Patents by Inventor Richard B. Ertel

Richard B. Ertel has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

  • Patent number: 7760697
    Abstract: A first node seeking entry into a secure spread spectrum communications network sends a discovery burst at a low rate, and sends traffic bursts at a higher rate to exchange data rate for range. A receiving node receives discovery bursts via an omni-directional link and transmits and receives traffic bursts via directional links. As a node within the network detects a fading signal, it transmits a discovery burst at low rate on both its uplink and downlink channels. Other nodes may reply via the original uplink channel, and the fading node updates a list of candidate nodes through which it can relay through the network to its intended recipient by reversing the link direction of its original uplink and original downlink channels.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 24, 2005
    Date of Patent: July 20, 2010
    Assignee: L-3 Communications Corporation
    Inventors: Thomas R. Giallorenzi, Johnny M. Harris, Dan M. Griffin, Richard B. Ertel, Eric K. Hall
  • Patent number: 7701996
    Abstract: The present invention concerns methods and apparatus for use in a spread spectrum communications system. In particular, in a method of the present invention information useful for acquiring a target signal is selected; the information is incorporated in an acquisition signal; the acquisition signal is transmitted; the target signal is spread with a spreading code; and the target signal is transmitted. At a receiving node, the acquisition information useful for acquiring the target signal is recovered from the acquisition signal and used to acquire the target signal. Apparatus in accordance with the present invention implement methods of the present invention. The methods and apparatus of the present invention can be used in node- and network-discovery situations.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 25, 2005
    Date of Patent: April 20, 2010
    Assignee: L-3 Communications Corporation
    Inventors: Thomas R. Giallorenzi, Johnny M. Harris, Dan M. Griffen, Richard B. Ertel, Eric K. Hall
  • Patent number: 7609749
    Abstract: A method for constructing and selecting non-recursive orthogonal variable spreading factor (OVSF) codes is provided. The method includes: defining a variable B=SFmax/SFmin, where SFmax is a maximum desired spreading factor and SFmin is a minimum desired spreading factor; forming B unique base matrices Gk of dimension SFmin×SFmin, where GiGiT=SFminImin ?i, where T denotes a matrix transpose and Imin is an SFmin×SFmin identity matrix; forming a modulation matrix M of dimension B×B such that MMT=BIB, where IB is a B×B identity matrix; forming an SFmax×SFmax orthogonal variable spread factor (OVSF) code matrix C? as: C ? = [ M 1 , 1 · G 1 M 1 , 2 · G 2 … M 1 , B · G B M 2 , 1 · G 1 M 2 , 2 · G 2 … M 2 , B · G B ? ? ? ? M B , 1 · G 1 M B , 2 · G 2 … M B , B · G B ] , where Mi,j is a scalar from the i-th row and j-th column of the modulation matrix M, Gl . . .
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 31, 2008
    Date of Patent: October 27, 2009
    Assignee: L-3 Communications Corporation
    Inventors: Eric K. Hall, Thomas R. Giallorenzi, Richard B. Ertel
  • Patent number: 7609751
    Abstract: A first node initiating communications with a second node already in a secure network sends a discovery burst having a preamble portion and a payload portion. The preamble portion is sent at a varying frequency between high and low thresholds that are reflective of Doppler uncertainty between the nodes. The second node continuously listens at a frequency, termed an acquisition frequency. A data sequence in the preamble portion, known to the second node, is received and used to determine the receive instant in the preamble portion, and thereby compare against the known frequency ramp to determine the frequency at which the payload portion will be received. Preferably, the first node varies the preamble portion between thresholds more than once within the time span of a single preamble portion, and the preamble and payload portions are spread with different spreading codes. The preamble portion may also be disguised with noise generated by the first node.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 24, 2005
    Date of Patent: October 27, 2009
    Assignee: L-3 Communications Corporation
    Inventors: Thomas R. Giallorenzi, Johnny M. Harris, Eric K. Hall, Richard B. Ertel, Dan M. Griffin
  • Patent number: 7606292
    Abstract: A parallel correlator and method includes temporarily storing in a series of P sequence registers, each of length R1, serial bit-sequences of a code of length N=P*R1. In a first-level of processing, certain unique bit sequences are inverted to reduce the number of unique bit sequences by half. Identical bit-sequences are then combined and temporarily stored in a first-level sub-accumulation register. Alternatively, bit sequences differing by only one bit may be combined in a common first-level sub-accumulation register. Further levels of similar processing may be imposed, where each subsequent level taps and inverts only a portion of the bits in the above level of processing, thereby reducing the number of unique bit sequences. Finally, all negative energy is combined in one register position, inverted, and added to all positive energy in the other register positions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 24, 2005
    Date of Patent: October 20, 2009
    Assignee: L-3 Communications Corporation
    Inventors: Johnny M. Harris, Thomas R. Giallorenzi, Dan M. Griffin, Eric K. Hall, Richard B. Ertel
  • Patent number: 7545878
    Abstract: A system for the efficient use of CORDIC rotators is provided. The system includes at least one first rotator operating in vector mode and includes a sign storage buffer. The system also includes at least one bit inverter coupled between the first rotator and a second rotator, the second rotator operating in rotation mode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 26, 2003
    Date of Patent: June 9, 2009
    Assignee: L-3 Communications Corporation
    Inventors: Eric K. Hall, Richard B. Ertel, Dan M. Griffin, Thomas R. Giallorenzi
  • Patent number: 7526010
    Abstract: A composite code is made for example by exclusive-OR'ing each real element of a first constituent code A with each element of a second constituent code B to obtain a basic composite code. To suppress autocorrelation, differing numbers of doping code elements are inserted between code segments made from combining each element of code A with an element of code B. A matched filter first stage removes from its input the A code and any doping code added to it, summing the elements of code A. A matched filter second stage removes from its input the B code and any doping code added at the second level. The summed elements of code B are the input to the first stage. Optionally, the summed elements of the doping code at any level may be delayed and summed with the elements of the A code in the first stage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 10, 2004
    Date of Patent: April 28, 2009
    Assignee: L-3 Communications Corporation
    Inventors: Johnny M. Harris, Samuel C. Kingston, Thomas R. Giallorenzi, Dan M. Griffin, David W. Thorson, Richard B. Ertel
  • Patent number: 7522653
    Abstract: A method is disclosed for PN correlation and symbol synchronization of a spread spectrum signal at a receiver when a symbol boundary of the spread spectrum signal is not on a PN epoch or is otherwise unknown. The method includes the operation of modulating the spread spectrum signal with a PN code to form a potentially despread signal. The potentially despread signal can be integrated for a plurality of symbol times at a rate of N integrations per symbol time to form N symbol energies per symbol for a plurality of symbols. Each of the N symbol energies can correspond to a different symbol time hypothesis. The N symbol energies from the plurality of symbols can be added respectively to form N summed symbol time hypotheses. The Nth summed symbol time hypothesis having maximum power can be found. The Nth summed symbol time hypothesis can relate to a location of the symbol boundary.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 27, 2005
    Date of Patent: April 21, 2009
    Assignee: L-3 Communications, Corp.
    Inventors: Dan M. Griffin, Richard B. Ertel, Johnny M. Harris, Kenneth C. Bark, Zachary C. Bagley
  • Patent number: 7436878
    Abstract: A matched filter decorrelator is described for efficiently performing a carrier frequency search while despreading a P/N long code constructed from two or more constituent codes such as codes A, B, C. The received signal is phase rotated into a frequency bin and partially despread, preferably over all but one of the constituent codes. To despread the final constituent code, the partially despread signal is input in parallel into frequency bins, where a phase rotator sets each input to a different bin. The frequency bins are then despread in parallel over the final constituent code, and an energy peak in one accumulator indicates which bin is the carrier frequency. Alternatively, a Fourier transform could be used over each of the frequency bins. By partially despreading prior to division into carrier frequency bins, hardware and computational burden are reduced as compared to prior art decorrelators. The present invention is particularly apt for use with an acquisition burst in a secure network.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 24, 2005
    Date of Patent: October 14, 2008
    Assignee: L-3 Communications Corporation
    Inventors: Johnny M. Harris, Samuel C. Kingston, Thomas R. Giallorenzi, Eric K. Hall, Richard B. Ertel
  • Patent number: 7369606
    Abstract: A method is presented for estimating a phase error for first (rI) and second (rQ) orthogonal signal components spread respectively by different first cI and second cQ spreading codes. A cross-despread value IdQ and/or QdI is determined by despreading one signal component with the spreading codes associated with the other signal component (rI with cQ or rQ with cI). In parallel, the same signal component is also despread with its associated spreading code to determine an estimated data symbol for that component. An interference of Q into I or I into Q is calculated and multiplied by the estimated data symbol, and subtracted from the cross-despread value to achieve an estimate of phase error. Preferably, both cross-despread values are obtained, normalized to a common data rate, scaled to maximize signal to noise ratio, and combined into one phase error estimate. A phase error detector includes despreaders, multipliers, and adders to determine the cross-despread value and subtract the interference from it.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 19, 2004
    Date of Patent: May 6, 2008
    Assignee: L-3 Communications Corporation
    Inventors: Richard B. Ertel, Dan M. Griffin, Johnny M. Harris, Eric K. Hall, Thomas R. Giallorenzi
  • Patent number: 7359639
    Abstract: A free space laser communication system uses subcarrier multiplexing to prepare multiple data communication channels for impressing onto a laser carrier. Sending and receiving terminals mutually track to insure acquisition of the transmitted data signals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 4, 2004
    Date of Patent: April 15, 2008
    Assignee: L-3 Communications Corporation
    Inventors: Theodore J. Wolcott, Johnny M. Harris, Richard B. Ertel
  • Patent number: 7313196
    Abstract: A system for baseband amplitude limiting is provided. The system includes a CORDIC vector mode rotator device having an angle accumulator in addition to a gain device and limiter. The system also includes a second CORDIC rotator operating in rotation mode, and is coupled to the limiter.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 26, 2003
    Date of Patent: December 25, 2007
    Assignee: L-3 Communications Corporation
    Inventors: Eric K. Hall, Richard B. Ertel, Dan M. Griffin, Tom R. Giallorenzi
  • Patent number: 7301985
    Abstract: A PN code hopping method for mitigating cross-correlation interference is provided. The method includes the steps of providing a memory device and storing a plurality of PN codes, where each PN code is associated with a useful life cycle. The PN codes are pseudo-randomly accessed and used to spread a modulated signal for their respective useful life cycle before another PN code is pseudo-randomly retrieved.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 2003
    Date of Patent: November 27, 2007
    Assignee: L-3 Communications Corporation
    Inventors: Eric K. Hall, Thomas R. Giallorenzi, Richard B. Ertel
  • Patent number: 7190683
    Abstract: A communications system employs the use of both synchronous CDMA and FDMA to provide a variable bandwidth waveform with multiple bonded transmitters and receivers that are agile in both frequency and PN code to permit a variable bandwidth and variable rate multiple access system. In a first aspect the teachings provide the use of both CDMA and FDMA together to enable an improved concentration efficiency by making a larger pool of bandwidth available to each user. In a second aspect these teachings enable channel bonding across both code space and frequency space, thus making the system capable of operating within a variable (not necessarily contiguous) bandwidth and at a finely variable rate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 9, 2001
    Date of Patent: March 13, 2007
    Assignee: L-3 Communications Corporation
    Inventors: Thomas R. Giallorenzi, Eric K. Hall, Richard B. Ertel, Philip L. Stephenson, Dan M. Griffin, Lee A. Butterfield
  • Patent number: 7103026
    Abstract: A method is disclosed for obtaining a spreading code set for a code division multiple access (CDMA) communications system. The method includes (a) generating a P?×P? spreading code set where P?=P/N, where P is the spreading gain in chips/symbol and where N is an integer multiple of 2; and (b) replicating chips in each spreading code by N to produce a P?×P spreading code set. The step of generating may include randomizing the spreading code set by performing at least one or row or column permutation. The P?×P spreading code set is subsequently loaded into system hardware for operating the system hardware with a bandwidth that is less than the bandwidth that would be required to operate with the P?×P? Hadamard spreading code set. The CDMA system may be a synchronous, direct sequence code division multiple access communications system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 24, 2001
    Date of Patent: September 5, 2006
    Assignee: L-3 Communications Corporation
    Inventors: Eric K. Hall, Richard B. Ertel, Thomas R. Giallorenzi
  • Patent number: 7099372
    Abstract: Disclosed is a method for operating a code division multiple access communications system, and a system that operates in accordance with the method. The method operates within a coverage area of a base station by assigning a set of spreading codes to individual ones of a plurality of subscriber stations and then, during transmissions within the cell, by periodically hopping amongst spreading code within the set of spreading codes such that at any given time no two subscriber stations operate with the same spreading code. The set of spreading codes may include the all one's spreading code. The step of periodically hopping preferably changes from a currently used spreading code to a next spreading code at a symbol rate or at a multiple of the symbol rate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 24, 2001
    Date of Patent: August 29, 2006
    Assignee: L-3 Communications Corporation
    Inventors: Leon L. Nieczyporowicz, Richard B. Ertel, Thomas R. Giallorenzi, Eric K. Hall
  • Patent number: 7054286
    Abstract: This invention provides a highly flexible multiplexing scheme for Direct Sequence CDMA systems enabling the CDMA system to flexibly allocate CDMA channel resources between packet-switched broadcast channels and fast-circuit-switched dedicated channels in order to optimize system throughput. A method and system are provided for operating a communication system. The method has steps of: flexibly allocating CDMA channel resources between packet-switched broadcast channels and fast-circuit-switched dedicated channels in order to optimize system throughput, and employing a side channel as required to send all or a part of a total amount of data, depending on the total amount of the data. A bandwidth allocation scheme allocates a set of CDMA channels for burst packet-switched channels, and data is time division multiplexed over the set of burst CDMA channels providing a wide bandwidth data pipe for packet-switched data.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 9, 2001
    Date of Patent: May 30, 2006
    Assignee: L-3 Communications Corporation
    Inventors: Richard B. Ertel, Eric K. Hall, Thomas R. Giallorenzi, Philip L. Stephenson, Johnny M. Harris, Edward P. Newren
  • Patent number: 7054292
    Abstract: A method is disclosed for operating a synchronous space division multiple access, code division multiple access communications system. The method includes steps of, within a coverage area of a base station (BS), (a) assigning the same spreading code to a plurality of subscriber stations (SSs); and (b) beamforming using an antenna array at the BS so as to maximize the signal to interference plus noise ratio for a signal transmitted from a desired SS, The beamforming operates to steer a null towards another same-code SS to minimize interference from the same-code SS. Assuming that the antenna array has M-elements (M>1), then individual ones of P orthogonal spreading codes can be reused ?M times within the coverage area, where 1/M<??1. The step of beamforming includes an initial step of despreading the signal received from the desired SS, followed by a step of spatial filtering.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 12, 2001
    Date of Patent: May 30, 2006
    Assignee: L-3 Communications Corporation
    Inventors: Eric K. Hall, Thomas R. Giallorenzi, Richard B. Ertel, Christian Schlegel, Zachary Bagley
  • Patent number: 7050480
    Abstract: A method is disclosed for operating a synchronous space division multiple access, code division multiple access communications system. The method operates, within a coverage area of a base station (BS) or radio base unit (RBU) having a multi-element antenna array, for estimating a SSV for individual ones of a plurality of active subscriber stations (SSs) and assigns a spreading code to a subscriber station (SS) that minimizes the similarity of the determined SSVs of the SSs in a spreading code set. A metric used to measure the similarity of the spatial signature vectors of the SSs comprises the squared sum of the inner products of same code SSs' SSV with a current SS's SSV. The step of assigning includes calculating the magnitude of the squared inner product of the SSVs of all pairs of active SSs; using the calculated values for determining ?n(c) for each spreading code that is not already used some specified maximum number of times; and assigning to a SS the spreading code with a minimum ?n(c).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 24, 2001
    Date of Patent: May 23, 2006
    Assignee: L3 Communications Corporation
    Inventors: Richard B. Ertel, Thomas R. Giallorenzi, Eric K. Hall
  • Patent number: 7031290
    Abstract: A method is disclosed for operating a synchronous space division multiple access, code division multiple access communications system. The method operates, within a coverage area of a base station (BS) or radio base unit (RBU) having a multi-element antenna array, to assign spreading codes to users. The method estimates a spatial signature vector (SSV) for a current subscriber station; uses the estimated SSV as a weight vector when determining the output power that is correlated with each of a plurality of spreading code sequences and assigns a spreading code to the current subscriber station that is determined to have the minimum output power. The step of determining the output power includes steering a beamformer toward the current subscriber station by setting the weight vector equal to the SSV, and also determines the average squared value of the antenna array output that has been despread using a code i.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 24, 2001
    Date of Patent: April 18, 2006
    Assignee: L3 Communications Corporation
    Inventors: Richard B. Ertel, Thomas R. Giallorenzi, Eric K. Hall