Patents Examined by Jane Williams Elkin
  • Patent number: 5629169
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for estimating drug effectiveness from a drug diffusion sample are provided. The drug diffusion sample includes a plate having a medium containing a test organism and a plurality of antibiotic disks positioned on the plate in a medium. An inhibition zone surrounds each of the antibiotic disks after a prescribed incubation period. The drug diffusion sample is illuminated, and an image of the drug diffusion sample is acquired with a video camera. The image is analyzed by determining the locations of the antibiotic disks, determining the average brightness and the brightness variance of the image in a region surrounding each of the antibiotic disks, and estimating the radius of the inhibition zone surrounding each of the antibiotic disks from the average brightness and the brightness variance. The radius of the inhibition zone is indicative of drug effectiveness.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 17, 1994
    Date of Patent: May 13, 1997
    Assignee: The Analytic Sciences Corporation
    Inventors: David Izraelevitz, Karen S. Cochand
  • Patent number: 5616471
    Abstract: The present invention relates to methods for detecting the effects of selected growth factors and pharmaceuticals on the growth and development of hair follicles by assaying hair follicle cell proliferation and cellular collagenolytic factor secretion. In particular, isolated hair follicle cells maintained as intact functioning folliculoids are embedded in a three-dimensional culture system, and exposed to the chemical agent of choice. The effect of this agent can then be determined with respect to its ability to modify cellular proliferation or secretion of proteolytic factors. Each determination involves the use of a separate assay.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 4, 1991
    Date of Patent: April 1, 1997
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Department of Health and Human Services
    Inventor: Stuart H. Yuspa
  • Patent number: 5589352
    Abstract: A system (10) and method of use for observation of microorganisms in a controlled environment is described. The system uses a diffusion gradient chamber (12) with reservoirs (24) which provide a compound or analyte (S) through a membrane (20) into a space in the chamber containing the microorganisms. The system preferably uses a camera (40) which records the observations of the microorganisms. The system enables study of microorganisms in gradients of compounds and the isolation of useful microorganisms.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 6, 1995
    Date of Patent: December 31, 1996
    Assignees: Board of Trustees operating Michigan State University, Koh Development, Inc.
    Inventors: John A. Breznak, David Emerson, John K. Koh
  • Patent number: 5578485
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a three-dimensional cell culture system which can be used to culture a variety of different cells and tissues in vitro for prolonged periods of time. In accordance with the invention, cells derived from a desired tissue are inoculated and grown on a pre-established stromal support matrix. The stromal support matrix comprises stromal cells, such as fibroblasts actively growing on a three-dimensional matrix. Stromal cells may also include other cells found in loose connective tissue such as endothelial cells, macrophages/monocytes, adipocytes, pericytes, reticular cells found in bone marrow stroma, etc. The stromal matrix provides the support, growth factors, and regulatory factors necessary to sustain long-term active proliferation of cells in culture. When grown in this three-dimensional system, the proliferating cells mature and segregate properly to form components of adult tissues analogous to counterparts found in vivo.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 6, 1995
    Date of Patent: November 26, 1996
    Assignee: Advanced Tissue Sciences, Inc.
    Inventors: Gail K. Naughton, Brian A. Naughton
  • Patent number: 5567581
    Abstract: The present invention concerns a method of enzymatically determining the pH of a specimen (e.g., a solution or a biological fluid) and a kit for conducting the method. The present method involves mixing (1) a specimen with (2) an enzyme and (3) one or more substrates for the enzyme in a buffered solution having a pH effective to provide a direct proportional relationship between the activity of the enzyme and the pH of the specimen; determining the activity of the enzyme; and correlating the activity of the enzyme to the pH of the specimen. Each of the sample, the enzyme, the substrate and the buffered solution is present in an amount effective to provide the direct proportional relationship between the activity of the enzyme and the pH of the specimen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 6, 1995
    Date of Patent: October 22, 1996
    Assignee: Diagnostic Reagents, Inc.
    Inventors: Cheng-I Lin, Yuh-Geng Tsay
  • Patent number: 5545547
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method of increasing the effect of agricultural chemicals comprising treating a plant with a plant depolymerase enzyme that will degrade plant surface polymers either prior to, or concurrently with administration of the agricultural chemical enzyme.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 10, 1992
    Date of Patent: August 13, 1996
    Inventors: Pappachan Kolattukudy, Ayrookaran J. Poulose
  • Patent number: 5545561
    Abstract: The contrast chamber for spotlighting bacterial colonies with respecto to their culture medium performs the automatic counting, through the use of an automatic processor connected to a reading head (7), of bacterial colonies which develop in the capsules wherein the culture takes place; additionally, it also provides for the automatic introduction of the capsules (5) inside the contrast chamber The contrast chamber is provided with lateral lighting means, using the light reflected by a reflection tube (2) and emitted by a lighting source (1) postioned above the capsule (5) which has been closed by a lid provided with an opaque disc (3). The reading head (7) is positioned under the capsule (5) and is associated to a second light source (8) which moves together with the reading head and which is inclined with respect to the surface of the capsule (5), so that the light beams do not impinge on the reading head (7).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 25, 1994
    Date of Patent: August 13, 1996
    Assignee: IUL, S.A.
    Inventor: Miguel Lleonart Aliberas
  • Patent number: 5527705
    Abstract: A roller bottle for trans-membrane co-culture of cells includes an exterior receptacle with a longitudinal axis having a first chamber surrounded by a sidewall. The exterior receptacle has a first neck at one end having an opening therethrough providing fluid access to said first chamber. The roller bottle further includes an interior container with a longitudinal axis and a second chamber, the interior container being located coaxially within the exterior receptacle. The interior container has a second neck at one end providing fluid access to the second chamber. The exterior receptacle is formed from a material that is substantially impermeable to gas and liquid and is sealed in a substantially fluid tight fashion forming the first chamber that has fluid access by the first neck. At least a portion of the interior container is formed from a microporous material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 12, 1994
    Date of Patent: June 18, 1996
    Assignee: Becton, Dickinson and Company
    Inventors: Edward F. Mussi, Harry E. Gray
  • Patent number: 5525505
    Abstract: A plant propagation system and method are provided for promoting the growth of plant tissue into small plantlets. The plant propagation system includes sealed, semipermeable membrane vessels for completely enclosing plant material therein. The sealed vessels generally are translucent and permeable to gases and liquids while remaining impermeable to biological contaminates. Plant tissue originally extracted from a parent plant can be placed within the sealed vessels and grown heterotrophically. Once the plant material has developed the capability to photosynthesize, the sealed vessels can be transferred to a greenhouse environment for photoautotrophic growth. Once in a greenhouse environment, the sealed vessels are supported in trays and exposed to light, gases, water and a liquid nutrient solution for optimizing growth. A central controller can be included in order to automate the system for controlling the flow of fluids in and out of the vessel support trays while also monitoring system conditions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 31, 1994
    Date of Patent: June 11, 1996
    Assignee: Clemson University
    Inventors: Roy E. Young, Jeffrey W. Adelberg
  • Patent number: 5523213
    Abstract: In examining the progress of patients before and after a cataract operation, the morphology of cornea endothelium cells used in medical treatment, may be determined from a cornea endothelium cell image with less labor. Center points of two-dimensionally continuous cells of a cornea endothelium cell image are entered into a computer, and peripheral points obtained by determining peripheral points which are center points of the cells within a specified distance from one center point are sorted clockwise. If an angle formed by successive two peripheral points and the center point is less than a specified angle, the greater of the two peripheral points in distance from the center point is excluded from the peripheral points.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 23, 1994
    Date of Patent: June 4, 1996
    Assignee: Konan Inc.
    Inventors: Yoko Takahashi, Tatsuya Kasahara
  • Patent number: 5512480
    Abstract: The invention is a flow-through bioreactor for the retention and culture of cells in perfused media. The bioreactor is a generally rectangular vessel with inlet and outlet ports in the lid allowing for media flow along the longitudinal axis of the vessel. The inner surface of the bottom wall of the bioreactor has a plurality of generally rectangular grooves having a length, a depth, and a width. The grooves are positioned in the bottom wall such that their length is transverse to the longitudinal axis of the vessel, allowing media flow across the width of the grooves. Cells settle into the grooves, where they proliferate and differentiate, without entering the bulk flow of media through the vessel, thus avoiding loss of cells due to media flow. The preferred grooves have a width to depth ratio of about 1:1 or 2:1. The preferred width of the grooves is about 50 .mu.m to about 5,000 .mu.m, and the preferred depth is about 50 .mu.m to about 5,000 .mu.m.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 1, 1995
    Date of Patent: April 30, 1996
    Assignees: Baxter International Inc., Northwestern Univ.
    Inventors: Craig Sandstrom, E. T. Papoutsakis, William M. Miller, James G. Bender