Patents by Inventor Robert L. Sandstrom

Robert L. Sandstrom has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

  • Publication number: 20200301270
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method used in a photolithographic process comprising depositing a film of Atomic layered Deposition (ALD) Al2O3 on a photomask, subjecting said film of Al2O3 on the photomask to a plasma treatment and then irradiating the deposited film of ALD Al2O3 on the coated photomask at a wavelength of 193 nm.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 21, 2019
    Publication date: September 24, 2020
    Inventors: Robert L. Sandstrom, Peter H. Bartlau, Thomas B. Faure, Supratik Guha, Edward W. Kiewra, Louis M. Kindt, Alfred Wagner
  • Patent number: 10667377
    Abstract: A target material is provided at a target location, the target material including a material that emits extreme ultraviolet light when converted to plasma, and the target material extending in a first extent along a first direction and in a second extent along a second direction; an amplified light beam is directed along a direction of propagation toward the target location; and the amplified light beam is focused in a focal plane, where the target location is outside of the focal plane and an interaction between the amplified light beam and the target material converts at least part of the target material to plasma that emits EUV light.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 28, 2015
    Date of Patent: May 26, 2020
    Assignee: ASML Netherlands B.V.
    Inventors: Robert Jay Rafac, Richard L. Sandstrom, Daniel John William Brown, Kai-Chung Hou
  • Patent number: 10431705
    Abstract: Techniques for cooling concentrating solar collector systems are provided. In one aspect, an apparatus for cooling a photovoltaic cell includes a heat exchanger having a metal plate with a bend therein that positions a first surface of the metal plate at an angle of from about 100 degrees to about 150 degrees relative to a second surface of the metal plate, and a plurality of fins attached to a side of the metal plate opposite the first surface and the second surface; a vapor chamber extending along the first surface and the second surface of the metal plate, crossing the bend; and a cladding material between the vapor chamber and the heat exchanger, wherein the cladding material is configured to thermally couple the vapor chamber to the heat exchanger. A photovoltaic system and method for operating a photovoltaic system are also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 14, 2016
    Date of Patent: October 1, 2019
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Ayman Alabduljabbar, Abdullah I. Alboiez, Yaseen G. Alharbi, Alhassan Badahdah, Hussam Khonkar, Yves C. Martin, Naim Moumen, Robert L. Sandstrom, Theodore Gerard van Kessel
  • Patent number: 9412891
    Abstract: A device for dissipating heat from a photovoltaic cell is disclosed. A first thermally conductive layer receives heat from the photovoltaic cell and reduces a density of the received heat. A second thermally conductive layer conducts heat from the first thermally conductive layer to a surrounding environment. An electrically isolating layer thermally couples the first thermally conductive layer and the second thermally conductive layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 2012
    Date of Patent: August 9, 2016
    Assignee: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
    Inventors: Michael A. Gaynes, Peter D. Kirchner, Yves C. Martin, Naim Moumen, Dhirendra M. Patel, Robert L. Sandstrom, Theodore G. van Kessel, Brent A. Wacaser, Hussam Khonkar
  • Patent number: 9406817
    Abstract: Techniques for providing high-capacity, re-workable connections in concentrated photovoltaic devices are provided. In one aspect, a lead frame package for a photovoltaic device is provided that includes a beam shield; and one or more lead frame connectors affixed to the beam shield, wherein the lead frame connectors are configured to provide connection to the photovoltaic device when the photovoltaic device is assembled to the lead frame package. A photovoltaic apparatus is also provided that includes a lead frame package assembled to a photovoltaic device. The lead frame package includes a beam shield and one or more lead frame connectors affixed to the beam shield, wherein the lead frame connectors are configured to provide connection to the photovoltaic device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 13, 2012
    Date of Patent: August 2, 2016
    Assignees: International Business Machines Corporation, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology
    Inventors: Ayman A. Alabduljabbar, Abdullah I. Alboiez, Yaseen G. Alharbi, Alhassan Badahdah, Supratik Guha, Hussam Khonkar, Yves C. Martin, Theodore Gerard van Kessel, Robert L. Sandstrom, Naim Moumen
  • Publication number: 20160197222
    Abstract: Techniques for cooling concentrating solar collector systems are provided. In one aspect, an apparatus for cooling a photovoltaic cell includes a heat exchanger having a metal plate with a bend therein that positions a first surface of the metal plate at an angle of from about 100 degrees to about 150 degrees relative to a second surface of the metal plate, and a plurality of fins attached to a side of the metal plate opposite the first surface and the second surface; a vapor chamber extending along the first surface and the second surface of the metal plate, crossing the bend; and a cladding material between the vapor chamber and the heat exchanger, wherein the cladding material is configured to thermally couple the vapor chamber to the heat exchanger. A photovoltaic system and method for operating a photovoltaic system are also provided.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 14, 2016
    Publication date: July 7, 2016
    Inventors: Ayman Alabduljabbar, Abdullah I. Alboiez, Yaseen G. Alharbi, Alhassan Badahdah, Hussam Khonkar, Yves C. Martin, Naim Moumen, Robert L. Sandstrom, Theodore Gerard van Kessel
  • Patent number: 9324896
    Abstract: A device for dissipating heat from a photovoltaic cell is disclosed. A first thermally conductive layer receives heat from the photovoltaic cell and reduces a density of the received heat. A second thermally conductive layer conducts heat from the first thermally conductive layer to a surrounding environment. An electrically isolating layer thermally couples the first thermally conductive layer and the second thermally conductive layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 20, 2013
    Date of Patent: April 26, 2016
    Assignee: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
    Inventors: Michael A. Gaynes, Peter D. Kirchner, Yves C. Martin, Naim Moumen, Dhirendra M. Patel, Robert L. Sandstrom, Theodore G. van Kessel, Brent A. Wacaser
  • Patent number: 9310138
    Abstract: Techniques for cooling concentrating solar collector systems are provided. In one aspect, an apparatus for cooling a photovoltaic cell includes a heat exchanger having a metal plate with a bend therein that positions a first surface of the metal plate at an angle of from about 100 degrees to about 150 degrees relative to a second surface of the metal plate, and a plurality of fins attached to a side of the metal plate opposite the first surface and the second surface; a vapor chamber extending along the first surface and the second surface of the metal plate, crossing the bend; and a cladding material between the vapor chamber and the heat exchanger, wherein the cladding material is configured to thermally couple the vapor chamber to the heat exchanger. A photovoltaic system and method for operating a photovoltaic system are also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 13, 2012
    Date of Patent: April 12, 2016
    Assignees: International Business Machines Corporation, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology
    Inventors: Ayman Alabduljabbar, Abdullah I. Alboiez, Yaseen G. Alharbi, Alhassan Badahdah, Hussam Khonkar, Yves C. Martin, Naim Moumen, Robert L. Sandstrom, Theodore Gerard van Kessel
  • Patent number: 9178466
    Abstract: A transportable photovoltaic system includes a plurality of photovoltaic devices, a composite frame to which the plurality of photovoltaic devices are affixed, and a base structure to which the composite frame is movably attached through at least one variable-angle mount structure. The orientation of the frame and the light concentrating elements relative to the base structure can be altered employing the at least one variable-angle mount structure. The frame and the plurality of photovoltaic devices can be assembled prior to shipping, and the base structure can be manufactured on site. The transportable photovoltaic system is not affixed to ground or other fixture, but can be picked up at any time during the operational lifetime. The transportable photovoltaic system can be rapidly deployed with little or no site preparation requirement other than generally level ground, and can be retracted to a lower exposure position to avoid storm and/or hazardous conditions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 3, 2012
    Date of Patent: November 3, 2015
    Assignee: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
    Inventors: Supratik Guha, Yves C. Martin, David B. Mitzi, Robert L. Sandstrom, Theodore G. Van Kessel
  • Patent number: 9178467
    Abstract: A transportable photovoltaic system includes a plurality of photovoltaic devices, a composite frame to which the plurality of photovoltaic devices are affixed, and a base structure to which the composite frame is movably attached through at least one variable-angle mount structure. The orientation of the frame and the light concentrating elements relative to the base structure can be altered employing the at least one variable-angle mount structure. The frame and the plurality of photovoltaic devices can be assembled prior to shipping, and the base structure can be manufactured on site. The transportable photovoltaic system is not affixed to ground or other fixture, but can be picked up at any time during the operational lifetime. The transportable photovoltaic system can be rapidly deployed with little or no site preparation requirement other than generally level ground, and can be retracted to a lower exposure position to avoid storm and/or hazardous conditions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 5, 2012
    Date of Patent: November 3, 2015
    Assignee: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
    Inventors: Supratik Guha, Yves C. Martin, David B. Mitzi, Robert L. Sandstrom, Theodore G. van Kessel
  • Patent number: 9157657
    Abstract: A method of cooling a solar concentrator includes absorbing heat from solar energy collectors into a chamber section. The chamber section is arranged below, in a heat exchange relationship, the solar energy collectors.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 31, 2012
    Date of Patent: October 13, 2015
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Supratik Guha, Yves C. Martin, Robert L. Sandstrom, Theodore G. van Kessel
  • Patent number: 9127859
    Abstract: A solar concentrator includes an optical member having a focal point. The optical member is configured and disposed to direct incident solar radiation to the focal point. A support member is positioned adjacent to the focal point of the optical member. A solar energy collector is supported upon the support member. The solar energy collector is positioned at the focal point of the optical member. A base member is positioned in a spaced relationship from the support member. The base member and the support member define a chamber section that is in a heat exchange relationship with the solar energy collector. The chamber section is configured to absorb and dissipate heat from the solar energy collectors.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 13, 2010
    Date of Patent: September 8, 2015
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Supratik Guha, Yves C. Martin, Robert L. Sandstrom, Theodore G. van Kessel
  • Patent number: 9057539
    Abstract: A method of tracking and collecting solar energy includes receiving solar energy on at least two solar energy receivers, measuring an energy output from each of the at least two solar energy receivers, comparing the energy output from one of the at least two solar energy receiver with the energy output from another of the at least two solar energy receivers, and shifting the at least two solar energy receivers until the energy output from the one of the at least two solar receivers is substantially equal to the another of the at least two solar receivers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 24, 2013
    Date of Patent: June 16, 2015
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Supratik Guha, Yves C. Martin, Robert L. Sandstrom, Theodore G. van Kessel
  • Patent number: 8987084
    Abstract: A memory cell device includes a semiconductor nanowire extending, at a first end thereof, from a substrate; the nanowire having a doping profile so as to define a field effect transistor (FET) adjacent the first end, the FET further including a gate electrode at least partially surrounding the nanowire, the doping profile further defining a p-n junction in series with the FET, the p-n junction adjacent a second end of the nanowire; and a phase change material at least partially surrounding the nanowire, at a location corresponding to the p-n junction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 15, 2012
    Date of Patent: March 24, 2015
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Bruce G. Elmegreen, Lia Krusin-Elbaum, Dennis M. Newns, Robert L. Sandstrom
  • Patent number: 8941000
    Abstract: A convective method is employed to cool a solar concentrator device. The convective method employs formation of a vortex gas circulation inside an enclosure of the solar concentrator device, which is bounded by at least one light-path altering component, sidewalls, and a back panel. Optionally, a heat sink assembly can be provided within the enclosure. Internal convention through the vortex gas circulation transfers the heat generated at a photovoltaic cell to all surfaces of the solar concentrator device to facilitate radiative and/or convective cooling at the outside surfaces of the enclosure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 3, 2012
    Date of Patent: January 27, 2015
    Assignees: International Business Machines Corporation, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Tehnology
    Inventors: Yves C. Martin, Robert L. Sandstrom, Theodore G. Van Kessel, Hussam Khonkar
  • Patent number: 8802047
    Abstract: One-dimensional materials are prepared from an array of nanoparticles positioned in one or more recesses of a substrate, wherein the recesses and the positioned nanoparticles have a comparable diameter of the same order of magnitude such that one nanoparticle is positioned within each of the one or more recesses; wherein a depth of the one or more recesses is from 10 nm to 40 nm; and wherein a diameter of the one or more recesses is adjusted by conformal film deposition and is between one and two times the mean diameter of the nanoparticles, and wherein the nanoparticles have a mean diameter of from 1 nm to 50 nm, and wherein the nanoparticles are catalytic sites for the growth of the one-dimensional materials; wherein the one dimensional materials are non-aggregated and extend in a direction that is perpendicular or approximately perpendicular to the horizontal surface of the substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 13, 2013
    Date of Patent: August 12, 2014
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Charles T. Black, Christopher B. Murray, Robert L. Sandstrom
  • Publication number: 20140166071
    Abstract: A device for dissipating heat from a photovoltaic cell is disclosed. A first thermally conductive layer receives heat from the photovoltaic cell and reduces a density of the received heat. A second thermally conductive layer conducts heat from the first thermally conductive layer to a surrounding environment. An electrically isolating layer thermally couples the first thermally conductive layer and the second thermally conductive layer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 20, 2013
    Publication date: June 19, 2014
    Applicant: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Michael A. Gaynes, Peter D. Kirchner, Yves C. Martin, Naim Moumen, Dhirendra M. Patel, Robert L. Sandstrom, Theodore G. van Kessel, Brent A. Wacaser
  • Publication number: 20140166070
    Abstract: A device for dissipating heat from a photovoltaic cell is disclosed. A first thermally conductive layer receives heat from the photovoltaic cell and reduces a density of the received heat. A second thermally conductive layer conducts heat from the first thermally conductive layer to a surrounding environment. An electrically isolating layer thermally couples the first thermally conductive layer and the second thermally conductive layer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 17, 2012
    Publication date: June 19, 2014
    Applicant: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
    Inventors: Michael A. Gaynes, Peter D. Kirchner, Yves C. Martin, Naim Moumen, Dhirendra M. Patel, Robert L. Sandstrom, Theodore G. van Kessel, Brent A. Wacaser
  • Publication number: 20140069491
    Abstract: In one aspect, an interposer assembly for housing a photovoltaic device includes a frame, formed from an electrically insulating material, having a center opening with a shape/size complementary to a shape/size of the photovoltaic device thus permitting the photovoltaic device to fit within the center opening in the frame when the photovoltaic device is housed in the assembly; a beam shield on the frame having a cup-shaped inner cavity to aid in routing of light to the photovoltaic device, wherein a side of the beam shield facing the frame has one or more recesses present therein; and one or more interposer connectors positioned between the frame and the beam shield such that the interposer connectors fit within the recesses in the beam shield, and wherein a portion of each of the interposer connectors extends into the center opening of the frame.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 13, 2012
    Publication date: March 13, 2014
    Applicants: King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, International Business for High Power Solar Concentrators
    Inventors: Ayman Alabduljabbar, Abdullah I. Alboiez, Yaseen G. Alharbi, Alhassan Badahdah, Supratik Guha, Theodore Gerard vanKessel, Hussam Khonkar, Yves C. Martin, Naim Moumen, Robert L. Sandstrom
  • Publication number: 20140069501
    Abstract: Techniques for cooling concentrating solar collector systems are provided. In one aspect, an apparatus for cooling a photovoltaic cell includes a heat exchanger having a metal plate with a bend therein that positions a first surface of the metal plate at an angle of from about 100 degrees to about 150 degrees relative to a second surface of the metal plate, and a plurality of fins attached to a side of the metal plate opposite the first surface and the second surface; a vapor chamber extending along the first surface and the second surface of the metal plate, crossing the bend; and a cladding material between the vapor chamber and the heat exchanger, wherein the cladding material is configured to thermally couple the vapor chamber to the heat exchanger. A photovoltaic system and method for operating a photovoltaic system are also provided.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 13, 2012
    Publication date: March 13, 2014
    Applicant: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Ayman Alabduljabbar, Abdullah I. Alboiez, Yaseen G. Alharbi, Alhassan Badahdah, Hussam Khonkar, Yves C. Martin, Naim Moumen, Robert L. Sandstrom, Theodore Gerard van Kessel