Patents by Inventor Charles D. Scott

Charles D. Scott has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

  • Patent number: 5725888
    Abstract: An apparatus for the large-scale and continuous production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst. The apparatus is a columnar system based on the chemical cross-linking of hydrocolloidal gels that contain and immobilize a biocatalyst, the biocatalyst being a microorganism or an enzyme. Hydrocolloidal gels, such as alginate, carrageenan, and a mixture of bone gelatin and modified alginate, provide immobilization matrices that can be used to entrap and retain the biocatalyst while allowing effective contact with substrates and release of products. Such immobilized biocatalysts are generally formulated into small spheres or beads that have high concentrations of the biocatalyst within the gel matrix.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 22, 1996
    Date of Patent: March 10, 1998
    Assignee: Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Charles D. Scott, Timothy C. Scott, Brian H. Davison
  • Patent number: 5712212
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for the large-scale and continuous production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst. The apparatus is a columnar system based on the chemical cross-linking of hydrocolloidal gels that contain and immobilize a biocatalyst, the biocatalyst being a microorganism or an enzyme. Hydrocolloidal gels, such as alginate, carrageenan, and a mixture of bone gelatin and modified alginate, provide immobilization matrices that can be used to entrap and retain the biocatalyst while allowing effective contact with substrates and release of products. Such immobilized biocatalysts are generally formulated into small spheres or beads that have high concentrations of the biocatalyst within the gel matrix.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 8, 1995
    Date of Patent: January 27, 1998
    Assignee: Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Charles D. Scott, Timothy C. Scott, Brian H. Davison
  • Patent number: 5637502
    Abstract: A process for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals, such as sugars and ethanol, utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major carbohydrate of paper: cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. Additionally, microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis steps are included to further increase reaction efficiency. The resulting sugars are converted to a dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing a biocatalyst, such as microorganisms. The dilute product is then concentrated and purified.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 25, 1996
    Date of Patent: June 10, 1997
    Assignee: Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Timothy C. Scott, Charles D. Scott, Brendlyn D. Faison, Brian H. Davison, Jonathan Woodward
  • Patent number: 5534153
    Abstract: A continuous fluidized-bed contactor containing sorbent particles is used to remove solutes from liquid solvents. As the sorbent particles, for example gel beads, sorb the solute, for example metal ion species, the sorbent particles tend to decrease in diameter. These smaller loaded sorbent particles rise to the top of the contactor, as larger sorbent particles remain at the bottom of the contactor as a result of normal hydraulic forces. The smaller loaded sorbent particles are then recovered, regenerated, and reintroduced into the contactor. Alternatively, the loaded sorbent particles may also slightly increase in diameter, or exhibit no change in diameter but an increase in density. As a result of normal hydraulic forces the larger loaded sorbent particles fall to the bottom of the contactor. The larger loaded sorbent particles are then recovered, regenerated, and reintroduced into the contactor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 24, 1992
    Date of Patent: July 9, 1996
    Assignee: Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Charles D. Scott, James N. Petersen, Brian H. Davison
  • Patent number: 5508183
    Abstract: A process for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals, such as sugars and ethanol, utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major carbohydrate of paper: cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. Additionally, microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis steps are included to further increase reaction efficiency. The resulting sugars are converted to a dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing a biocatalyst, such as microorganisms. The dilute product is then concentrated and purified.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 9, 1994
    Date of Patent: April 16, 1996
    Assignee: Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Timothy C. Scott, Charles D. Scott, Brendlyn D. Faison, Brian H. Davison, Jonathan Woodward
  • Patent number: 5494811
    Abstract: A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 26, 1995
    Date of Patent: February 27, 1996
    Assignee: Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Charles D. Scott, Joseph A. Marasco
  • Patent number: 5458752
    Abstract: A method for treating petroleum with anaerobic microorganisms acting as biocatalysts that can remove sulfur atoms from hydrocarbon molecules, under anaerobic conditions, and then convert the sulfur atoms to hydrogen sulfide. The microorganisms utilized are from the family known as the "Sulfate Reducing Bacteria." These bacteria generate metabolic energy from the oxidation of organic compounds, but use oxidized forms of sulfur as an electron acceptor. Because the biocatalyst is present in the form of bacteria in an aqueous suspension, whereas the reacting substrate consists of hydrocarbon molecules in an organic phase, the actual desulfurization reaction takes place at the aqueous-organic interphase. To ensure adequate interfacial contacting and mass transfer, a biphasic electrostatic bioreactor system is utilized. The bioreactor is utilized to disperse and recoalesce a biocatalyst contained in the aqueous liquid phase into the organic liquid phase containing the sulfur.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 21, 1994
    Date of Patent: October 17, 1995
    Assignee: Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Hector M. Lizama, Timothy C. Scott, Charles D. Scott
  • Patent number: 5409822
    Abstract: A fluidized bed reactor system utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 29, 1993
    Date of Patent: April 25, 1995
    Assignee: Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Charles D. Scott, Joseph A. Marasco
  • Patent number: 5358614
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for the removal or conversion of constituents from bulk organic liquids. A countercurrent biphasic bioreactor system is utilized to disperse and recoalesce a biocatalyst contained in the aqueous liquid phase into the organic liquid phase containing the constituent. Two transient, high-intensity electrical fields rupture the aqueous drops into a plurality of microdroplets and induce continuous coalescence and redispersion as the microdroplets travel through the organic phase, thus increasing surface area. As the aqueous microdroplets progress through the organic phase, the biocatalyst then reacts with the constituent to produce a product which is then removed from the bioreactor in the aqueous phase or retained in the organic phase. The organic liquid, now free of the original constituents, is ready for immediate use or further processing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 3, 1993
    Date of Patent: October 25, 1994
    Assignee: Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Timothy Scott, Charles D. Scott
  • Patent number: 5348871
    Abstract: A process for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major constituent of paper, cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. The cellulase is produced from a continuous, columnar, fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing immobilized microorganisms. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. The cellulase is recycled by an adsorption process. The resulting crude sugars are converted to dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing microorganisms. The dilute product is concentrated and purified by utilizing distillation and/or a biparticle fluidized-bed bioreactor system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 15, 1992
    Date of Patent: September 20, 1994
    Assignee: Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Charles D. Scott, Brendlyn D. Faison, Brian H. Davison, Jonathan Woodward
  • Patent number: 5270189
    Abstract: A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 21, 1991
    Date of Patent: December 14, 1993
    Assignee: Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Charles D. Scott
  • Patent number: 5248484
    Abstract: A reactor vessel for reacting a solid particulate with a liquid reactant has a centrifugal pump in circulatory flow communication with the reactor vessel for providing particulate attrition, resulting in additional fresh surface where the reaction can occur.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 15, 1992
    Date of Patent: September 28, 1993
    Assignee: Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Charles D. Scott, Brian H. Davison
  • Patent number: 4995985
    Abstract: The invention is a gel bead comprising propylene glycol alginate and bone gelatin and is capable of removing metals such as Sr and Cs from solution without adding other adsorbents. The invention could have application to the nuclear industry's waste removal activities.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 25, 1990
    Date of Patent: February 26, 1991
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventors: Charles D. Scott, Charlene A. Woodward, Charles H. Byers
  • Patent number: 4978647
    Abstract: The invention is a gel bead comprising propylene glycol alginate and bone gelatin and is capable of removing metals such as Sr and Cs from solution without adding other adsorbents. The invention could have application to the nuclear industry's waste removal activities.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 4, 1989
    Date of Patent: December 18, 1990
    Assignee: United States Department of Energy
    Inventors: Charles D. Scott, Charlene A. Woodward, Charles H. Byers
  • Patent number: 4846964
    Abstract: A fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 14, 1987
    Date of Patent: July 11, 1989
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventors: Charles D. Scott, Gerald W. Strandberg
  • Patent number: 4683042
    Abstract: Separation of complex mixtures and solutions can be carried out using a method and apparatus for continuous annular electrochromatography. Solutes are diverted radially by an imposed electrical field as they move downward in a rotating chromatographic column.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 29, 1986
    Date of Patent: July 28, 1987
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventor: Charles D. Scott
  • Patent number: 4336044
    Abstract: Gas produced from coal and containing CH.sub.4, CO, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S is contacted with CO.sub.2 scrub liquid to form (1) a liquid CO.sub.2 stream containing as solutes CH.sub.4, H.sub.2 S and minor portions of the CO and H.sub.2, and (2) a gas stream containing CO.sub.2 and major portions of the CO and H.sub.2, the CO and H.sub.2 in this stream being recycled to the means which produces gas from coal, and CO.sub.2 in the stream being recycled to the scrub liquid. The solute-bearing liquid CO.sub.2 stream is fractionated into (1) a liquid CO.sub.2 stream containing CH.sub.4 and H.sub.2 S, and (2) a H.sub.2 /CO gas stream which is recycled into contact with the scrub liquid. The last-mentioned liquid CO.sub.2 stream is fractionated into (1) a CH.sub.4 /CO.sub.2 gas stream the CO.sub.2 of which is recycled to the scrub liquid, and (2) a liquid CO.sub.2 stream containing H.sub.2 S, and CO.sub.2 of this stream is also recycled to the scrub liquid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 27, 1980
    Date of Patent: June 22, 1982
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventors: Ray E. Barker, Charles D. Scott, Allen D. Ryon
  • Patent number: 4032407
    Abstract: A vertically oriented conically shaped column is used as a fluidized bed bioreactor wherein biologically catalyzed reactions are conducted in a continuous manner. The column utilizes a packing material a support having attached thereto a biologically active catalytic material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 24, 1976
    Date of Patent: June 28, 1977
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Energy Research & Development Administration
    Inventors: Charles D. Scott, Charles W. Hancher
  • Patent number: 3969218
    Abstract: Colloids and macromolecules are separated by simultaneously carrying out elution and electrophoretic separation processes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 11, 1975
    Date of Patent: July 13, 1976
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Energy Research and Development Administration
    Inventor: Charles D. Scott