Patents by Inventor Harish Rajagopalan

Harish Rajagopalan has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

  • Patent number: 11139588
    Abstract: An electronic device may be provided with a dielectric cover layer, a dielectric substrate, and a phased antenna array on the dielectric substrate for conveying millimeter wave signals through the dielectric cover layer. The array may include conductive traces mounted against the dielectric layer. The conductive traces may form patch elements or parasitic elements for the phased antenna array. The dielectric layer may have a dielectric constant and a thickness selected to form a quarter wave impedance transformer for the array at a wavelength of operation of the array. The substrate may include fences of conductive vias that laterally surround each of the antennas within the array. When configured in this way, signal attenuation, destructive interference, and surface wave generation associated with the presence of the dielectric layer over the phased antenna array may be minimized.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 11, 2018
    Date of Patent: October 5, 2021
    Assignee: Apple Inc.
    Inventors: Jennifer M. Edwards, Harish Rajagopalan, Simone Paulotto, Bilgehan Avser, Hao Xu, Rodney A. Gomez Angulo, Siwen Yong, Matthew A. Mow, Mattia Pascolini
  • Publication number: 20210304298
    Abstract: Various examples are directed to systems and methods for managing a computerized event platform. The computerized event platform may receive participant data describing a plurality of historical bids from a plurality of historical events and generate a set of recommended participants to participate in an event to provide a first item.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 26, 2020
    Publication date: September 30, 2021
    Inventors: Nithya Rajagopalan, Panish Ramakrishna, Harish Dhivahar Ariharasuthan
  • Patent number: 11121469
    Abstract: An electronic device may be provided with a phased antenna array. The array may convey signals greater than 10 GHz and may be formed on a substrate having transmission line layers and antenna layers. An antenna in the array may have a radiating element that includes first, second, and third overlapping patch elements on the antenna layers. The antenna may be fed using a differential transmission line coupled to a differential feed on the first patch element. The differential transmission line may include first and second signal traces. A first via may couple the first signal trace to the first, second, and third patch elements. A second via may couple the second signal trace to the first, second, and third patch elements. The patch elements may introduce capacitances to the radiating element that help to compensate for inductances associated with the distance between the radiating element and the signal traces.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 26, 2019
    Date of Patent: September 14, 2021
    Assignee: Apple Inc.
    Inventors: Simone Paulotto, Jennifer M. Edwards, Harish Rajagopalan, Bilgehan Avser
  • Patent number: 11108155
    Abstract: An electronic device may be provided with wireless circuitry for conveying radio-frequency signals greater than 10 GHz. The wireless circuitry may include a phased antenna array that transmits a steerable signal beam and independent antennas that are separate from the array. The array may be coupled to a first transceiver and the independent antennas may be coupled to a second transceiver. Power amplifier stages may be coupled between the second transceiver and the independent antennas to boost the gain of the independent antennas. If desired, the array and the independent antennas may be coupled to ports of the same transceiver. In this arrangement, each independent antenna may include an antenna feed that is coupled to a respective pair of ports on the transceiver. This may serve to boost the gain of the independent antennas without power amplifier circuitry. The independent antennas may have smaller footprints than the phased antenna array.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 16, 2018
    Date of Patent: August 31, 2021
    Assignee: Apple Inc.
    Inventors: Rodney A. Gomez Angulo, Simone Paulotto, Harish Rajagopalan, Jennifer M. Edwards, Hao Xu
  • Publication number: 20210265745
    Abstract: An electronic device may be provided with a dielectric cover layer, a dielectric substrate, and a phased antenna array on the dielectric substrate for conveying millimeter wave signals through the dielectric cover layer. The array may include conductive traces mounted against the dielectric layer. The conductive traces may form patch elements or parasitic elements for the phased antenna array. The dielectric layer may have a dielectric constant and a thickness selected to form a quarter wave impedance transformer for the array at a wavelength of operation of the array. The substrate may include fences of conductive vias that laterally surround each of the antennas within the array. When configured in this way, signal attenuation, destructive interference, and surface wave generation associated with the presence of the dielectric layer over the phased antenna array may be minimized.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 7, 2021
    Publication date: August 26, 2021
    Inventors: Jennifer M. Edwards, Harish Rajagopalan, Simone Paulotto, Bilgehan Avser, Hao Xu, Rodney A. Gomez Angulo, Siwen Yong, Matthew A. Mow, Mattia Pascolini
  • Patent number: 11088452
    Abstract: An electronic device may be provided with a phased antenna array. Each antenna in the array may include a patch element having first, second, third, and fourth positive antenna feed terminals. The first and second terminals may convey first signals with a first polarization. The third and fourth terminals may convey second signals with a second polarization. Phase shifting components such as phase shifting transmission line segments or phase shifter circuits may ensure that the first signals at the first terminal are out of phase with respect to the first signals at the second terminal and may ensure that the second signals at the third terminal are out of phase with respect to the second signals at the fourth terminal. This may allow antenna current density for both polarizations to be symmetrically distributed about a normal axis of the patch element.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 28, 2018
    Date of Patent: August 10, 2021
    Assignee: Apple Inc.
    Inventors: Bilgehan Avser, Jennifer M. Edwards, Simone Paulotto, Harish Rajagopalan, Hao Xu, Rodney A. Gomez Angulo, Matthew A. Mow, Mattia Pascolini
  • Publication number: 20210210868
    Abstract: An electronic device may be provided with a cover layer and a phased antenna array mounted against the cover layer. Each antenna in the array may include a first patch element that is directly fed using first and second feeds and a second patch element that is directly fed using third and fourth feeds. A slot element may be formed in the first patch element. The first patch element may radiate in a first frequency band through the cover layer. The slot element may radiate in a second frequency band that is higher than the first frequency band through the cover layer. The second patch element may indirectly feed the slot element. Locating the radiating elements for each frequency band in the same plane may allow the antenna to radiate through the cover layer in both frequency bands with satisfactory antenna efficiency.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 25, 2021
    Publication date: July 8, 2021
    Inventors: Bilgehan Avser, Harish Rajagopalan, Simone Paulotto, Jennifer M. Edwards, Hao Xu, Rodney A. Gomez Angulo, Matthew A. Mow, Mattia Pascolini
  • Patent number: 11038284
    Abstract: An electronic device may be provided with a dielectric cover layer, a dielectric substrate, and a phased antenna array on the dielectric substrate for conveying millimeter wave signals through the dielectric cover layer. The array may include conductive traces mounted against the dielectric layer. The conductive traces may form patch elements or parasitic elements for the phased antenna array. The dielectric layer may have a dielectric constant and a thickness selected to form a quarter wave impedance transformer for the array at a wavelength of operation of the array. The substrate may include fences of conductive vias that laterally surround each of the antennas within the array. When configured in this way, signal attenuation, destructive interference, and surface wave generation associated with the presence of the dielectric layer over the phased antenna array may be minimized.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 11, 2018
    Date of Patent: June 15, 2021
    Assignee: Apple Inc.
    Inventors: Jennifer M. Edwards, Harish Rajagopalan, Simone Paulotto, Bilgehan Avser, Hao Xu, Rodney A. Gomez Angulo, Siwen Yong, Matthew A. Mow, Mattia Pascolini
  • Patent number: 10992057
    Abstract: An electronic device may be provided with a cover layer and a phased antenna array mounted against the cover layer. Each antenna in the array may include a first patch element that is directly fed using first and second feeds and a second patch element that is directly fed using third and fourth feeds. A slot element may be formed in the first patch element. The first patch element may radiate in a first frequency band through the cover layer. The slot element may radiate in a second frequency band that is higher than the first frequency band through the cover layer. The second patch element may indirectly feed the slot element. Locating the radiating elements for each frequency band in the same plane may allow the antenna to radiate through the cover layer in both frequency bands with satisfactory antenna efficiency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 28, 2018
    Date of Patent: April 27, 2021
    Assignee: Apple Inc.
    Inventors: Bilgehan Avser, Harish Rajagopalan, Simone Paulotto, Jennifer M. Edwards, Hao Xu, Rodney A. Gomez Angulo, Matthew A. Mow, Mattia Pascolini
  • Publication number: 20210119338
    Abstract: An electronic device may be provided with a phased antenna array and a display cover layer. The phased antenna array may include a dielectric resonator antenna. The dielectric resonator antenna may include a dielectric resonating element embedded in a lower permittivity dielectric substrate. The substrate and the resonating element may be mounted to a flexible printed circuit. A slot may be formed in ground traces on the flexible printed circuit and aligned with the resonating element. The slot may excite resonant modes of the resonating element. The resonating element may convey corresponding radio-frequency signals through the cover layer. A dielectric matching layer may be interposed between the resonating element and the cover layer. If desired, the slot may radiate additional radio-frequency signals and the matching layer may have a tapered shape. Dielectric resonator antennas for covering different polarizations and frequencies may be interleaved across the array.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 3, 2020
    Publication date: April 22, 2021
    Inventors: Bilgehan Avser, Harish Rajagopalan, Simone Paulotto, Jennifer M. Edwards, Hao Xu, Rodney A. Gomez Angulo, Matthew D. Hill, Mattia Pascolini
  • Patent number: 10978797
    Abstract: An electronic device may be provided with a dielectric cover layer and a conductive layer on the dielectric cover layer. The conductive layer may define an opening. A dielectric spacer may be mounted to the cover layer within the opening. A substrate may be mounted to the spacer. Vertical conductive structures may extend from the conductive layer to the substrate and may laterally surround the spacer. A phased antenna array may be formed on the substrate and aligned with the opening. The cover layer may have a dielectric constant and thickness that are selected to form a quarter wave impedance transformer for the array at a wavelength of operation of the array. The spacer and the conductive structures may exhibit a cavity resonance at the wavelength. The array and the conductive structures may radiate radio-frequency signals at millimeter wave frequencies through the dielectric cover layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 10, 2018
    Date of Patent: April 13, 2021
    Assignee: Apple Inc.
    Inventors: Jennifer M. Edwards, Harish Rajagopalan, Simone Paulotto, Bilgehan Avser, Hao Xu, Rodney A. Gomez Angulo, Siwen Yong, Matthew A. Mow, Mattia Pascolini
  • Patent number: 10978806
    Abstract: An electronic device may be provided an antenna, a display, and a housing. The display may include a conductive display structure and a cover layer. The housing may include peripheral conductive structures and a conductive rear wall. The peripheral structures may include a ledge separated from the conductive display structure by a gap. The peripheral structures and the rear wall may define opposing edges of a slot element for the antenna. Conductive bridging structures may be coupled between the conductive display structure and the ledge across the gap. The bridging structures may at least partially overlap locations along the length of the slot element where antenna currents around the slot element exhibit a maximum magnitude. The bridging structures may align the phase of current induced on the ledge with the phase of the current induced on the conductive display structure to maximize antenna efficiency through the cover layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 25, 2018
    Date of Patent: April 13, 2021
    Assignee: Apple Inc.
    Inventors: David Garrido Lopez, Harish Rajagopalan, Umar Azad, Rodney A. Gomez Angulo
  • Publication number: 20210098882
    Abstract: An electronic device may be provided with a phased antenna array. The array may convey signals greater than 10 GHz and may be formed on a substrate having transmission line layers and antenna layers. An antenna in the array may have a radiating element that includes first, second, and third overlapping patch elements on the antenna layers. The antenna may be fed using a differential transmission line coupled to a differential feed on the first patch element. The differential transmission line may include first and second signal traces. A first via may couple the first signal trace to the first, second, and third patch elements. A second via may couple the second signal trace to the first, second, and third patch elements. The patch elements may introduce capacitances to the radiating element that help to compensate for inductances associated with the distance between the radiating element and the signal traces.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 26, 2019
    Publication date: April 1, 2021
    Inventors: Simone Paulotto, Jennifer M. Edwards, Harish Rajagopalan, Bilgehan Avser
  • Patent number: 10965008
    Abstract: An electronic device housing may have a rear housing wall that forms a metal ground plane. A slot may be formed in the metal ground plane. The slot may have one or more open ends along an edge of the ground plane. A near-field communications loop antenna may overlap the slot. The near-field communications loop antenna may have one or more turns. A current path through the metal ground plane may form one of the turns in the near-field communications loop antenna. The slot may form portions of non-near-field-communications antennas in addition to the near-field communications loop antenna. The slot in the non-near-field-communications antennas may be fed using an indirect antenna feed structure. Components such as a capacitor and inductor may help allow non-near-field communications antenna and the near-field communications antenna to be formed from common portions of the metal ground plane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 18, 2019
    Date of Patent: March 30, 2021
    Assignee: Apple Inc.
    Inventors: Umar Azad, Harish Rajagopalan, Mattia Pascolini, Rodney A. Gomez Angulo
  • Publication number: 20210091472
    Abstract: An electronic device may be provided with a phased antenna array and a display cover layer. The phased antenna array may include a probe-fed dielectric resonator antenna. The antenna may include a dielectric resonating element mounted to a flexible printed circuit. A feed probe may be formed from a patch of conductive traces on a sidewall of the resonating element. The feed probe may excite resonant modes of the resonating element. The resonating element may convey corresponding radio-frequency signals through the display cover layer. An additional feed probe may be mounted to an orthogonal sidewall of the resonating element for covering additional polarizations. Probe-fed dielectric resonator antennas for covering different polarizations and frequencies may be interleaved across the phased antenna array.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 4, 2020
    Publication date: March 25, 2021
    Inventors: Bilgehan Avser, Harish Rajagopalan, Simone Paulotto, Jennifer M. Edwards, Mattia Pascolini
  • Patent number: 10957985
    Abstract: An electronic device may be provided with a phased antenna array controlled by phase and magnitude controllers within an integrated circuit. The array may be formed on antenna layers and the integrated circuit may be mounted to transmission line layers of a dielectric substrate. A ground plane may separate the transmission line layers from the antenna layers. A connector may be mounted to the surface of the transmission line layers and may be coupled to the integrated circuit using conductive traces. A passive resonator may be formed in the antenna layers and may include conductive structures that resonate at one-quarter of the effective wavelength of operation of the array to form an open circuit impedance for surface currents generated on the ground plane by the array. This may serve to block the surface currents from scattering at an edge of the ground plane and leaking onto the integrated circuit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 28, 2018
    Date of Patent: March 23, 2021
    Assignee: Apple Inc.
    Inventors: Simone Paulotto, Qishan Yu, Harish Rajagopalan, Berke Cetinoneri
  • Publication number: 20210075088
    Abstract: An electronic device may be provided with an antenna module and a phased antenna array on the module. The module may include a logic board, an antenna board surface-mounted to the logic board, and a radio-frequency integrated circuit (RFIC) mounted surface-mounted to the logic board. The phased antenna array may include antennas embedded in the antenna board. The antennas may radiate at centimeter and/or millimeter wave frequencies. The logic board may form a radio-frequency interface between the RFIC and the antennas. Transmission lines in the logic board and the antenna board may include impedance matching segments that help to match the impedance of the RFIC to the impedance of the antennas. The module may efficiently utilize space within the device without sacrificing radio-frequency performance.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 11, 2020
    Publication date: March 11, 2021
    Inventors: Jennifer M. Edwards, Siwen Yong, Jiangfeng Wu, Harish Rajagopalan, Bilgehan Avser, Simone Paulotto, Mattia Pascolini
  • Patent number: 10916832
    Abstract: An electronic device may include first, second, and third antennas and conductive housing structures. The first, second, and third antennas may each include slots having open ends defined by gaps in the conductive housing structures. The second antenna may be interposed between the first and third antennas. The first and second antennas may convey signals at the same frequencies. The third antenna may convey signals at a lower frequency than the first and second antennas. A switch may be coupled across the third slot and may have a first state at which the switch forms a closed end of the third slot and a second state at which the third slot has two opposing open ends. Control circuitry may selectively activate one of two feeds for the third antenna and may adjust the switch so that the third antenna exhibits satisfactory antenna efficiency regardless of environmental conditions for the device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 20, 2018
    Date of Patent: February 9, 2021
    Assignee: Apple Inc.
    Inventors: Umar Azad, Harish Rajagopalan, David Garrido Lopez, Rodney A. Gomez Angulo, Mattia Pascolini
  • Patent number: 10886617
    Abstract: An electronic device may be provided with a phased antenna array and a display cover layer. The phased antenna array may include a probe-fed dielectric resonator antenna. The antenna may include a dielectric resonating element mounted to a flexible printed circuit. A feed probe may be formed from a patch of conductive traces on a sidewall of the resonating element. The feed probe may excite resonant modes of the resonating element. The resonating element may convey corresponding radio-frequency signals through the display cover layer. An additional feed probe may be mounted to an orthogonal sidewall of the resonating element for covering additional polarizations. Probe-fed dielectric resonator antennas for covering different polarizations and frequencies may be interleaved across the phased antenna array.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 28, 2019
    Date of Patent: January 5, 2021
    Assignee: Apple Inc.
    Inventors: Bilgehan Avser, Harish Rajagopalan, Simone Paulotto, Jennifer M. Edwards, Mattia Pascolini
  • Patent number: 10886619
    Abstract: An electronic device may be provided with a phased antenna array and a display cover layer. The phased antenna array may include a dielectric resonator antenna. The dielectric resonator antenna may include a dielectric resonating element embedded in a lower permittivity dielectric substrate. The substrate and the resonating element may be mounted to a flexible printed circuit. A slot may be formed in ground traces on the flexible printed circuit and aligned with the resonating element. The slot may excite resonant modes of the resonating element. The resonating element may convey corresponding radio-frequency signals through the cover layer. A dielectric matching layer may be interposed between the resonating element and the cover layer. If desired, the slot may radiate additional radio-frequency signals and the matching layer may have a tapered shape. Dielectric resonator antennas for covering different polarizations and frequencies may be interleaved across the array.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 28, 2019
    Date of Patent: January 5, 2021
    Assignee: Apple Inc.
    Inventors: Bilgehan Avser, Harish Rajagopalan, Simone Paulotto, Jennifer M. Edwards, Hao Xu, Rodney A. Gomez Angulo, Matthew D. Hill, Mattia Pascolini