Patents Examined by Pamela R. Hobden
  • Patent number: 6548821
    Abstract: Substrate inspection apparatus in accordance with the invention comprises optics for reflecting a laser beam off of a substrate and a detector for detecting the reflected laser beam. If a defect is present at the point where the laser reflects off the substrate, the laser will be deflected at an angle. Circuitry coupled to the detector generates a first signal that provides a measure of the extent to which the laser beam is deflected. (This signal is a measure of the slope of the defect walls.) An integrator receives that signal, and generates a second signal that is the integral of the first signal. The second signal is a measure of the height of the defect. The first and second signals provide a measure of the types of defects present on the substrate, and are used to determine whether the substrate is acceptable or should be rejected. In accordance with a second embodiment of the invention, laser beams are reflected off both the top and bottom surfaces of the substrate and detected by detectors.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 14, 2000
    Date of Patent: April 15, 2003
    Assignee: Komag, Inc.
    Inventors: David Treves, Thomas A. O'Dell
  • Patent number: 6545256
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a light-receiving module of a heat-resistant, vibration-resistant type for use in petroleum exploration or the like, and a radiation detecting apparatus equipped with the light-receiving module. The light-receiving module comprises a photomultiplier having a faceplate and a stem opposing each other, a bleeder circuit board provided so as to sandwich the stem together with the faceplate and electrically connected to the photomultiplier, a module case provided so as to accommodate the photomultiplier and the bleeder circuit board, said module case having an opening for exposing the faceplate of the photomultiplier, a step provided on an inner surface of the module case, and a stopper seated on the step, defining the position of the photomultiplier in the module case.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 20, 2000
    Date of Patent: April 8, 2003
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
    Inventors: Tomohiro Ishizu, Tetsuya Morita
  • Patent number: 6546078
    Abstract: An X-ray tube includes a substantially cylindrical rotor having an anode target fixed thereto, a substantially columnar stationary shaft coaxially arranged inside the rotor with a bearing gap, a dynamic slide bearing having helical grooves and formed between the rotor and the stationary shaft, and a metal lubricant supplied to the grooves and to the gap. An axial bore is formed in the shaft to extend in the longitudinal direction of the shaft, and an insertion rod is inserted into the axial bore such that a space extending in the longitudinal direction of the shaft is formed between an inner circumferential surface of the axial bore and an outer circumferential surface of the insertion rod. The space acts as at least one lubricant reservoir that is configured to store the metal lubricant.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 9, 2001
    Date of Patent: April 8, 2003
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba
    Inventor: Hideki Ide
  • Patent number: 6539076
    Abstract: A radiation-image photographing apparatus is provided with a voltage controlling switch 52 for switching voltage which is applied from a power source 53 to a detector 10, a high-voltage generator 62 for supplying high voltage HV to a radiation source 61, and a control section 70 for controlling a light-source control section 40. When a generator switch 63a is on, the high-voltage generator 62 generates high voltage HV. The control section 70 senses that a signal S1 has gone low and makes a signal C2 high, whereby dc voltage is applied to the detector 10. After tp1 has elapsed since the signal C2 was made high, the control section 70 makes a signal C1 low, thereby causing the light-source control section 40 to be in a preexposure mode. After tp3 has elapsed since the emission of preexposure light P was started, the control section 70 makes a signal C3 high, thereby causing the radiation source 61 to emit radiation R.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 17, 2000
    Date of Patent: March 25, 2003
    Assignee: Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Takashi Shoji
  • Patent number: 6529578
    Abstract: An X-ray condenser for condensing X-rays radiated from an X-ray source to a very small condensing spot is disclosed. X-rays from the X-ray source are formed to a parallel X-ray beam by a parallel type parabolic reflection mirror. The parallel X-ray beam is made monochromatic by an analyzing crystal and condensed to the condensing spot by a zone plate. The zone plate is constructed by alternately arranging a plurality of X-ray transmitting bands and a plurality of X-ray shielding bands and can condense the parallel X-ray beam to a very small focus point.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 27, 2000
    Date of Patent: March 4, 2003
    Assignee: Rigaku Corporation
    Inventors: Takeyoshi Taguchi, Katsuhiko Ogiso
  • Patent number: 6529577
    Abstract: A first support structure disposes articles relative to a radiation beam, preferably x-rays, to obtain an irradiation of the articles. A second support structure disposes articles relative to the beam and to the articles on the first structure to obtain an irradiation of the articles by radiation passing from the accelerator through the articles on the first structure. A mechanism transfers the particles on the first structure to the second structure, after the irradiation of the articles on the first structure, to obtain the irradiation of the articles on the second structure. Each of the first and second structures may provide for an irradiation of articles initially through first sides of the articles and subsequently through second sides of the articles opposite to first sides. The irradiation of the first sides of the articles on the first and second support structures are preferably synchronous from a time standpoint as are the irradiation of the second sides of the articles on the structures.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 29, 2000
    Date of Patent: March 4, 2003
    Assignee: Surebeam Corporation
    Inventors: John Thomas Allen, Gary K. Loda, George Michael Sullivan, Jr., Colin Brian Williams
  • Patent number: 6526120
    Abstract: The present invention is an apparatus and method for measuring flow rate of materials, for example the flow rate of agricultural products. The apparatus includes an x-ray generator positioned near flowing materials, a converter for converting the x-ray radiation which passes through the flowing materials into visible light, a camera for capturing images of the visible light, and a processor for processing the images to determine the flow rate. The invention may also include an image intensifier to intensify the images before being converted by the camera. The method directs x-rays through flowing material, converts the x-rays to visible light, records the intensity of the visible light and derives the flow rate from the intensity measures.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 4, 1999
    Date of Patent: February 25, 2003
    Inventors: Joseph N. Gray, Feyzi Inanc, Selcuk Arslan
  • Patent number: 6519318
    Abstract: An improved x-ray tube cooling system is disclosed. The system utilizes a shield structure that is connected between a cathode cylinder and an x-ray tube housing and is disposed between the electron source and the target anode. The shield includes a plurality of cooling fins to improve overall cooling of the x-ray tube and the shield so as to extend the life of the x-ray tube and related components. When immersed in a reservoir of coolant fluid, the fins facilitate improved heat transfer by convection from the shield to the to the coolant fluid. The cooling effect achieved with the cooling fins is further augmented by a convective cooling system provided by a plurality of fluid passageways formed within the shield, which are used to provide a fluid path to the coolant. In particular, a cooling unit takes fluid from the reservoir, cools the fluid, then circulates the cooled fluid through the fluid passageways.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 7, 2000
    Date of Patent: February 11, 2003
    Assignee: Varian Medical Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Gregory C. Andrews
  • Patent number: 6516044
    Abstract: An improved scintillator detector cell geometry for converting radiation to light with improved light collection is provided. Shaping the exit face of a scintillator to increase the surface area of the exit face results in a decrease in a fraction of angles that undergo total internal reflection within the scintillator. The scintillator has the advantage of preventing total internal reflection parallel, as well as perpendicular, to the detecting surface of a light collection device. Further, providing a specular reflector on a hemispherical dome portion of the radiation detecting surface of the scintillator results in reduced bounce-off the specular reflector before light contacts the scintillator-photodiode interface. Furthermore, implementing a convex shape when coated with the specular reflector increases the fraction of light directed toward the photodiode compared to a plane surface parallel to the photodiode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 23, 2001
    Date of Patent: February 4, 2003
    Assignee: GE Medical Systems Global Technology Co., LLC
    Inventor: Robert Joseph Lyons
  • Patent number: 6516048
    Abstract: A voltage control section for controlling a pulsed acceleration voltage applied between a photoelectron releasing layer and an X-ray target in order to accelerate a photoelectron is further provided, so that the acceleration voltage is maintained at a pulse top voltage until the X-ray target is bombarded with the photoelectron after the photoelectron is released from the photoelectron releasing layer. The pulse width of acceleration voltage can be set narrower to such an extent that no discharge occurs, which enables the pulse top voltage to become higher, whereby the energy of pulse X-rays can be made higher by enhancing the speed of photoelectrons.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 31, 2002
    Date of Patent: February 4, 2003
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
    Inventor: Kuniyoshi Mori
  • Patent number: 6510201
    Abstract: An apparatus for measuring the pulse transmission spectrum of elastically scattered quantities includes at least one diaphragm displaceable in a y-direction for switching between fine and coarse local resolution of the examined partial volumes of an examination object, wherein the diaphragm narrows the effective ray width transversely of a scanning direction, and a diaphragm system displaceable in a x-direction for limiting and extension of the partial volume in a z-direction, wherein the diaphragm system includes at least two circular ring diaphragms arranged one above the other and identical with respect to their circular ring structure, and wherein the circular ring diaphragms are arranged at a relative offset for reducing an effective imaging slot width or a detector slot width.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 16, 2002
    Date of Patent: January 21, 2003
    Assignee: YXLON International X-Ray GmbH
    Inventor: Gerhard Martens
  • Patent number: 6510195
    Abstract: A CT scanner (10) includes a reconstruction processor (32) and a mosaic X-Radiation detector (20). The mosaic detector includes plural detector elements (22, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26) arranged in abutting relationship and configured for the desired imaging application. The detector elements include scintillating crystals (50) in optical communication with a back-illuminated photodiode array (52) or modified top-surface photodiode array (152, 252) for converting emitted light into electrical charge. The photodiode array is mounted on a carrier substrate (58) via bump (56) bonding. The carrier substrate provides a conductive path routing the photodiode array output through to contacts on the back side for connection to readout electronics (60). The carrier substrate and readout electronics are contained within the footprint defined by the photodiode array, allowing the detector elements to be abutted on any and all sides, thus permitting the mosaic detector to be tailored to any desired size and shape.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 18, 2001
    Date of Patent: January 21, 2003
    Assignee: Koninklijke Philips Electronics, N.V.
    Inventors: Marc A. Chappo, Randall P. Luhta, Rodney A. Mattson, Pieter G. Roos
  • Patent number: 6501824
    Abstract: An X-ray mask is integrated with a micro-actuator. The X-ray mask includes a mask portion, a mask holder portion, at least one elasticized supporter and a micro-actuator unit. The mask portion has a thin shuttle mass and an X-ray absorber attached on the shuttle mass. The mask holder portion is formed around the mask portion with a predetermined distance maintained therebetween. The elasticized supporter connects the mask portion and the mask holder portion elastically. The micro-actuator unit is prepared between the mask portion and the mask holder portion to precisely control a position of the mask portion when a voltage is applied.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 16, 2002
    Date of Patent: December 31, 2002
    Assignee: Postech Foundation
    Inventors: Seung Seob Lee, Kwang-Cheol Lee, Sang Jun Moon
  • Patent number: 6498832
    Abstract: It has been demonstrated that debris generation within an electric capillary discharge source, for generating extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray, is dependent on the magnitude and profile of the electric field that is established along the surfaces of the electrodes. An electrode shape that results in uniform electric field strength along its surface has been developed to minimize sputtering and debris generation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 13, 2001
    Date of Patent: December 24, 2002
    Assignee: EUV LLC
    Inventors: Paul Andrew Spence, Neal Robert Fornaciari, Jim Jihchyun Chang
  • Patent number: 6496563
    Abstract: A driver circuit for supplying power to an X-ray tube includes a filament supply, a first transformer connected to an anode of the X-ray tube and a first switch connected between the driver control and first transformer. The driver control controls the first switch to move between an open and closed position. The signal applied to the first transformer when the switch is closed is adjustable in both frequency and pulse width and is applied to the X-ray tube to generate an adjustable X-ray beam. The first transformer includes a primary winding connected to the first switch and a secondary winding connected to an anode of the X-ray tube, a voltage to be induced in the secondary winding is applied to the anode of the X-ray tube for generating the X-ray beam.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 27, 1999
    Date of Patent: December 17, 2002
    Inventor: Christopher M Bacon
  • Patent number: 6496557
    Abstract: An x-ray system using a slot-shaped detector having n rows and m columns of pixels, where n<<m, and providing a variety of relative motions between a patient table and a source-detector unit, including translation along the length of the table, translation across the table, and rotation about the focal spot, and processing the pixel values in a variety of ways to produce information such a shadow graphic x-ray images, tomosynthetic images of surfaces that need not be planar, and bone density estimates. In another embodiment, tomographic images can be obtained directly, using a post-patient collimator that passes nearly all of the primary beam to the imager while eliminating nearly all of the scatter. A feedback loop can equalize the exposure for selected parts of the image substantially in real time.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 22, 2001
    Date of Patent: December 17, 2002
    Assignee: Hologic, Inc.
    Inventors: Kevin E. Wilson, Jay A. Stein, Richard Cabral, Andrew P. Smith, Vinnie Quinn
  • Patent number: 6493415
    Abstract: An X-ray computed tomography method and apparatus for obtaining a panoramic X-ray image seen from a direction of a projection line &ggr; (&ggr;′) of a curved sectional area SA by expanding calculation results of three-dimensional distribution information of X-ray absorption coefficient on the projection line &ggr; (&ggr;′) intersecting at a specified angle &bgr; (&bgr;′) for any regions &agr; of the panoramic sectional image layer SB on a two-dimensional plane based on the three dimensional distribution information of X-ray absorption coefficient of the curved sectional area SA obtained by a X-ray CT.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 28, 2001
    Date of Patent: December 10, 2002
    Assignees: Nihon University, J. Morita Manufacturing Corporation
    Inventors: Yoshinori Arai, Masakazu Suzuki
  • Patent number: 6490336
    Abstract: A phantom for measuring slice thicknesses, slice sensitivity profiles and the axial modulation transfer function in an X-ray computed tomography apparatus contains a foil of a material that highly attenuates X-radiation that is arranged parallel to the image plane of the X-ray computed tomography apparatus given employment of the phantom and which had an axial expanse that is small compared to the thinnest slice to be measured. The expanse of the foil in the direction of the image plane is on the order of magnitude of a few millimeters.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 23, 2001
    Date of Patent: December 3, 2002
    Assignee: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Christoph Suess, Willi Kalender
  • Patent number: 6487272
    Abstract: The object of this invention is to provide a highly reliable penetrating type X-ray tube and a manufacturing method thereof, preventing interfacial exfoliation between a transmission window and a target film before it happens. This invention is characterized in that at least one intermediate film 39 of at least one metal element or an alloy thereof selected from a group of copper, chromium, iron, nickel, etc. between x-ray penetrating window plate 37 of beryllium stuck vacuum-tightly to a portion of evacuated envelope 33, and target film 40 of tungsten which is provided on the evacuated side of the window plate and emanates X rays is formed by a physical method such as spattering.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 4, 2000
    Date of Patent: November 26, 2002
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba
    Inventor: Hiroki Kutsuzawa
  • Patent number: 6483894
    Abstract: A collimator for an X-ray testing machine and a method for adjusting the collimator with the aid of a detection system disposed in the collimator that includes at least two spatially separate detection devices, disposed and spacing one behind the other.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 16, 2001
    Date of Patent: November 19, 2002
    Assignee: Heimann Systems GmbH
    Inventors: Martin Hartick, Frank Cordes