Patents by Inventor James K. Howard

James K. Howard has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

  • Patent number: 4471405
    Abstract: A thin film capacitor having a dual bottom electrode is provided. The bottom electrode includes a first layer of metal and a second layer of platinum, the metal of the first layer having the characteristic of forming a stable intermetallic phase with platinum during heat treatment. The first layer metal may be selected from the group consisting of Hf, Zr and Ta. The thin film capacitor may be employed as a decoupling capacitor in VLSI devices.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 3, 1983
    Date of Patent: September 11, 1984
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: James K. Howard, Kris V. Srikrishnan
  • Patent number: 4437139
    Abstract: A thin film capacitor having a high dielectric constant and low leakage current includes a dual dielectric structure. The dual dielectric comprises a leakage current blocking first dielectric layer and a high dielectric constant second dielectric layer. The high dielectric constant second dielectric layer is formed by laser annealing a ferroelectric forming titanate or zirconate into a ferroelectric. A leakage current blocking first dielectric layer may also serve as an antireflective coating for the titanate or zirconate layer so that better coupling of the laser energy to the titanate or zirconate layer is obtained.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 1982
    Date of Patent: March 13, 1984
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventor: James K. Howard
  • Patent number: 4423087
    Abstract: A thin film capacitor having a dual bottom electrode is provided. The bottom electrode comprises a first layer of metal and a second layer of platinum, said metal of the first layer being of the nature of forming a stable intermetallic phase with the platinum during heat treatment. The metal of the first layer is typically selected from the group consisting of Hf, Zr, and Ta. The thin film capacitor is suitable for the decoupling capacitor of VLSI.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 28, 1981
    Date of Patent: December 27, 1983
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: James K. Howard, Kris V. Srikrishnan
  • Patent number: 4408254
    Abstract: A capacitor is formed by placing between two electodes a thin film of amorphous titanate which has been ion implanted with noble gas ions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 18, 1981
    Date of Patent: October 4, 1983
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Wei-Kan Chu, James K. Howard
  • Patent number: 4333808
    Abstract: A suitable substrate is provided to which is applied a metal electrically conductive film electrode. The substrate and electrically conductive electrode film are then exposed to ion beam implantation of O+ or N+ ions to impregnate the surface of the metal electrode with O+ or N+ ions. Thereafter, the substrate and electrically conductive film having implanted O+ or N+ ions is annealed so as to stabilize the oxide structure which has been implanted into the surface of the electrically conductive film to provide an ultra-thin dielectric film.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 13, 1981
    Date of Patent: June 8, 1982
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Arup Bhattacharyya, Wei-Kan Chu, James K. Howard, Francis W. Wiedman
  • Patent number: 4319264
    Abstract: A laminated conductor includes a lower thin film of nickel deposited upon a substrate containing silicon. Upon the film of nickel, a thicker film of gold is deposited as the conductive portion of the conductor. On the upper surface of the gold layer is deposited a thin film of nickel. Failure of the conductor because of electromigration is reduced dramatically as compared with use of molybdenum instead of nickel in the laminated structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 1979
    Date of Patent: March 9, 1982
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Amitava Gangulee, Paul S. Ho, James K. Howard, Robert J. Miller
  • Patent number: 4310568
    Abstract: An aluminum-transition metal Schottky barrier contact, and methods of fabrication thereof are disclosed. In one preferred embodiment, the junction is comprised of an aluminum-tantalum intermetallic layer abutting a silicon substrate. Alternate embodiments utilize an intermetallic compound of a metal selected from the group of tantalum, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, titanium and nickel in combination with aluminum. The preferred embodiments can be fabricated by evaporation of a layer of a metal selected from the above mentioned group followed by evaporation of a layer of aluminum on a silicon substrate, after which an annealing step is utilized which creates the desired intermetallic compound in a layer abutting the silicon surface. Alternatively, the junction can be created by hot or cold sputtering of a preselected intermetallic compound of one of the metals with aluminum directly upon the silicon substrate, followed by deposition of a conductive layer such as aluminum.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 15, 1978
    Date of Patent: January 12, 1982
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: James K. Howard, William D. Rosenberg, James F. White
  • Patent number: 4307132
    Abstract: Thin film structures comprising a layer of aluminum and a material having a tendency to interact with aluminum are separated by an intermediate layer of aluminum having a high aluminum oxide content. The intermediate layer prevents said interaction by acting as a diffusion barrier.Preferred embodiments are directed to silicon semiconductor metallization structures, including Schottky barrier contacts, which comprise a bottom layer of tantalum, or other transition metal, or a metal silicide in contact with a silicon substrate, an intermediate layer of aluminum having a high aluminum oxide content and a top layer of aluminum. The intermediate layer functions as a diffusion barrier between aluminum and the metal, metal silicide or silicon.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 7, 1979
    Date of Patent: December 22, 1981
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corp.
    Inventors: Wei-Kan Chu, James K. Howard, James F. White
  • Patent number: 4300149
    Abstract: In a conductor pattern for integrated circuits, the use of barrier layers of TiW and selected transition metals between gold and a silicon substrate, with the transition metal containing a supplemental barrier region or stratum of an intermetallic formed between it and the gold. Also comprehended is the use of a platinum silicide layer between the TiW layer and silicon for Schottky Barrier Diodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 4, 1979
    Date of Patent: November 10, 1981
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: James K. Howard, James F. White
  • Patent number: 4206472
    Abstract: Thin film structures comprising a layer of aluminum and a material having a tendency to interact with aluminum are separated by an intermediate layer of aluminum having a high aluminum oxide content. The intermediate layer prevents said interaction by acting as a diffusion barrier.Preferred embodiments are directed to silicon semiconductor metallization structures, including Schottky barrier contacts, which comprise a bottom layer of tantalum, or other transition metal, or a metal silicide in contact with a silicon substrate, an intermediate layer of aluminum having a high aluminum oxide content and a top layer of aluminum. The intermediate layer functions as a diffusion barrier between aluminum and the metal, metal silicide or silicon.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 27, 1977
    Date of Patent: June 3, 1980
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Wei-Kan Chu, James K. Howard, James F. White
  • Patent number: 4201999
    Abstract: A low barrier Schottky Barrier Diode (SBD) utilizing a metallurgical diffusion barrier between a transition metal barrier contact and an aluminum base land pattern to prevent interaction therebetween. The diffusion barrier comprises a discretely formed layer of an intermetallic of the transition metal and aluminum.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 22, 1978
    Date of Patent: May 6, 1980
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: James K. Howard, Frank E. Turene, James F. White
  • Patent number: 4166279
    Abstract: A method and resulting structure for forming narrow intermetallic stripes which will carry high currents on bodies such as semiconductors, integrated circuits, and magnetic bubble structures, is set forth. The conductive stripe includes gold with at least one transition metal from the group niobium, zirconium and hafnium. The gold and at least one transition metal are deposited onto a supporting body. The deposited metallic material is then annealed at a temperature between about 200.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. for a time sufficient to form a gold-transition metal compound within a gold matrix. The conductive stripes are formed by masking and removing portions of the annealed metallic material to produce conductive stripes which may have a width of 6.times.10.sup.-4 inches or less. These stripes have significantly improved electromigration performance and do not have significantly increased resistance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 30, 1977
    Date of Patent: August 28, 1979
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Amitava Gangulee, Paul S. Ho, James K. Howard
  • Patent number: 4154874
    Abstract: A method for forming narrow intermetallic stripes which will carry high currents on bodies such as semiconductors, integrated circuits, magnetic bubbles structures, etc. The conductive stripe includes aluminum or aluminum copper with at least one transition metal. The aluminum and at least one transition metal are deposited onto a supporting body at a very low pressure in a substantially oxygen-free high vacuum. The composite is then annealed at a temperature between about 200.degree. C. and 525.degree. C. for a time sufficient to form an aluminum and transition metal compound within the aluminum. The conductive stripes are then formed by masking and removing portions of the annealed metallic material. The resulting conductive stripes, which may be of a width of about 6.times.10.sup.-4 inches or less, have a significantly improved electromigration performance without significantly increasing resistance in the conductive stripe.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 4, 1977
    Date of Patent: May 15, 1979
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: James K. Howard, Paul S. Ho
  • Patent number: 4141020
    Abstract: An aluminum-transition metal Schottky barrier contact, and methods of fabrication thereof are disclosed. In one preferred embodiment, the junction is comprised of an aluminum-tantalum intermetallic layer abutting a silicon substrate. Alternate embodiments utilize an intermetallic compound of a metal selected from the group of tantalum, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, titanium and nickel in combination with aluminum. The preferred embodiments can be fabricated by evaporation of a layer of a metal selected from the above mentioned group followed by evaporation of a layer of aluminum on a silicon substrate, after which an annealing step is utilized which creates the desired intermetallic compound in a layer abutting the silicon surface. Alternatively, the junction can be created by hot or cold sputtering of a preselected intermetallic compound of one of the metals with aluminum directly upon the silicon substrate, followed by deposition of a conductive layer such as aluminum.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 29, 1976
    Date of Patent: February 20, 1979
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: James K. Howard, William D. Rosenberg, James F. White