Abstract: A method for controlling the temperature of a baking oven having a catalyst, a heating source, an oven chamber temperature sensor, and a catalyst temperature sensor, includes generating an electrical control signal based on a control state, the control state being a function of signals from the electrical sensors and being reached when the catalyst temperature is higher than the oven chamber temperature and the temperature difference between the catalyst temperature and the oven chamber temperature is greater than or equal to a threshold value. The heating source is controlled using the electrical control signal so that the oven chamber temperature is maintained substantially constant.
Abstract: A non-linear resistor comprises a sintered body having zinc oxide as a main component, a side-surface high resistance layer arranged at a side-surface of the sintered body, and an electrode arranged at upper and lower surfaces of the sintered body. The side-surface high resistance layer is formed of a specifically selected material. The end-to-end distance between an end portion of the electrode and a nonlinear resistor end portion including the side-surface high resistance layer falls within a range of 0 mm to the thickness of the side-surface high resistance layer+0.01 mm.
Abstract: A microelectronic assembly, including a microelectronic element such as a semiconductor chip and a dielectric material covering the chip and forming a body having a bottom surface. The assembly includes conductive units having portions exposed at the bottom surface, posts extending upwardly from said exposed portions and top flanges spaced above the bottom surface.
Abstract: A variable resistor card for a fuel level sensor includes a first wiper contact area, a first electrically conductive pathway electrically communicated to the first wiper contact area, a second wiper contact area, a second electrically conductive pathway electrically communicated to the second wiper contact area, and a nonconductive layer on at least one of the first and second electrically conductive pathways.
Abstract: A shunt resistor of the present invention has a configuration including a substantially planar resistor (10) having a predetermined resistance value; a first fixed terminal plate (20) that has one end portion (21) connected to an edge of the resistor (10); and a second fixed terminal plate (30) that has one end portion (31) connected to the other edge of the resistor (10), that has a portion in the vicinity of the end portion (31) which is bent substantially in the shape of the letter “U”, and that opposes at least a portion of the first fixed terminal plate (20), wherein a plurality of terminal tabs (12) for taking a voltage drop in the resistor (10) as a voltage signal is provided protrusive from a side edge of the resistor (10), and lead wires (40) are connected to the terminal tabs (12).
Abstract: Methods of operation of an induction melter include providing material within a cooled crucible proximate an inductor. A desired electromagnetic flux skin depth for heating the material within the crucible may be selected, and a frequency of an alternating current for energizing the inductor and for producing the desired skin depth may be selected. The alternating current frequency may be adjusted after energizing the inductor to maintain the desired electromagnetic flux skin depth. The desired skin depth may be substantially maintained as the temperature of the material varies. An induction heating apparatus includes a sensor configured to detect changes in at least one physical characteristic of a material to be heated in a crucible, and a controller configured for selectively varying a frequency of an alternating current for energizing an inductor at least partially in response to changes in the physical characteristic to be detected by the sensor.
Abstract: An electrical component includes a ceramic base made up of ceramic layers, electrode levels between the ceramic layers, where each electrode level includes at least two electrodes, and contact surfaces on an outer surface of the ceramic base. The contact surfaces are electrically connected to the electrodes. Electrodes overlap that are on different electrode levels and that are connected to different contact surfaces.
Abstract: A microwave oven includes an oven cavity arranged within a housing. The oven includes a door and a motorized conveyor belt for transporting food items through the oven cavity. A microwave energy intensification system is provided below the conveyor belt to concentrate and intensify a microwave energy field directed into the oven cavity in order to minimize temperature deviations within the food item.
Abstract: A thermally stabilized device is described. Single or multiple input ports are accommodated and single and multiple power ports are described. The variation of resistance of a resistor subject to varying power dissipations is minimized by injecting complementary power dissipation and thermally linking it to the resistor. In this manner the temperature of a resistor may be maintained constant even though it dissipates varying amounts of power.
Abstract: There is provided by this invention an apparatus and method of supplying to ignite a plasma wherein in the event of an arc a shunt switch is used to divert the power away from the plasma that is incorporated into an over-voltage protection circuit that controls the shunt switch to act as a boost switch when the arc is extinguished such that the stored inductor energy is used to boost the ignition voltage for reigniting the plasma if it is extinguished. When the arc is extinguished, the inductor current is diminished, and the plasma is ignited, then the switch S1 is turned OFF and the inductor energy goes to the plasma and the power supply operates in its normal operating mode.
August 24, 2004
Date of Patent:
July 25, 2006
Advanced Energy Industries, Inc.
Milan Ilic, Vladislav V. Shilo, Kalyan N. C. Siddabattula
Abstract: An electric device contains a medium interposed between first and second electric elements to provide electric continuity between the first element and a defined reference point of the second element throughout a defined range of sliding travel of one of the elements along the medium in a direction that is transverse to a favored direction of conduction through an electrically anisotropic conductive region of the medium that is composed of electric conductors that conduct in a favored direction and are electrically separated by solid dielectric.
Abstract: The multilayer chip varistor of the present invention includes a varistor body including a plurality of varistor layers and inner electrodes arranged to sandwich each of the varistor layers, terminal electrodes formed on each ends of the varistor body and connected to the inner electrodes, and glass layers formed between the varistor body and the terminal electrodes. In addition, a plated layers and are formed on the surface of the terminal electrodes.
Abstract: A system is disclosed for lowering (“slipping”) and/or raising (“back slipping”) electrodes relative to an electrode column. The system includes an electrode column having at least one slipping sleeve and a power clamp, each of which apply a radial clamping force to the electrode. The magnitudes of the clamping forces are selected such that application of a downwardly directed axial force on the one or more slipping sleeves, in combination with the weight of the electrode, are sufficient to overcome the resistive force of the power clamp, resulting in downward movement of the electrode without release of the clamping forces. Electrode columns having two movable slipping sleeves are also capable of raising the electrode relative to the furnace without release of the clamping forces.
May 20, 2004
Date of Patent:
July 11, 2006
Felim P. McCaffrey, Blair Nakatsu, Nils W. Voermann, Maurizio Darini, Sean Southall
Abstract: A stirring hot plate for simultaneously heating and stirring a mixture includes a phase controlled motor that spins magnets which couple to, and thereby spin, a stir bar within the mixture. In addition to spinning the magnets, the motor includes an operational mode in which the motor is rapidly braked thereby quickly spinning down the stir bar. The stirring hot plate also includes a visual indicator to the user that the platform is hot-to-the-touch that is especially effective when the stirring hot plate is not in use.
August 20, 2004
Date of Patent:
July 11, 2006
Curt McFadden, Kenneth David Hermsen, Roger W. Earle, James Edwards, Kerry W. Leppert, Eric Jackson, Eric Garz, Mark Lockwood, John L. Meek
Abstract: A varistor is provided which can be driven at a low voltage, has a small leak current, and can realize a high ESD resistance and a high surge resistance. The varistor is formed using a ceramic composition for a varistor which contains zinc oxide as a primary component and sub-components including praseodymium at a content of 0.05 to 3.0 atomic percent of the total, cobalt at a content of 0.5 to 10 atom percent of the total, at least one of potassium, sodium, and lithium at a total content of 0.005 to 0.5 atom percent of the total, at least one of aluminum, gallium, and indium at a total content of 2×10?5 to 0.5 atom percent of the total, and zirconium at a content of 0.005 to 5.0 atom percent of the total.
Abstract: A solid state heater uses a heater subassembly employing a terminal block, terminals and a PTCR or NTCR heater. The terminals engage and make electrical contact with the heater, thus eliminating the need for a rigid heater housing. The heater subassembly can be formed into a soft body or rigid body heater for heating purposes. The soft body heater uses a soft casing that envelops the heater subassembly with the casing expanding upon heating to provide a snug fit during use. The heater subassembly can be inserted in the cavity of either a soft body or a rigid body with potting compound filling any remaining voids, and the rigid or soft body can then be used for heating purposes.
Abstract: A temperature sensor has lead lines made of an elastic material each attached to a corresponding one of electrodes on a temperature sensing element such as an NTC thermistor element. The lead lines may each have a non-straight part where they are bent or deformed into a semi-circular shape such that, when these lead lines are inserted into throughholes prepared through a circuit board, the non-straight parts are hooked at the throughholes and the portions of the lead lines above the circuit board will stand up obliquely. Instead of lead lines, a pair of elongated planar lead terminals each with a twisted top end part may be connected to the electrodes such that the top end parts of the pair of lead terminals face each other and can support the temperature sensing element more securely in between.
Abstract: A positive temperature coefficient thermistor has a non-heating portion which is not heated when a voltage is applied between first and second internal electrodes. The non-heating portion is provided in the approximate center of the positive temperature coefficient thermistor and is arranged to extend along a direction that is substantially perpendicular to a lamination direction of the positive temperature coefficient thermistor. The non-heating portion is arranged at least in the approximate center in the lamination direction of the portion of the laminate where the first and the second internal electrodes are arranged. Thus, a hot spot is reliably prevented from occurring inside the laminate when voltage is applied. As a result, the withstand voltage property is greatly improved. The non-heating portion may include a cavity provided in at least one thermistor layer or an opening or cut portion provided in the internal electrode.
Abstract: A station class surge arrester includes a module assembly. The module assembly includes at least one metal oxide varistor (MOV) disk and a pre-impregnated composite that is applied around the at least one MOV disk. The pre-impregnated composite is capable of withstanding an 80 kA fault current for 12 cycles. The station class surge arrester also includes contacts on opposite ends of the module assembly with which the module assembly is connected to electrical equipment to be protected and to electrical ground.
Abstract: An over-current protection apparatus comprises a plurality of over-current protection devices and a bonding sheet. Each over-current protection device comprises at least one current-sensitive element, two outer electrode layers and at least one insulating layer disposed on a surface of the current-sensitive element. The bonding sheet penetrates and connects the plurality of over-current protection devices, and is disposed on a surface of the at least one current-sensitive element for insulation.