Abstract: A fluidized bed boiler is controlled such that, when the fuel supply quantity thereof is changed from F.sub.0 to F.sub.1, the fuel supply quantity is changed to a level greater than the difference between F.sub.1 and F.sub.0, the fuel supply quantity is changed to a level smaller than the difference between F.sub.1 and F.sub.0, and the fuel supply quantity is then set to F.sub.1.
Abstract: An organic solvent cleaning apparatus has a cleaning chamber that is hermetically sealed by operating a door provided at its entrance and that is rendered full of an organic solvent vapor to effect a cleaning operation, and that is formed with an entrance in a side portion of the cleaning chamber. The cleaning chamber is equipped with vapor supply means capable of supplying the vapor only during the cleaning operation and with vapor collecting means, including cooling coils that are lowered to condense the vapor, for collecting the vapor after the cleaning operation. In one embodiment, this organic solvent cleaning apparatus has a vertically movable cover which in its descended position surrounds a material to be cleaned and creates a seal with a reservoir of liquid solvent at its lower end to prevent supplied vapor from leaking out.
Abstract: An improved turbulator and conduit structure for use in heat exchangers. An elongated tube through which fluid to be subject to a heat exchange process is provided with a first outer winding within the tube in substantial abutment with the inner wall of the tube and a second inner winding at least partially within the first winding. The pitch of the first winding is different from the pitch of the second winding. Consistent heat exchange at extremely low Reynolds numberes is obtainable with the structure. Also disclosed is a method of making such a turbulator and conduit structure.
Abstract: An impeller for frictionally heating liquid is arranged that upon rotation thereof in a liquid reservoir, liquid is forced from the exterior of the impeller through passages having restricted orifices therein to an inner outlet cavity closed on one side and having an axial opening on the other. The impeller not only heats the liquid due to the shear friction of the liquid with its outer surface, but the liquid flowing through these passages is further heated as it is forced through the orifices. The impeller serves both as a friction heater and a pump to circulate heated liquid through an outlet port in the housing to a heat utilization device and back to an inlet port.
Abstract: A closure assembly for a furnace wall in which a plug member is secured to a door shell which, in turn, is pivotally mounted to the furnace wall. A plurality of anchor members are secured to the shell and extend through openings in and are secured relative to the plug member.
Abstract: In a coal fired boiler of the type having a combustion zone in which said coal is fired, a convection zone located downstream from said combustion zone and having a plurality of heater tubes disposed therein adapted to heat water or steam disposed therein, and in which convection zone combustion residues emanating from said coal have a tendency to stick to or agglomerate upon said tubes, a method of decreasing said tendency to stick or agglomerate, comprising burning said coal in the presence of an additive consisting essentially of super large magnesium oxide particles, a major mass fraction of which is about 150 microns in diameter or greater.
Abstract: The invention provides a means of producing at least one of high purity nitrogen and low to medium purity oxygen (up to about 97% purity) at high recovery (above 96% for oxygen). The LP column efficiency is improved to reduce the energy requirement, without offsetting reduction in LN.sub.2 reflux availability. Referring to FIG. 1, this is done by providing intermediate height reboil to LP column 3 by a latent heat exchanger 10 in which HP rectifier 5 overhead N.sub.2 vapor which has been partially expanded in expander 9 is condensed and kettle liquid is evaporated. The condensed N.sub.2 is then used to reflux column 3 after depressurization by valve 13.
Abstract: Method for sintering blanks into fuel pellets, in which the blanks are moved through the muffle of a tunnel furnace by pushing the blanks through the muffle on a guiding device which goes through the muffle and protrudes therefrom at least on the input side, in the form of a single-layer column of abutting blanks.
January 15, 1987
Date of Patent:
January 3, 1989
Kraftwerk Union Aktiengesellschaft
Helmut Assmann, Wolfgang Dorr, Georg Maier, Martin Peehs
Abstract: An apparatus for continuously developing travelling bands of film has a tank which accommodates a processing bath. A device for the removal of moisture from film leaving the tank is located in the region of the tank exit. The device includes a substantially airtight enclosure having registering slot-like inlet and outlet openings for the film. The inlet and outlet openings divide the enclosure into two portions. A suction nozzle is disposed in each portion and is provided with a suction opening which faces the path of the film. Flexible sealing strips are arranged adjacent to the inlet and outlet openings of the enclosure. When there is no film passing through the enclosure, the sealing strips essentially close the inlet and outlet openings so that a vacuum is maintained in the enclosure. The sealing strips are bent away from the inlet and outlet openings during the passage of film through the enclosure.
Abstract: Apparatus for transporting and drying photographic paper which has been chemically processed, includes a roller assembly for transporting the paper through a drying tank. Drying of the paper is accomplished by means of warm air which is propelled by a pump through a distribution duct network. The duct network includes a number of distribution tubes each of which has a tube body and a discharge chute for directing the air from the tube against the paper. Contoured upper and lower surfaces of the tube in combination with individual roller elements, which are spaced apart on a roller shaft, provide turbulence reducing return channels for routing the air, which has been deflected by the paper, back toward the pump.
January 7, 1988
Date of Patent:
December 27, 1988
Eastman Kodak Company
Thomas C. Jessop, Ralph L. Piccinino, Jr.
Abstract: A material to be dehydrated wrapped in a semipermeable sheet is dipped in a dehydrating solution to cause part of water contained in the material to be absorbed into the dehydrating solution to dehydrate the material, and the water-absorbed dehydrating solution is cooled and concentrated to adjust its temperaure and concentration, and sterilized as needed, to be used repeatedly for the dehydration treatment, thereby dehydrating a large amount of material to be treated without changing the quality of the material under consistent conditions with enhanced economy and efficiency.
Abstract: A boiler has a gas burner assembly and a heat exchanger positioned in a combustion chamber for heating water circulated through the heat exchanger by heat exchange with the combustion products. The performance of the heat exchanger is improved by rotating the heat exchanger to prevent formation of a boundary layer of cooler combustion products and/or a surface film of condensed moisture on the heat exchange surface.
Abstract: A system for discharging and cooling hot ash from a coal combustion unit, such as a coal combustor or an associated filter, where the hot ash at a temperature in excess of 700.degree. C. and at superatmospheric pressure is charged to a jacketed, cooled screw conveyor and passed therethrough in contact with a countercurrent flow of a purge gas. The ash is cooled in the screw conveyor to a temperature of below 320.degree. C. and dischaged to a collection hopper, under pressure, while the purge gas and gases evolved from the hot ash are returned to the combustion unit.
Abstract: A steam generator and a method of burning fuels therein. A combustion chamber of gas-tight pipe walls has a fluidized bed. Above the bed is a free space with an incrementally lower solids density that accommodates heat-convection surfaces. Coarse-particle precipitators communicate with the top of the combustion chamber with their solids-extraction outlet communicating with the fluidized bed through a feedback system. The combustion chamber, its heat-convection surfaces, the coarse-particle precipitators, and the feedback system are surrounded by pressurized vessel. The fuel is burned in the fluidized bed under pressure. Densities of 0.5 to 5 kg of solids per kg of flue gas are maintained in the free space (4) above the bed by means of fluidizing rates of 1 to 5 m/sec. The temperature of and load on the fluidized bed are regulated by the amount of solids returned to the bed.
December 22, 1987
Date of Patent:
December 13, 1988
Deutsche Babcock Werke Aktiengesellschaft
Abstract: A water heater having improved efficiency. The water heater includes a tubular member that is mounted in an opening in the side of the tank and extends generally horizontally across the tank. The tubular member defines a combustion chamber and a fuel burner is located within the combustion chamber. The outer end of the tubular member communicates with the atmosphere and air is drawn into the tubular member and mixed with fuel to provide a mixture which is ignited. The waste gases of combustion are discharged from the inner end of the tubular member into a heat exchanger which is located in the tank beneath the tubular member, and the hot waste gases being discharged from the combustion chamber and passing through the heat exchanger transfer heat to the water in the tank. The heat exchanger is connected to a stack and a blower is mounted in the stack downstream of the heat exchanger and serves to draw the waste gases of combustion from the combustion chamber through the heat exchanger to the stack.
Abstract: An improved solids incineration process and system are provided of the type wherein the solids are combusted and the resulting combustion gases are separated from combustion ash, the ash is quenched and neutralized with a quench liquid, heat is removed from the combustion gases and the combustion gases contacted with a scrubber liquid in a wet scrubber to remove fly ash therefrom. By the present invention, the spent scrubber liquid from the wet scrubber is utilized as at least a portion of the ash quench liquid.
Abstract: An apparatus for drying gel slabs which includes a porous support pad resting in a recess, a flexible vacuum-retaining cover sheet covering the support pad and the periphery of the recess, and means for pulling a vacuum down from underneath the support pad, is improved by adding a perimeter groove around the periphery of the recess, preferably spaced a small distance therefrom, with channels connecting the groove to the recess to transmit the vacuum. The perimeter groove provides a faster distribution of the vacuum, and provides a further means of sealing the cover sheet around the periphery of the recess, to provide more even and more reliable gel drying.
Abstract: A refrigeration system includes first and second refrigerant circuits each having a compressor, a condenser and an evaporator, each of the refrigerant circuits being charged with an organic refrigerant. The evaporator of the first refrigerant circuit is divided into a plurality of evaporator portions connected together in series. The condenser of the second refrigerant circuit is divided into condenser portions equal in number to the number of the evaporator portions of the first refrigerant circuit. The condenser portions of the second refrigerant circuit are paired with the evaporator portions of the first refrigerant circuit to provide heat exchangers. The refrigerant of the second refrigerant circuit is a mixture of refrigerants different in kind and in boiling point.
Abstract: There is taught a method and apparatus for a drying of a continuous moist web such as paper wherein the web is passed through a nip formed of two moving surfaces, one of these surfaces being a relatively impermeable material heated to a temperature of at least 120.degree. C., the other surface being formed of a relatively porous material and being maintained at a temperature below 100.degree. C., while maintaining a pressure on the moist web sufficient to prevent blowoff.
June 15, 1987
Date of Patent:
December 6, 1988
Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada
Abstract: Fluidized bed reactor and a process for the operation of a circulating, fluidized bed reactor, by which a solid particle material, in particular carbonaceous fuel, is introduced into the lower part of the reactor and is formed to a fast bed by a fluidization gas containing a gaseous reactant material, in particular oxygen, introduced into the reactor bottom, while non-reacted particles are removed from the reactor top and recirculated to the bed. By removing a predetermined fraction of the solid particle material in the reactor from at least one site positioned below the reactor top, subjecting it to thermal treatment and recirculating it to at least one other, lower positioned site of the bed, enhanced possibilities for process optimalization are achieved.