Abstract: The invention provides a chemical process for the treatment of water containing dissolved calcium and sulphate ions, so as to produce a purified product water having a reduced sulphate ion concentration. Barium sulphide is added to the water to cause precipitation of barium sulphate from the water. The water from which the barium sulphate has been precipitated is then treated with carbon dioxide to form hydrogen sulphide in the water, and the hydrogen sulphide is stripped from the water.
Abstract: A process is disclosed for treating water or solids contaminated with a nitro- or nitroso- substituted compound comprising reducing a nitro- or nitroso- substituted compound in the presence of an effective catalytic amount of at least one of a corrin- or porphyrin- metal complex. The present invention is particularly useful in treating waste water or soil contaminated with nitro- or nitroso- substituted compounds.
Abstract: A process is disclosed for immobilizing environmentally noxious organic, particularly aromatic, substances by absorbing them on a layered clay mineral modified by exchange with a quaternary ammonium compound, thereby increasing the spacing between the layers and rendering the adsorption surfaces hydrophobic.After adsorption of the organic compounds the spacing between the layers of the layered clay mineral is reduced by a layer spacing reducing agent, and subsequently the clay mineral containing the organic compounds is mixed with a hardenable inorganic binder and the whole is hardened.A typical example of a modifying agent is a quanternary ammonium compound, and of a layer spacing reducing agent an alkaline substance, such as sodium hydroxide.Typical clay minerals are chosen among the smectite minerals, tectosilicates and phyllosilicates; preferably montmorillonite clay is used.The inorganic binder may be a calcium hydroxide compound or a calcium containing cement, preferably containing fly ash.
Abstract: A method is disclosed for treating wastewater from a suspension styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) copolymerization process. The wastewater contains SAN and polyvinyl alocohol (PVA) as a suspensing agent. The method includes the steps of adding to the wastewater a floc forming effective amount of a) a water soluble borate salt, preferably sodium metaborate and b) a water soluble ferrous salt, preferably ferrous sulfate, and separating the resulting floc which contains the SAN particles and PVA from the treated wastewater.
Abstract: A flotation process is disclosed for cleaning of particulate coal and separation therefrom of pyrite and ash. A flotation pulp is prepared comprising a particulate coal feed material and an anionic surfactant selected from among alkanesulfonic acids, alkenesulfonic acids, alkynesulfonic acids, arenesulfonic acids, alkyl sulfuric acids, alkenyl sulfuric acids, alkynyl sulfuric acids, aryl sulfuric acids and salts of these acids. Among the particularly preferred surfactants are substituted ethenesulfonic acids and salts thereof. Other preferred embodiments include the use of at least about 0.3 pound surfactant per ton of particulate feed material; implementation of the process via aggregate flotation, in which at least about 50% by weight of the particulate coal feed material is smaller than about 400 mesh; and use of combinations of anionic surfactants and nonionic frothing agents. A novel composition of matter comprising the anionic surfactants adn a nonionic compound is also disclosed.
Abstract: A method is disclosed for clarifying water comprising dosing the water to be clarified with a copolymer produced by the emulsion polymerization of only hydrophobic monomers where at least one hydrophobic monomer is an amine containing monomer which is hydrophobic when the amine is neutral and hydrophilic when the amine is salified.
Abstract: A method is disclosed for removing iron from iron-contaminated sulfuric acid to render the sulfuric acid suitable for ion membrane processing which comprises contacting the iron-contaminated sulfuric acid with an oxidizing agent to oxidize essentially all of the iron to the +3 oxidation state, contacting the resulting iron-contaminated sulfuric acid containing oxidized iron with a complexing agent which can be citric acid, oxalic acid, and tartaric acid, with the amount of the complexing agent being sufficient to complex essentially all of the oxidized iron, and contacting the resulting iron-contaminated sulfuric acid containing the complexed iron with activated carbon to remove essentially all of the iron and produce a purified sulfuric acid solution.
April 4, 1990
Date of Patent:
May 14, 1991
GTE Products Corporation
Clarence D. Vanderpool, Timothy J. Hoffman
Abstract: A method for resolving emulsions produced in preparation of pharmaceuticals by fermentation and in other such bioprocesses is disclosed. The method comprises adding an effective amount of a demulsifier to an emulsion containing fermentation product that includes a pharmaceutical which is desired to be extracted from the emulsion.
Abstract: A method of removing dissolved and colloidal macro-molecular organic substances from effluents from processes used in the manufacture of pulp and paper, wherein an acid sludge containing cellulose fibres and being acidified to a pH value of 1.6-2.5, is added to an effluent containing said organic substances, and the pH value is adjusted to 4.5-6.0 before the mixture is subjected to sedimentation to achieve precipitation of the fibres with said organic substances adhered thereto. According to the invention the fibres used as precipitant are subjected to mechanical treatment prior to said acidification, so that the fibres are broken and split open, increasing their specific fibre surface and thereby their ability to catch the organic substances in the effluent.
Abstract: Extraction and separation method and apparatus using a supercritical fluid for extracting a specified component from a sample by a supercritical fluid and introducing the supercritical fluid containing the extracted component into a silica gel column coated with silver nitrate so as to separate the extracted component.By the combination of the extracting operation by a supercritical fluid under mild conditions and chromatography taking the advantage of the selectivity of the silica gel column coated with silver nitrate to olefins, the extract is obtained at a high concentration without producing denaturation.
Abstract: This invention relates to a method of improving the dewatering of alumina trihydrate obtained by the Bayer process. The method comprises treating the alumina trihydrate with the product of mixing an alkaline liquor and a C.sub.8 to C.sub.20 fatty acid, fatty acid precursor such as an ester or amide, or a fatty acid blend. The product, a fatty acid salt, is an effective dewatering aid.The alumina trihydrate may be washed with a liquor including said product, or the product may be added to a Bayer liquor slurry prior to filtration of the alumina trihydrate.The invention also contemplates a watering aid consisting of the product of mixing an alkaline liquor with a C.sub.8 to C.sub.20 fatty acid or fatty acid precursor.
September 15, 1989
Date of Patent:
April 30, 1991
Industrial Minerals Research & Development Pty. Ltd., Nabalco Pty. Ltd.
Abstract: A method for regulating the residual free chlorine in drinking water, characterized in that the regulation is carried out by introduction of a quantity of chlorine determined as a function of the chlorine demand at "the head" of the line, that is upstream of the water treatment or storage line, while obtaining in the distribution network, water having an acceptable residual free chlorine content. The chlorine demand of the water at the inlet of the treatment, or storage line is rapidly determined by accelerating, the reactions tied to disinfection by heating so as to obtain over a short period (from 5 to 10 minutes) water having a residual free chlorine content corresponding to the required value.
Abstract: A process for the heavy-metal decontamination of contaminated substances such as natural and industrial sludges, thermal residues and soils. The contaminated starting substance is treated with an acid and the dissolved metal salts are precipitated as metal hydroxides in the pH range of about 3.5-11. The exact control of the pH value makes it possible to isolate individual metal fractions which can be used as raw materials in the metallurgical industry.
Abstract: The invention relates to a process for the reduction in size of the pores of a filter medium for beverages, preferably beer. Silica sol is added to the beverage to be filtered. In order to be able to reduce the size of the pores of the filter medium in a simple manner and to adjust it to the requirements, upstream of the filter medium through which passes the beverage, silica sol is added continuously or in a batch-feed process using a tank, in such a quantity and controlled such that the silicic-acid precipitation, i.e. the transition from SiO.sub.2 primary particles to SiO.sub.2 secondary particles, has taken place before the beverage has left the filter medium. The resultant silicic-acid precipitation reduces the size of the pores without sealing them.
Abstract: Water supply contamination is reduced within a formation or eliminated in a flooding procedure utilizing an alkaline aqueous solution. Biodegradable polymer provides a desired viscosity and mobility. Biodegradable surfactant and alkali provide any needed interfacial tension reduction. Additives, e.g., chelating agents, can be utilized for solubilization of insoluble contaminants.
Abstract: The content of hydrogen chloride and phosphorous acid of crude amino organic phosphonic acids, especially diethylenetriaminepentakis (methylene phosphonic acid) is reduced by solvent extraction into an alcoholic phase leaving purified phosphonic acid behind.
Abstract: The present invention provides a method of coagulating sludge, which comprises adding sequentially an anionic polymer coagulant and a cationic polymer coagulant to sludge, and furthermore, adding an anionic polymer coagulant.According to the present invention, it is possible to coagulate sludge at a far higher efficiency with a far smaller dewatering load than in the typical conventional methods using an inorganic salt and a pH adjusting reagent.
January 11, 1989
Date of Patent:
April 9, 1991
Show Tono, Toshiyuki Miki, Yoshihide Dairokuno, Jyun Kataoka
Abstract: Bioaffinity separation is carried out in a cascade of column segments under control of a computer which selectively connects each column segment to a collector so that the individual bioactive components which are selectively retained by a biospecific sorbent can be individually collected. The volume and flow rate of eluate collected following each segment serve as the measure for the addition of makeup eluant between that column segment of the cascade and the next column segment.
July 5, 1989
Date of Patent:
April 2, 1991
Technion Research & Development Foundation Ltd.
Hay Grunfeld, Noah Lotan, Samuel Sideman
Abstract: A process for treating water or solids contaminated with at least one chlorinated phenol which comprises oxidizing the at least one chlorinated phenol in the presence of an effective catalytic amount of a corrin- or porphyrin-metal complex. A preferred catalyst is a complex of Fe.sup.3+ ion with protoporphyrin known as hematin. Chlorinated phenols which may be oxidized include those found in hazardous wastes such as chlorophenols, dichlorophenols, trichlorophenols, tetrachlorinated phenols, and pentachlorinated phenols.