Patents by Inventor Roger Klas Malmhall

Roger Klas Malmhall has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

  • Publication number: 20190148622
    Abstract: A spin-torque transfer magnetic random access memory (STTMRAM) element employed to store a state based on the magnetic orientation of a free layer, the STTMRAM element is made of a first perpendicular free layer (PFL) including a first perpendicular enhancement layer (PEL). The first PFL is formed on top of a seed layer. The STTMRAM element further includes a barrier layer formed on top of the first PFL and a second perpendicular reference layer (PRL) that has a second PEL, the second PRL is formed on top of the barrier layer. The STTMRAM element further includes a capping layer that is formed on top of the second PRL.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 9, 2013
    Publication date: May 16, 2019
    Applicant: Avalanche Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Yiming Huai, Yuchen Zhou, Jing Zhang, Roger Klas Malmhall, Ioan Tudosa, Rajiv Yadav Ranjan
  • Patent number: 9478279
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to a multi-state current-switching magnetic memory element configured to store a state by current flowing therethrough to switch the state including two or more magnetic tunneling junctions (MTJs) coupled in parallel between a top electrode and a bottom electrode. Each MTJ includes a free layer with a switchable magnetic orientation perpendicular to a layer plane thereof, a fixed layer with a fixed magnetic orientation perpendicular to a layer plane thereof, and a barrier layer interposed between the free layer and the fixed layer. The magnetic memory element is operable to store more than one bit of information.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 6, 2016
    Date of Patent: October 25, 2016
    Assignee: Avalanche Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Rajiv Yadav Ranjan, Parviz Keshtbod, Roger Klas Malmhall
  • Patent number: 9444039
    Abstract: A spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STTMRAM) element includes a composite fixed layer formed on top of a substrate and a tunnel layer formed upon the fixed layer and a composite free layer formed upon the tunnel barrier layer. The magnetization direction of each of the composite free layer and fixed layer being substantially perpendicular to the plane of the substrate. The composite layers are made of multiple repeats of a bilayer unit which consists of a non-magnetic insulating layer and magnetic layer with thicknesses adjusted in a range that makes the magnetization having a preferred direction perpendicular to film plane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 13, 2015
    Date of Patent: September 13, 2016
    Assignee: Avalanche Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Yiming Huai, Jing Zhang, Rajiv Yadav Ranjan, Yuchen Zhou, Roger Klas Malmhall
  • Publication number: 20160254046
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to a multi-state current-switching magnetic memory element configured to store a state by current flowing therethrough to switch the state including two or more magnetic tunneling junctions (MTJs) coupled in parallel between a top electrode and a bottom electrode. Each MTJ includes a free layer with a switchable magnetic orientation perpendicular to a layer plane thereof, a fixed layer with a fixed magnetic orientation perpendicular to a layer plane thereof, and a barrier layer interposed between the free layer and the fixed layer. The magnetic memory element is operable to store more than one bit of information.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 6, 2016
    Publication date: September 1, 2016
    Inventors: Rajiv Yadav Ranjan, Parviz Keshtbod, Roger Klas Malmhall
  • Patent number: 9419210
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to a spin transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STTMRAM) element comprising a composite free layer including one or more stacks of a bilayer unit that comprises an insulator layer and a magnetic layer with the magnetic layer having a variable magnetization direction substantially perpendicular to a layer plane thereof; a magnetic pinned layer having a first fixed magnetization direction substantially perpendicular to a layer plane thereof; a tunnel barrier layer formed between the composite free layer and the magnetic pinned layer; and a magnetic fixed layer coupled to the magnetic pinned layer through an anti-ferromagnetic coupling layer. The magnetic fixed layer has a second fixed magnetization direction that is substantially perpendicular to a layer plane thereof and is substantially opposite to the first fixed magnetization direction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 16, 2016
    Date of Patent: August 16, 2016
    Assignee: Avalanche Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Yiming Huai, Jing Zhang, Rajiv Yadav Ranjan, Yuchen Zhou, Roger Klas Malmhall
  • Publication number: 20160197269
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to a spin transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STTMRAM) element comprising a composite free layer including one or more stacks of a bilayer unit that comprises an insulator layer and a magnetic layer with the magnetic layer having a variable magnetization direction substantially perpendicular to a layer plane thereof; a magnetic pinned layer having a first fixed magnetization direction substantially perpendicular to a layer plane thereof; a tunnel barrier layer formed between the composite free layer and the magnetic pinned layer; and a magnetic fixed layer coupled to the magnetic pinned layer through an anti-ferromagnetic coupling layer. The magnetic fixed layer has a second fixed magnetization direction that is substantially perpendicular to a layer plane thereof and is substantially opposite to the first fixed magnetization direction.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 16, 2016
    Publication date: July 7, 2016
    Inventors: Yiming Huai, Jing Zhang, Rajiv Yadav Ranjan, Yuchen Zhou, Roger Klas Malmhall
  • Patent number: 9349941
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to a multi-state current-switching magnetic memory element configured to store a state by current flowing therethrough to switch the state. The magnetic memory element includes a stack of two or more magnetic tunneling junctions (MTJs) with each MTJ including a free layer with a switchable magnetic orientation perpendicular to a layer plane thereof, a barrier layer, and a fixed layer with a fixed magnetic orientation perpendicular to a layer plane thereof. Each MTJ is separated from other MTJs in the stack by at least an isolation layer. The stack of MTJs may store more than one bit of information. The free layer of each MTJ has a switching current threshold different from free layers of other MTJs in the stack.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 17, 2015
    Date of Patent: May 24, 2016
    Assignee: Avalanche Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Rajiv Yadav Ranjan, Parviz Keshtbod, Roger Klas Malmhall
  • Patent number: 9337413
    Abstract: One embodiment of the present invention includes a multi-state current-switching magnetic memory element that includes a stack of two or more magnetic tunneling junctions (MTJs), each MTJ having a free layer and being separated from other MTJs in the stack by a seeding layer formed upon an isolation layer. The stack is for storing more than one bit of information, wherein different levels of current applied to the memory element cause switching to different states.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 29, 2015
    Date of Patent: May 10, 2016
    Assignee: Avalanche Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Rajiv Yadav Ranjan, Parviz Keshtbod, Roger Klas Malmhall
  • Patent number: 9318179
    Abstract: A spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STTMRAM) element includes a composite fixed layer formed on top of a substrate and a tunnel layer formed upon the fixed layer and a composite free layer formed upon the tunnel barrier layer. The magnetization direction of each of the composite free layer and fixed layer being substantially perpendicular to the plane of the substrate. The composite layers are made of multiple repeats of a bilayer unit which consists of a non-magnetic insulating layer and magnetic layer with thicknesses adjusted in a range that makes the magnetization having a preferred direction perpendicular to film plane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 13, 2015
    Date of Patent: April 19, 2016
    Assignee: Avalanche Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Yiming Huai, Jing Zhang, Rajiv Yadav Ranjan, Yuchen Zhou, Roger Klas Malmhall
  • Publication number: 20160079517
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to a multi-state current-switching magnetic memory element configured to store a state by current flowing therethrough to switch the state. The magnetic memory element includes a stack of two or more magnetic tunneling junctions (MTJs) with each MTJ including a free layer with a switchable magnetic orientation perpendicular to a layer plane thereof, a barrier layer, and a fixed layer with a fixed magnetic orientation perpendicular to a layer plane thereof. Each MTJ is separated from other MTJs in the stack by at least an isolation layer. The stack of MTJs may store more than one bit of information. The free layer of each MTJ has a switching current threshold different from free layers of other MTJs in the stack.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 17, 2015
    Publication date: March 17, 2016
    Inventors: Rajiv Yadav Ranjan, Parviz Keshtbod, Roger Klas Malmhall
  • Publication number: 20160049184
    Abstract: One embodiment of the present invention includes a multi-state current-switching magnetic memory element includes a stack of two or more magnetic tunneling junctions (MTJs), each MTJ having a free layer and being separated from other MTJs in the stack by a seeding layer formed upon an isolation layer, the stack for storing more than one bit of information, wherein different levels of current applied to the memory element causes switching to different states.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 29, 2015
    Publication date: February 18, 2016
    Inventors: Rajiv Yadav Ranjan, Parviz Keshtbod, Roger Klas Malmhall
  • Patent number: 9218866
    Abstract: One embodiment of the present invention includes a multi-state current-switching magnetic memory element includes a stack of two or more magnetic tunneling junctions (MTJs), each MTJ having a free layer and being separated from other MTJs in the stack by a seeding layer formed upon an isolation layer, the stack for storing more than one bit of information, wherein different levels of current applied to the memory element causes switching to different states.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 13, 2013
    Date of Patent: December 22, 2015
    Assignee: AVALANCHE TECHNOLOGY, INC.
    Inventors: Rajiv Yadav Ranjan, Parviz Keshtbod, Roger Klas Malmhall
  • Publication number: 20150188035
    Abstract: A spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STTMRAM) element includes a composite fixed layer formed on top of a substrate and a tunnel layer formed upon the fixed layer and a composite free layer formed upon the tunnel barrier layer. The magnetization direction of each of the composite free layer and fixed layer being substantially perpendicular to the plane of the substrate. The composite layers are made of multiple repeats of a bilayer unit which consists of a non-magnetic insulating layer and magnetic layer with thicknesses adjusted in a range that makes the magnetization having a preferred direction perpendicular to film plane.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 13, 2015
    Publication date: July 2, 2015
    Inventors: Yiming Huai, Jing Zhang, Rajiv Yadav Ranjan, Yuchen Zhou, Roger Klas Malmhall
  • Publication number: 20150188036
    Abstract: A spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STTMRAM) element includes a composite fixed layer formed on top of a substrate and a tunnel layer formed upon the fixed layer and a composite free layer formed upon the tunnel barrier layer. The magnetization direction of each of the composite free layer and fixed layer being substantially perpendicular to the plane of the substrate. The composite layers are made of multiple repeats of a bilayer unit which consists of a non-magnetic insulating layer and magnetic layer with thicknesses adjusted in a range that makes the magnetization having a preferred direction perpendicular to film plane.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 13, 2015
    Publication date: July 2, 2015
    Inventors: Yiming Huai, Jing Zhang, Rajiv Yadav Ranjan, Yuchen Zhou, Roger Klas Malmhall
  • Patent number: 9070692
    Abstract: Chip packages are described with soft-magnetic shields that are included inside or attached externally to the package containing a MRAM chip. In one group of embodiments a single shield with vias for bonding wires is affixed to the surface of the MRAM chip having the contact pads. The limitation of shield to chip distance due to bonding wire is eliminated by VIA holes according to the invention which achieves minimal spacing between the shield and chip. A second shield without vias can be positioned on the opposite side of the chip from the first shield. In one group of embodiments a hardened ferro-fluid shield can be the only shield or the structure can include a shield with or without vias. One group of embodiments includes an external shield with vias for solder access to the package contact pads affixed to the outer surface of the package.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 12, 2013
    Date of Patent: June 30, 2015
    Assignee: Avalanche Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Yuchen Zhou, Bernardo Sardinha, Rajiv Yadav Ranjan, Ebrahim Abedifard, Roger Klas Malmhall, Zihui Wang, Yiming Huai, Jing Zhang
  • Patent number: 9019758
    Abstract: A spin transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STTMRAM) element includes a composite fixed layer formed on top of a substrate and a tunnel layer formed upon the fixed layer and a composite free layer formed upon the tunnel barrier layer. The magnetization direction of each of the composite free layer and fixed layer being substantially perpendicular to the plane of the substrate. The composite layers are made of multiple repeats of a bi-layer unit which consists of a non-magnetic insulating layer and magnetic layer with thicknesses adjusted in a range that makes the magnetization having a preferred direction perpendicular to film plane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 2, 2011
    Date of Patent: April 28, 2015
    Assignee: Avalanche Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Yiming Huai, Jing Zhang, Rajiv Yadav Ranjan, Yuchen Zhou, Roger Klas Malmhall, Ioan Tudosa
  • Patent number: 8982616
    Abstract: A perpendicular spin transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STTMRAM) element includes a fixed layer having a magnetization that is substantially fixed in one direction and a barrier layer formed on top of the fixed layer and a free layer. The free layer has a number of alternating laminates, each laminate being made of a magnetic layer and an insulating layer. The magnetic layer is switchable and formed on top of the barrier layer. The free layer is capable of switching its magnetization to a parallel or an anti-parallel state relative to the magnetization of the fixed layer during a write operation when bidirectional electric current is applied across the STTMRAM element. Magnetic layers of the laminates are ferromagnetically coupled to switch together as a single domain during the write operation and the magnetization of the fixed and free layers and the magnetic layers of the laminates have perpendicular anisotropy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 26, 2012
    Date of Patent: March 17, 2015
    Assignee: Avalanche Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Rajiv Yadav Ranjan, Roger Klas Malmhall, Yiming Huai
  • Patent number: 8980649
    Abstract: In accordance with a method of the present invention, a method of manufacturing a magnetic random access memory (MRAM) cell and a corresponding structure thereof are disclosed to include a multi-stage manufacturing process. The multi-stage manufacturing process includes performing a front end on-line (FEOL) stage to manufacture logic and non-magnetic portions of the memory cell by forming an intermediate interlayer dielectric (ILD) layer, forming intermediate metal pillars embedded in the intermediate ILD layer, depositing a conductive metal cap on top of the intermediate ILD layer and the metal pillars, performing magnetic fabrication stage to make a magnetic material portion of the memory cell being manufactured, and performing back end on-line (BEOL) stage to make metal and contacts of the memory cell being manufactured.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 16, 2013
    Date of Patent: March 17, 2015
    Assignee: Avalanche Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Rajiv Yadav Ranjan, Parviz Keshtbod, Roger Klas Malmhall
  • Patent number: 8981506
    Abstract: A perpendicular spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STTMRAM) element is configured to store a state when electrical current is applied thereto. The perpendicular STTMRAM element includes a magnetization layer having a first free layer and a second free layer, separated by a non-magnetic separation layer (NMSL). The direction of magnetization of the first and second free layers each is in-plane prior to the application of electrical current and after the application of electrical current, the direction of magnetization of the second free layer becomes substantially titled out-of-plane and the direction of magnetization of the first free layer switches. Upon electrical current being discontinued, the direction of magnetization of the second free layer remains in a direction that is substantially opposite to that of the first free layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 19, 2013
    Date of Patent: March 17, 2015
    Assignee: Avalanche Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Yuchen Zhou, Yiming Huai, Jing Zhang, Rajiv Yadav Ranjan, Roger Klas Malmhall
  • Publication number: 20150061050
    Abstract: A perpendicular spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STTMRAM) element is configured to store a state when electrical current is applied thereto. The perpendicular STTMRAM element includes a magnetization layer having a first free layer and a second free layer, separated by a non-magnetic separation layer (NMSL). The direction of magnetization of the first and second free layers each is in-plane prior to the application of electrical current and after the application of electrical current, the direction of magnetization of the second free layer becomes substantially titled out-of-plane and the direction of magnetization of the first free layer switches. Upon electrical current being discontinued, the direction of magnetization of the second free layer remains in a direction that is substantially opposite to that of the first free layer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 19, 2013
    Publication date: March 5, 2015
    Inventors: Yuchen Zhou, Yiming Huai, Jing Zhang, Rajiv Yadav Ranjan, Roger Klas Malmhall