Abstract: An imaging apparatus including a means for converting graphic indicia into an electrical representations, a source of a coherent beam of optical radiation at a predetermined wavelength, a modulator for controlling the transmissive characteristics of a crystal which modulates the coherent beam in response to the electrical representations, a light deflector for scanning the modulated coherent beam in a scan pattern forming an image on a surface and means for developing the image from the surface and imaging a representation of graphic indicia by controlling the modulation and scanning of a coherent beam of optical radiation in a controlled pattern forming an image on a surface representative of the graphic indicia and developing the image.
Abstract: Apparatus for improving the quality of images obtained in an electrostatic latent image transfer type copier according to which there are provided electrical circuits permitting escape or neutralization of charges which may be produced in copy paper during its transport through a photocopying machine and could cause smudging or elimination of required image portions in developed copy paper carrying the image of a document or similar material.In the disclosed embodiment, the electrical circuits maintain each of the rollers of pairs of copy sheet transporting rollers at an equal potential.
Abstract: An exposure control device for a single lens reflex camera includes an adjustable shutter which is arranged to furnish a plurality of exposure times, and an adjustable electrical delay circuit which is operative to adjust the shutter to select the exposure time. An adjustable diaphragm device is also included which is arranged to furnish a plurality of aperture sizes and is mounted into a lens and which further includes means for receiving light from a photographing object through the diaphragm device and converting it into electrical signal. A diaphragm determining means is connected with the diaphragm device to select an aperture size, and which is connected to the receiving means and further includes means for detecting the adjustable aperture limit connected with the delay circuit to compensate the adjusted exposure time for proper exposure. A manually operated selector means is included for adjusting the diaphragm determining means to insert the adjusted time thereinto.
Abstract: A pair of meshing gears, having unique tooth profiles, are provided in a separable gear train which is usable in a self-developing camera to couple a motor in one housing section of the camera to at least one of a pair of pressure-applying rollers mounted on a second camera housing section that is pivotally coupled to the first section for movement between positions blocking and unblocking access to a film container receiving section in the first housing section. The pair of gears have a speed ratio of other than 1:1 and equal tip spacing to facilitate bringing the pair of gears into operative mesh when the second housing section is moved to the operative blocking position.
Abstract: A photoconductive member is charged and radiated with a light image to produce an electrostatic image. Sensing electrodes automatically sense the remaining potential in a portion of the electrostatic image corresponding to a background area of the original document scanned to produce the light image. In one embodiment the area is a white reference document disposed adjacent to the original document. In another embodiment a reference document is not provided and a plurality of portions of the electrostatic image are sensed. The lowest value of the sensed potential is utilized. Computing means compute and apply the biasing voltage to the developing electrode as a predetermined function of the sensed potential.
Abstract: An electric shutter in which an electrical circuit normally controls the automatic closing of the shutter lens aperture. A mechanical device in the shutter coactive with the electrical circuit closes the shutter lens aperture mechanically, automatically when the electrical circuit is deenergized or because insufficiently energized because of an exhausted power source or because of other reasons.
Abstract: An imaging or transfer roller comprising mechanism to couple the roller to a ground potential close to the imaging or transfer zone, is provided. The roller includes insulator members concentric with the roller shaft and conductive sleeves on the ends of the roller.
Abstract: An apparatus and method for developing a selected image by the electrostatic attraction of development fluid is disclosed. The system utilizes an interposer, adapted to be movably superimposed over a photoreceptor which preferably comprises the outer surface of a rotatable drum. A source of electrostatic charge for applying a first charge of a selected polarity to an area of the photoreceptor, and optical system for subsequently applying a light and shadow representation of the selected image to the area of the photoreceptor are also provided. The system further includes a source of electrostatic charge for applying a second charge, opposite in polarity from the first charge, to a portion of the interposer superimposed over the area of the photoreceptor. The portion of the photoreceptor is adapted to receive a quantity of electrostatic fluid, corresponding to the light and shadow representation applied by the optical system, when moved out of superimposition with the photoreceptor.
March 10, 1975
Date of Patent:
September 20, 1977
George R. Simpson, Robert W. Gundlach, Gordon C. Butler
Abstract: An ion modulator such as a three-layered structure, formed by sandwiching a photoconductor between a metal screen and an insulating layer, which is used as an image source. The apparatus includes an optical system for projecting an image of a graphic original onto the modulator and creating a charge distribution system thereon that can be retained for long periods of time. As part of the apparatus there is included a special drum formed by adhering a resilient-rubber like layer having a compliance that produces a displacement from the normal surface in the range of 1/16 to 3/32 inch when placed under 25 - 75 pounds of force per lineal inch, and a thickness of about 0.60 inches. Over the compliant layer is next applied an insulating or dielectric layer having a resistivity of at least 10.sup.14 ohm-centimeters and a thickness of about 0.5 mils. The special drum, which is the image generating medium, receives the charge pattern resulting from collecting the ion particles on the dielectric layer.
Abstract: A photoresponsive, shutter-diaphragm exposure control system having light regulating blades displaced from a light-blocking position to define increasing aperture values during an exposure interval includes a source of flash illumination which is energized with or just prior to initiation of the exposure interval for flash operation. In this arrangement, the flash illumination envelope is superimposed in a leading arrangement on the aperture opening curve so as to provide increasing illumination intensity in slightly leading relation to the increasing aperture values.
Abstract: An exposure control system for photographic apparatus having a shutter-diaphragm mechanism for regulating the exposure aperture and the exposure interval under both ambient and flash illumination conditions. The shutter-diaphragm includes a blade arrangement which when driven in an opening direction provides enlarging aperture values in a tracking relation defining both a taking aperture and a photocell aperture until both achieve a maximum at which time further blade displacement provides a reduction in the photocell aperture to accommodate ambient, low scene light conditions. Under flash conditions, the system employs hybrid operation in which the exposure aperture is selected by a follow-focus mechanism in accordance with subject distance while the interval is determined by the scene light transmitted to the photocell.
Abstract: A film strip heating method and apparatus for use in photographic systems of the type in which a film strip, contained in a multi-purpose cassette during exposure, processing and projection, is processed by insertion of the cassette in a viewer operative to release a cassette-contained supply of processing fluid, and in which localized heating of the film strip is effected during the processing operation to enhance the diffusion transfer developing process. Heating and temperature sensing components located in the cassette are connected with a control circuit in the viewer automatically upon insertion of the cassette in the viewer.
Abstract: The present invention relates to a system for exposure measurement and/or focus detection by means of image senser such as photo diode array (MOS image senser), CCD (charge coupled devices) consisting of a plural number of adjacently disposed respectively integrated fine light sensing elements whereby the image pattern of the object is scanned purely electrically in such a manner that the then obtained output of each light sensing element is converted into a digital value one after another for processing.
Abstract: A focusing device for providing an indication of the in-focus condition of a lens relative to a scene and a focal plane, F.sub.0. An a.c. bridge circuit includes photoelectric elements in two legs thereof; the elements being physically positioned just in front and just behind, respectively, of focal planes F.sub.1, F.sub.2 which are optically at the same distance from the lens as focal plane F.sub.0. An a.c. input voltage is applied to the bridge, and the output therefrom is an a.c. voltage which has a phase and an amplitude dependent upon the differential amount of light impinging on the first and second photoelectric elements. As the focal plane of the lens moves from a plane in front of F.sub.0 to a plane behind F.sub.0, the a.c. amplitude goes from maximum at phase 0.degree. to minimum at phase 180.degree., passing through zero amplitude when the lens is positioned to cause the light from the scene to be focused exactly at F.sub.0.
Abstract: An automatic exposure control apparatus for a single lens reflex camera equipped with a shutter speed preselection exposure range and a diaphragm aperture preselection exposure range. When the apparatus is set for operation in the shutter speed preselection exposure range, the shutter speed preselecting dial is incapable of being set to its automatic adjustment position. When set for operation in the diaphragm aperture preselection exposure range, the diaphragm aperture preselecting dial is incapable of being set to its automatic adjustment positon.
Abstract: A photosensitive member for use in an electrophotographic apparatus in which a bias potential is applied to the member during development. The member comprises a conductive support having at least one support edge and a photosensitive layer formed on the surface of the support and extending up to a point substantially coincident with the support edge. A tapered surface is formed at the extremity of the photosensitive layer adjacent to each support edge which extends from the top of the photosensitive layer to the support edge. The maximum angle between a tangent of the tapered surface and the surface of the conductive support is less then 45.degree. thereby preventing an edge effect by which a background smearing in the form of a black band may appear on copied paper obtained. Such a tapered surface can be easily formed through a vaporizing technique with a special masking in accordance with the present invention.
March 1, 1976
Date of Patent:
August 30, 1977
Ricoh Company, Ltd.
Shigeru Suzuki, Yasumori Nagahara, Koji Sakamoto, Katsuo Sakai
Abstract: A photographic recording machine for sequentially exposing images onto a photosensitive web, including an optical system for forming an image designator mark on the photosensitive web in a predetermined position in relation to each image. The optical system includes a light source and a light transmitting pipe having an unfocused lens portion on the end thereof closest the web, and is pivotally mounted for movement adjacent to and removed from the web. Movement of the optical system is controlled by operating the access means of the recording machine when the web is inserted or removed from the machine.
Abstract: A pair of vehicle headlamps have front surfaces which are inclined to a central longitudinal plane and the optical axes of the headlamps. Each lens is provided with deflector elements affording a pair of rear surfaces of which one is inclined to the optical axis and one is parallel thereto.
Abstract: Photographic exposure setting device comprising an exposure time setting unit and two units for indicating insufficient and excessive illumination intensity which determine the degree of illumination of an object being photographed, these units being constructed in the form of three threshold amplifiers interconnected by means of transistor switches, each amplifier having at its input integrating timing RC circuits. The first integrating timing RC circuit has a variable time constant value which depends upon the intensity of light received by its photoresistor from the object being photographed. The remaining RC circuits have fixed time constant values and are correspondingly adjusted for a minimum and maximum time of exposure in non-automatic photography. A comparison between the variable time constant value and the fixed time constant values makes it possible to accurately determine favorable conditions for photography and indicate them with the aid of signal lamps.
May 19, 1975
Date of Patent:
August 9, 1977
Vitautas Jurgio Iodvalkis, Richardas Prano Nomitsas, Anatoly Fedorovich Andreev, Vladimir Borisovich Grekov
Abstract: A programming control system for controlling the processing steps of an electrostatic printing machine of the type employing an endless photoreceptor belt. A photoreceptor speed sensitive element in the form of a transfer roller is utilized for resetting on .Iadd.a .Iaddend.complete machine timing cycle of processing operation. This cycle, called pitch is applied to the belt and comprises a predetermined number of electrical pulses some of which control machine events.