Patents by Inventor Norman W. Schaad

Norman W. Schaad has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

  • Patent number: 7262010
    Abstract: Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal agent of bacterial brown rot of potato, is often carried latently in seed potato tubers. Primers and a probe were designed for a real-time BIO-PCR assay technique for detecting potato tubers latently infected with R. Solanacearum. Using naturally infected potato tubers, as few as 20 cells/ml extract could be detected. Two of 14 naturally infected potato tubers with no disease symptoms were positive by the newly described real-time BIO-PCR (pre-enrichment on agar or in liquid medium) assay but not by direct real-time PCR.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 30, 2002
    Date of Patent: August 28, 2007
    Assignee: The United States of America, as represented by the Secretary of Agriculture
    Inventors: Norman W. Schaad, Phillip E. Gaush, Meric Ozakman
  • Publication number: 20040086865
    Abstract: Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal agent of bacterial brown rot of potato, is often carried latently in seed potato tubers. Primers and a probe were designed for a real-time BIO-PCR assay technique for detecting potato tubers latently infected with R. Solanacearum. Using naturally infected potato tubers, as few as 20 cells/ml extract could be detected. Two of 14 naturally infected potato tubers with no disease symptoms were positive by the newly described real-time BIO-PCR (pre-enrichment on agar or in liquid medium) assay but not by direct real-time PCR.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 30, 2002
    Publication date: May 6, 2004
    Inventors: Norman W. Schaad, Phillip E. Gaush, Meric Ozakman
  • Patent number: 6423499
    Abstract: We sequenced a 619 and 617 bp fragment of the inner spacer region of 16S-23S rDNA of a strain of Acidovorax avenae representing pathogens from several hosts, including foxtail, oats, corn, rice, millet, sugarcane, orchid, and watermelon and a strain of A. avenae subsp. citrulli pathogenic only to watermelon and melons, respectively, for the purpose of designing PCR primers for their identification. These plant pathogens were previously considered as non-fluorescent pseudomonads and have been recently reclassified as Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, A. avenae subsp. cattleyae, and A. avenae subsp. citrulli. Several sets of primers were designed. Primers identified by SEQ ID NO:1 and SEQ ID NO:2 of A. avenae subsp. avenae reacted with all strains of A. avenae subsp. avenae (previously named P. avenae or P. alboprecipitans) originating from foxtail, oats, corn, rice, sugarcane, and millet, A. avenae subsp. cattleyae (previously named P. pseudoalcaligenes subsp. cattleyae) from orchid, and A. avenae subsp.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 2, 2000
    Date of Patent: July 23, 2002
    Assignee: The United States of America, as represented by the Secretary of Agriculture
    Inventors: Wan-Yeob Song, Hyung-Moo Kim, Norman W. Schaad
  • Patent number: 6410223
    Abstract: A novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique which can specifically detect viable cells of a target cell or microorganism has been developed. The method combines a biological preamplification on growth medium with direct PCR and eliminates DNA extraction steps required for conventional PCR methods.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 4, 1994
    Date of Patent: June 25, 2002
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of Agriculture
    Inventors: Norman W. Schaad, Nikolas J. Panopoulos, Efstathios Hatziloukas
  • Patent number: 6316195
    Abstract: Karnal bunt of wheat is caused by Tilletia indica Mitra. Recently, teliospores morphologically resembling T. indica were isolated from bunted ryegrass seeds and wheat seed washes. Previously developed PCR assays failed to differentiate T. indica from the newly discovered ryegrass pathogen, T. walkeri. The nucleotide sequence of a 2.3-kb region of mitochondrial DNA, previously amplified by PCR only from T. indica, was determined for three isolates of T. indica and for three isolates of T. walkeri. There was greater than 99% identity within either the T. indica group or the T. walkeri group of isolates, whereas there was approximately 3% divergence between isolates of these two Tilletia species. Five sets of PCR primers were made specific to T. indica, and three sets were designed specifically for T. walkeri based upon nucleotide differences within the mtDNA region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 1999
    Date of Patent: November 13, 2001
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of Agriculture
    Inventors: Reid D. Frederick, Paul W. Tooley, Morris R. Bonde, David A. Knorr, Gary L. Peterson, Norman W. Schaad
  • Patent number: 6146834
    Abstract: We sequenced a 625 and 617 bp fragment of the inner spacer region of 16S-23S rDNA of a strain of Acidovorax avenae representing pathogens from several hosts, including foxtail, oats, corn, rice, millet, sugarcane, orchid, and watermelon and a strain of A. avenae subsp. citrulli pathogenic only to watermelon, respectively, for the purpose of designing PCR primers for their identification. These plant pathogens were previously considered as non-fluorescent pseudomonads and have been recently reclassified as Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, A. avenae subsp. cattleyae, and A. avenae subsp. citrulli. Several sets of primers were designed. Primers identified by SEQ ID NO:1 and SEQ ID NO:2 of subsp. avenae reacted with all strains of A. avenae subsp. avenae (previously named P. avenae or P. alboprecipitans) originating from foxtail, oats, corn, rice, sugarcane, and millet, A. avenae subsp. cattleyae from orchid, and A. avenae subsp. citrulli (previously named P. pseudoalcaligenes subsp. citrulli) from watermelon.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 1999
    Date of Patent: November 14, 2000
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of Agriculture
    Inventors: Norman W. Schaad, Wan-Yeob Song, Efstathios Hatziloukas
  • Patent number: 5811240
    Abstract: Mitochondrial DNA of five isolates of Tilletia indica was isolated and digested with several restriction enzymes. A 2.3 kb- EcoRI fragment was chosen, cloned, and shown to hybridize with total DNA restricted with EcoRI from T. indica and not from a morphologically similar smut fungus, T. barclayana. The clone was partially sequenced, primers were designed and tested under high-stringency conditions in PCR assays. The primer pair Ti1/Ti4 amplified a 2.3 kb fragment from total DNA of 17 T. indica isolates from India, Pakistan and Mexico. DNA from 25 isolates of other smut fungi (T. barclayana, T. foetida, T. caries, T. fusca and T. controversa) did not produce any bands as detected by ethidium bromide-stained agarose gels and Southern hybridizations. Sensitivity of the assay was determined and increased by using a single nested primer in a second round of amplification, so that 1 pg of total mycelial DNA could be detected.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 24, 1996
    Date of Patent: September 22, 1998
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of Agriculture
    Inventors: Marisa A. S. V. Ferreira, Paul W. Tooley, Efstathios Hatziloukas, Norman W. Schaad, Morris R. Bonde
  • Patent number: 5776686
    Abstract: The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify Tilletia indica, the causal agent of Karnal bunt of wheat. The method uses two sets of oligonucleotide primers developed by sequence analysis of cloned Dra I fragments of mitochondrial DNA of T. indica. The primer pair TI17M1 (5'-TCCCCTTGGATCAGAACGTA-3') and TI17M2 (5'-AGAAGTCTAACTCCCCCCTCT-3'), derived from clone pTI-MD17, amplified a single 825-bp product from all isolates of T. indica and no products for other Tilletia species. In addition, the primer pair TI57M1 (5'-TTTTCCCTCTCTC-CTTTTTTCA-3') and TI57M2 (5'-AGCAAAGACAAAGTAGGCTTCC-3'), derived from clone pTI-MD57, produced a product of 118 bp which was unique to T. indica.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 24, 1996
    Date of Patent: July 7, 1998
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of Agriculture
    Inventors: Oney P. Smith, Gary L. Peterson, Raymond J. Beck, Morris R. Bonde, Norman W. Schaad