area in a specified reference orientation irrespective of the direction of the film image on the film. This apparatus can constantly move an image in a designated direction regardless of the orientation of the film image.
Abstract: A two-dimensional image which is constitute by a plurality of frame images which are continuous in time is taken as an image for one eye, while a two-dimensional image obtained by shifting the frame image by N frames (N includes zero and is not fixed), thereby to produce a three-dimensional image. For example, the two-dimensional image is not changed, that is, the frame difference (N) is adjusted to "0" with respect to a portion of the two-dimensional image whose content is not easily converted into a three-dimensional image, while the frame difference (N) is adjusted to (N) larger than (N) for a normal three-dimensional image with respect to a portion of the two-dimensional image whose content is very easily converted into a three-dimensional image, thereby to give further three-dimensional feeling to a viewer as well as reduce the fatigue of the eyes of the viewer.
February 3, 1995
Date of Patent:
April 14, 1998
Sanyo Electric Co. Ltd.
Yukinori Kuwano, Takahisa Andou, Tetsuya Enomoto, Nobuaki Uwa
Abstract: Reverse playback of MPEG video from a random access source takes advantage of the symmetry of B frames within an IB data stream. The IB data stream is processed by a parsing algorithm to identify within the B frames during playback those bits associated with motion vector identification and values to develop a parsed B frame table. When the IB data stream is output from the storage source for reverse playback, the IB data stream is rearranged into a reversed IB data stream. As each B frame is processed prior to input to an MPEG decoder, the parsed B frame table is used to manipulate the appropriate bits within the B frames to turn forward motion vectors into backward motion vectors, and vice versa. Then when the B frame is decoded by the MPEG decoder the respective motion vectors are associated with the appropriate I frames within the reversed IB data stream to produce accurate decoding of the B frames during reverse playback.
Abstract: An arrangement for forming an optical image of the interior of an enclosure contained within a radiation shield the enclosure being one in which remote handling operations are carried out on radioactive material and the shield having a passage therethrough from an outer end to an inner end at the said enclosure, which arrangement includes at or adjacent to the inner end of the passage optical guiding means for guiding optical radiation from scenes within the enclosure along a path through the said passage, located at or adjacent to the outer end of the passage deflection means for deflecting optical radiation which has been guided along the said path and a photodetector arranged outside the shielded enclosure and outside the radiation shield to receive optical radiation which has been deflected by the deflection means.
Abstract: A transform coefficient selection method and apparatus for coding a still image and a motion image in a transform coding system are provided, which can receive an input block and far better enhance a quality of picture of a restored image by selecting a predetermined number of transform coefficients taking into account an amount of variation of blocks due to an error between a block restored by a local decoder for each transform coefficient and the input block and an amount of variation of bits generated by selecting each transform coefficient.
Abstract: Digital information is delivered on-demand through satellites and other predominantly broadcast transmission systems to local subscribers by fragmenting each digital item into a sequence of ordered fragments and sequencing them based upon the incidence of subscriber requests. Linear and fractal sequencers are used to schedule the fragments when the incidence of requests is respectively below and above a threshold. The linear sequencer responds to the first request by scheduling the item's fragments in order at successive time intervals and responds to each successive request by adding only those fragments that the existing schedule cannot accommodate. The fractal sequencer computes a full fractal sequencing pattern, in which the fragments are scheduled with broadcast periods less than or equal to their fragment numbers, and based upon the incidence of requests deletes the fragments in the full pattern that are not required to satisfy the subscribers' requests.
Abstract: An apparatus for transforming the resolution of an image from a first image resolution to a second image resolution using operations in the spatial frequency domain. A first group of transform values which represent the image at the first image resolution are mapped to a second group of transform values which represent the image at the second image resolution in the spatial frequency domain. The apparatus includes stored pre-computed values which are the mapping coefficient values between the first group of transform values and the second group of transform values. The pre-computed values are retrieved from a memory and used to directly map the first group of transform values to the second group of transform values in the spatial frequency domain.
January 29, 1996
Date of Patent:
April 7, 1998
Matsushita Electric Corporation of America
Abstract: A head mounted image display apparatus capable of performing a stereoscopical viewing, having first and second image display sections and displaying first and second images each having parallax on these first and second image display sections is disclosed.
Abstract: A visual presentation apparatus which applies an illuminating light to an object placed on a stand, obtains an image of the illuminated object using a pick-up camera, transmits the image to a display whereat the image is displayed; wherein the front, back, left and right sides of the stand are open by using a flat plate as the stand, and by mounting the light source on an arm which also supports the pick-up camera and placing the arm outside the stand; and wherein the pick-up camera comprises a mechanism rotatable around the horizontal and vertical axes; and wherein sample clocks which are synchronized with color burst signals are generated by the apparatus and frame memories in which the images are stored are switched at the time of the sample clocks.
Abstract: An encoder counts the length of a data produced by the variable-length encoding, and time-division-multiplexes information of the data length to the variable-length encoded data. An encoder time-division-multiplexes information of the number of bits after a fixed partition used in the error-correction encoding to the initial bit of a variable-length code to a variable-length encoded data, and transmits them. An encoder, when a variable-length code for one symbol of the variable-length encoding extends over a partition used in the error-correction encoding, inserts a special code before the partition, or guarantees that the top of the partition is always at the top of the variable-length code. An encoder obtains the sum of fields and the difference between fields, and performs on these values the orthogonal transform to encode them.
Abstract: An apparatus and method for determining inter-frame motion during compression of digital video data incorporates a computationally efficient hierarchical block-matching motion estimation technique in conjunction with a full-search block-matching approach. In the hierarchical block-matching method, a macroblock is filtered and decimated, and a search area is also filtered and decimated. A block-matching search is performed within the filtered and decimated search area. An augmented block in the original search area that corresponds to the block in the decimated search area that provided the best match with the decimated macroblock is then compared with the original macroblock to determine a motion vector. Operating parameters specify the search range based on the type of frame being processed, i.e. P-frame or B-frame, and, in the case of B-frames, the distance of the B-frame from the reference frame.
June 7, 1995
Date of Patent:
March 24, 1998
Gregory V. Maturi, Vivek Bhargava, Sho Long Chen, Ren-Yuh Wang
Abstract: A movement vector detecting apparatus comprising: a movement vector detecting circuit for dividing an input image into a plurality of blocks and for detecting a movement vector every block; and a movement vector calculating circuit for extracting areas which perform the same movement from the movement vectors from the movement vector detecting circuit and for calculating movement vector values in such areas by executing a weight averaging process according to position information which occupies in the area of each of the blocks. A video camera having such a movement vector detecting apparatus is provided.
Abstract: A system detects motion in a video signal by identifying differences between a current image frame and a reference image frame. A difference profile is calculated that represents the differences between the current image frame and the reference image frame. A motion detection signal is generated by the system if the difference profile exceeds a threshold. In one configuration, the system replaces the reference image frame with each successive current image frame. In other configurations, the system replaces the reference image frame with the current image frame if the difference profile exceeds the threshold. The system generates difference data associated with the differences between the current image frame and the reference image frame. This difference data can be partitioned into multiple blocks. An average value is calculated for each block of difference data.
Abstract: A video coding/decoding apparatus comprises a prediction circuit that divides an input video signal into large regions and small regions in a hierarchical fashion and produces a prediction signal by performing prediction region by region, a subtracter for generating a prediction error signal for a prediction signal at the lowest level, a DCT circuit for coding a prediction error signal, a quantization circuit and a variable-length encoder, a variable-length encoder for coding the prediction mode and motion vector information obtained at each level from the prediction circuit, and a multiplexer for multiplexing the code strings obtained from the variable-length encoder and dividing them into the upper-layer and lower-layer code strings to output the code strings obtained at the variable-length encoder particularly as upper-layer code strings.
Abstract: The present invention relating to a method of video coding associated with processing accumulated errors and a encoder therefor, the method comprising the steps of: (a) generating motion vectors of an input image in a predetermined unit and the difference image between an image of filtering a motion-compensated image on a reconstructed previous frame and the input image on current frame, and then performing discrete cosine transform (DCT), quantization and variable length coding on the difference image; (b) generating the motion-compensated image on the reconstructed previous frame from the reconstructed previous frame and the motion vectors; and (c) filtering off accumulated errors while preserving the edges within the motion-compensated image on the reconstructed previous frame. Therefore, random distributed noises due to accumulated errors can be removed and bit generation amounts by filtering off random accumulated errors with a high frequency characteristics before coding can be reduced.
Abstract: An apparatus for reproducing images recorded on successive frames of a film recorded with information, the apparatus includes a film feeder which feeds the film in a first direction and a second direction opposite to the first direction; an information reader which reads the recorded information; a density detector which detects a density of each image; and a controller which controls the film feeder, information reader, and density detector. The information reader is worked when the film is fed in the first direction, the density detector is worked when the film is fed in the second direction. A detected image density is adapted for determining an exposure value at which each image is picked up to reproduce the image.
Abstract: A surface defect inspection apparatus a lighting unit shaped in an arched form laid across the path of movement of an object under inspection for illuminating its surface. A light diffusion sheet is located between the lighting unit and the path of movement of the object for forming a bright and dark light pattern on the surface of the object. A plurality of light sensors are arranged in an arched form laid across the path of movement of the object. Each of the light sensors produces an electrical signal in response to light of reflection from the surface of the object. The electrical signal is converted into an image including the bright and dark light pattern. This conversion is repeated to produce similar images in sequence for inspection of a defect which may exist on the surface of the object.
Abstract: A motion estimation is implemented using a known dynamic programming method (DP method). A further dimension is thereby added to the optimization space of the DP algorithm. As a result thereof, the motion of objects is recognized in all directions and an incorrect classification of picture elements as occlusion, which could not be prevented in known methods, is thus avoided.