Patents by Inventor Alexander Kastalsky

Alexander Kastalsky has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

  • Publication number: 20110168981
    Abstract: Carbon nanotube (CNT)-based devices and technology for their fabrication are disclosed. The planar, multiple layer deposition technique and simple methods of change of the nanotube conductivity type during the device processing are utilized to provide a simple and cost effective technology for large scale circuit integration. Such devices as p-n diode, CMOS-like circuit, bipolar transistor, light emitting diode and laser are disclosed, all of them are expected to have superior performance then their semiconductor-based counterparts due to excellent CNT electrical and optical properties. When fabricated on semiconductor wafers, the CNT-based devices can be combined with the conventional semiconductor circuit elements, thus producing hybrid devices and circuits.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 7, 2011
    Publication date: July 14, 2011
    Inventor: ALEXANDER KASTALSKY
  • Patent number: 7851784
    Abstract: The Nanotube Array Ballistic Transistors are disclosed, wherein the ballistic (without collisions) electron propagation along the nanotubes, grown normally to the substrate plane on the common metal electrode, is used for a new class of hybrid (solid state/vacuum) electronic devices. In the disclosed transistors, the array of nanotubes emits electrons into vacuum when electrons gain sufficient energy inside the nanotubes due to ballistic electron movement under the voltage applied to the nanotube ends. In the disclosed devices, planar layer deposition technology is used to form multilayer structures and attach two electrodes to the nanotubes ends. The ballistic transistor can also be used for making a new type of electron-emission display when a phosphor layer is deposited on the anode electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 13, 2007
    Date of Patent: December 14, 2010
    Assignee: Nano-Electronic And Photonic Devices And Circuits, LLC
    Inventor: Alexander Kastalsky
  • Patent number: 7728333
    Abstract: A new class of light emitting and laser diodes is disclosed wherein ballistic (without collisions) electron propagation along the nanotubes, grown normally to the substrate plane on the common metal electrode, provides conditions for the light emission from the nanotubes. The electrons, tunneling from the input contact into high energy states in the nanotubes, emit light via electron energy relaxation between the quantum energy levels existing in the nanotubes due to quantum size effect. In the disclosed devices, planar layer deposition technology is used to form a diode structure with two electrodes attached to the nanotubes ends.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 9, 2007
    Date of Patent: June 1, 2010
    Assignee: Nano-Electronic and Photonic Devices and Circuits, LLC
    Inventor: Alexander Kastalsky
  • Publication number: 20090189143
    Abstract: Carbon nanotube (CNT)-based devices and technology for their fabrication are disclosed. The discussed electronic and photonic devices and circuits rely on the nanotube arrays grown on a variety of substrates, such as glass or Si wafer. The planar, multiple layer deposition technique and simple methods of change of the nanotube conductivity type during the device processing are utilized to provide a simple and cost effective technology for a large scale circuit integration. Such devices as p-n diode, CMOS-like circuit, bipolar transistor, light emitting diode and laser are disclosed, all of them are expected to have superior performance then their semiconductor-based counterparts due to excellent CNT electrical and optical properties. When fabricated on Si-wafers, the CNT-based devices can be combined with the Si circuit elements, thus producing hybrid Si-CNT devices and circuits.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 24, 2008
    Publication date: July 30, 2009
    Inventor: Alexander Kastalsky
  • Publication number: 20080218074
    Abstract: A new class of light emitting and laser diodes is disclosed wherein ballistic (without collisions) electron propagation along the nanotubes, grown normally to the substrate plane on the common metal electrode, provides conditions for the light emission from the nanotubes. The electrons, tunneling from the input contact into high energy states in the nanotubes, emit light via electron energy relaxation between the quantum energy levels existing in the nanotubes due to quantum size effect. In the disclosed devices, planar layer deposition technology is used to form a diode structure with two electrodes attached to the nanotubes ends.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 9, 2007
    Publication date: September 11, 2008
    Inventor: Alexander Kastalsky
  • Publication number: 20080191189
    Abstract: The Nanotube Array Ballistic Transistors are disclosed, wherein the ballistic (without collisions) electron propagation along the nanotubes, grown normally to the substrate plane on the common metal electrode, is used for a new class of hybrid (solid state/vacuum) electronic devices. In the disclosed transistors, the array of nanotubes emits electrons into vacuum when electrons gain sufficient energy inside the nanotubes due to ballistic electron movement under the voltage applied to the nanotube ends. In the disclosed devices, planar layer deposition technology is used to form multilayer structures and attach two electrodes to the nanotubes ends. The ballistic transistor can also be used for making a new type of electron-emission display when a phosphor layer is deposited on the anode electrode.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 13, 2007
    Publication date: August 14, 2008
    Inventor: Alexander Kastalsky
  • Publication number: 20080191138
    Abstract: A multilayer semiconductor scintillator is disclosed for detection, energy quantification, and determination to source of high-energy radiation, such as gamma or X-ray photons or other particles that produce ionizing interaction in semiconductors. The basic embodiment of the inventive detector comprises a multiplicity of stacked direct-gap compound semiconductor wafers, such as InP and GaAs, each wafer heavily doped n-type so as to maximize its transparency to scintillating radiation. Each wafer is further endowed with surface means for detection of said scintillating radiation, such a hetero-epitaxial p-i-n photodiode. In a preferred embodiment, the photodiode layer in each wafer is pixellated so as to provide the x and y coordinates of an ionizing interaction event.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 8, 2007
    Publication date: August 14, 2008
    Inventors: Alexander Kastalsky, Serge Luryi
  • Patent number: 7362492
    Abstract: A flat panel display is proposed wherein each pixel contains two membranes, covering the entire pixel area, which under the force of electrostatic attraction rotate from their original position parallel to the substrate plane into a final position normal to the substrate plane, thereby altering the optical state of the pixel. The electrostatic force is applied only to narrow conductive strips placed on the membrane sides and rotates the membranes around torsion hinges attached to the membranes through flexible and conductive belts. Two membranes per pixel, turned toward each other in their upright position, increase the viewing angle of the display. Further increase of the viewing angle is based on making both the bottom membrane surface and the pixel interior black. Another disclosed feature in the pixel design is placement of an additional pillar located in the area of the membrane hinges to both facilitate the membrane rotation under the electrostatic force and hold the membrane in the upright position.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 2005
    Date of Patent: April 22, 2008
    Inventor: Alexander Kastalsky
  • Patent number: 7327080
    Abstract: A field emission display comprises an anode comprising a matrix of pixels and a cathode comprising an insulating layer defining a plurality of wells having a conductor therein. A first conductive layer forms a plurality of conductive pads, each of the conductive pads corresponding to one of the wells. A plurality of nanostructures are electrically coupled to the conductive pads. A second conductive layer is formed over the insulating layer and provides a plurality of gate electrodes. When a potential between the conductive pads and gate electrodes exceeds a threshold voltage, the nanostructures emit electrons that impinge on the pixels.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 27, 2004
    Date of Patent: February 5, 2008
    Inventors: Frank J. DiSanto, Denis A. Krusos, Sergey L. Shokhor, Alexander Kastalsky, Anthony J. Campisi
  • Patent number: 7274136
    Abstract: A cold-cathode flat panel display using thin-film-transistor (TFT) anode circuit is disclosed. Associated with each pixel element is a TFT circuit comprising first and second transistors electrically cascaded and a capacitor in communication with an output of the first device and an input of the second transistor used to selectively address pixel elements in the display and hold pixels in their selected states for the frame time. Cold cathode sources are used to emit electrons that are drawn to selected pixel elements that include phosphor areas, which emit light of a known wavelength when struck by the emitted electrons.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 19, 2004
    Date of Patent: September 25, 2007
    Assignee: Copytele, Inc.
    Inventors: Frank J. DiSanto, Denis A. Krusos, Segey L. Shokhor, Alexander Kastalsky
  • Patent number: 7265354
    Abstract: A high-energy radiation detector is disclosed which uses a semiconductor material to absorb high-energy radiation and emit secondary light in response. The semiconductor is designed to be largely transparent for the interband light it emits so that the generated secondary photons can reach the semiconductor surface, to be detected by a suitable photo-detector. The semiconductor thus plays a role of a scintillator with the emitted light registered by a photo-detector. Two different device embodiments are disclosed. The first embodiment employs a uniform bulk slab of the appropriately chosen semiconductor, such as n-doped InP. Its principal advantage lies in the simplicity and low cost. The second device employs a multi-layer heterostructure. The principal advantage of the second type detector is the possibility of a substantial enhancement in the efficiency of absorption of the primary high-energy radiation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 6, 2005
    Date of Patent: September 4, 2007
    Inventors: Alexander Kastalsky, Serge Luryi, Boris Spivak
  • Publication number: 20070046165
    Abstract: A pixel structure and an edge-emitter field-emission display device having a first substrate or backplate including a cathode disposed thereon and a second substrate or faceplate including an anode disposed thereon, wherein the anode on the second substrate or faceplate has a light emitting film. The cathode may define a first bus of an X-Y bus array and the anode may define a second bus of the X-Y bus array. Alternatively, the first substrate may further include a control gate disposed thereon, wherein the cathode defines a first bus of an X-Y bus array and the control gate defines a second bus of the X-Y bus array.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 30, 2006
    Publication date: March 1, 2007
    Inventors: Alexander Kastalsky, Sergey Shokhor, Frank DiSanto, Denis Krusos, Boris Gorfinkel, Nikolai Abanshin
  • Patent number: 7176478
    Abstract: New, hybrid vacuum electron devices are proposed, in which the electrons are extracted from the nanotube into vacuum. Each nanotube is either placed on the cathode electrode individually or grown normally to the cathode plane. Arrays of the nanotubes are also considered to multiply the output current. Two- and three-terminal device configurations are discussed. In all the cases considered, the device designs are such that both input and output capacitances are extremely low, while the efficiency of the electron extraction into vacuum is very high, so that the estimated operational frequencies are expected to be in a tera-hertz range. New vacuum triode structure with ballistic electron propagation along the nanotube is also considered.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 26, 2004
    Date of Patent: February 13, 2007
    Inventors: Alexander Kastalsky, Sergey Shokhor
  • Patent number: 7158278
    Abstract: Electromechanical shutter and display comprising a two-dimensional matrix of such shutters are proposed, in which the membrane under the force of electrostatic attraction moves from its original position parallel to the substrate plane into a final position normal to the substrate plane, thereby transferring the shutter, or display pixel, from its “off” state into its “on” state. To produce the “on” state, the electrostatic force is applied only to a narrow conductive strip placed on the side of the membrane and rotates the membrane around the torsion hinges attached to this strip. Two-and three-electrode shutter and pixel configurations are considered. Both versions provide a bi-stable membrane behavior, which implies that the voltage needed to transfer the membrane into the “on” state is larger than the voltage needed to maintain the membrane in this state. This feature of bi-stability allows realization of functions “pixel hold” and “pixel select” using a simple passive matrix architecture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 12, 2004
    Date of Patent: January 2, 2007
    Inventor: Alexander Kastalsky
  • Publication number: 20060273258
    Abstract: A high-energy radiation detector is disclosed which uses a semiconductor material to absorb high-energy radiation and emit secondary light in response. The semiconductor is designed to be largely transparent for the interband light it emits so that the generated seciondary photons can reach the semiconductor surface, to be detected by a suitable photo-detector. The semiconductor thus plays a role of a scintillator with the emitted light registered by a photo-detector. Two different device embodiments are disclosed. The first embodiment employs a uniform bulk slab of the appropriately chosen semiconductor, such as n-doped InP. Its principal advantage lies in the simplicity and low cost. The second device employs a multi-layer heterostructure. The principal advantage of the second type detector is the possibility of a substantial enhancement in the efficiency of absorption of the primary high-energy radiation.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 6, 2005
    Publication date: December 7, 2006
    Inventors: Alexander Kastalsky, Serge Luryi, Boris Spivak
  • Patent number: 7129626
    Abstract: A pixel structure and an edge-emitter field-emission display device having a first substrate or backplate including a cathode disposed thereon and a second substrate or faceplate including an anode disposed thereon, wherein the anode on the second substrate or faceplate has a light emitting film. The cathode may define a first bus of an X-Y bus array and the anode may define a second bus of the X-Y bus array. Alternatively, the first substrate may further include a control gate disposed thereon, wherein the cathode defines a first bus of an X-Y bus array and the control gate defines a second bus of the X-Y bus array.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 20, 2002
    Date of Patent: October 31, 2006
    Assignee: Copytele, Inc.
    Inventors: Alexander Kastalsky, Sergey Shokhor, Frank J. DiSanto, Denis A. Krusos, Boris Gorfinkel, Nikolai Abanshin
  • Publication number: 20060197739
    Abstract: A flat panel display is proposed wherein each pixel contains two membranes, covering the entire pixel area, which under the force of electrostatic attraction rotate from their original position parallel to the substrate plane into a final position normal to the substrate plane, thereby altering the optical state of the pixel. The electrostatic force is applied only to narrow conductive strips placed on the membrane sides and rotates the membranes around torsion hinges attached to the membranes through flexible and conductive belts. Two membranes per pixel, turned toward each other in their upright position, increase the viewing angle of the display. Further increase of the viewing angle is based on making the bottom membrane surface mirror-like. In another embodiment, the bottom surface of the membranes is blackened when the pixel interior is chosen to be black and coated with a white color film if the pixel interior is chosen to be white.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 7, 2005
    Publication date: September 7, 2006
    Inventor: Alexander Kastalsky
  • Patent number: 7102157
    Abstract: New, hybrid vacuum electronic devices are proposed, in which the electrons are extracted from the nanotube into vacuum. Each nanotube is either placed on the cathode electrode individually or grown normally to the cathode plane. Arrays of the nanotubes are also considered to multiply the output current. Two- and three-terminal device configurations are discussed. In all the cases considered, the device designs are such that both input and output capacitances are extremely low, while the efficiency of the electron extraction into vacuum is very high, so that the estimated operational frequencies are expected to be in a tera-hertz range. New vacuum triode structure with ballistic electron propagation along the nanotube is also considered.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 23, 2005
    Date of Patent: September 5, 2006
    Inventors: Alexander Kastalsky, Sergey Shokhor
  • Publication number: 20050247929
    Abstract: New, hybrid vacuum electronic devices are proposed, in which the electrons are extracted from the nanotube into vacuum. Each nanotube is either placed on the cathode electrode individually or grown normally to the cathode plane. Arrays of the nanotubes are also considered to multiply the output current. Two- and three-terminal device configurations are discussed. In all the cases considered, the device designs are such that both input and output capacitances are extremely low, while the efficiency of the electron extraction into vacuum is very high, so that the estimated operational frequencies are expected to be in a tera-hertz range. New vacuum triode structure with ballistic electron propagation along the nanotube is also considered.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 23, 2005
    Publication date: November 10, 2005
    Inventors: Alexander Kastalsky, Sergey Shokhor
  • Publication number: 20050225827
    Abstract: Electromechanical shutter and display comprising a two-dimensional matrix of such shutters are proposed, in which the membrane under the force of electrostatic attraction moves from its original position parallel to the substrate plane into a final position normal to the substrate plane, thereby transferring the shutter, or display pixel, from its “off” state into its “on” state. To produce the “on” state, the electrostatic force is applied only to a narrow conductive strip placed on the side of the membrane and rotates the membrane around the torsion hinges attached to this strip. Two-and three-electrode shutter and pixel configurations are considered. Both versions provide a bi-stable membrane behavior, which implies that the voltage needed to transfer the membrane into the “on” state is larger than the voltage needed to maintain the membrane in this state. This feature of bi-stability allows realization of functions “pixel hold” and “pixel select” using a simple passive matrix architecture.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 12, 2004
    Publication date: October 13, 2005
    Inventor: Alexander Kastalsky