Patents by Inventor Teodor K. Todorov

Teodor K. Todorov has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

  • Patent number: 10959924
    Abstract: Zinc oxide compositions and methods for applying anti-reflective coating on oxide particles for sunscreen applications are provided herein. A composition includes multiple zinc oxide particles suspended within a medium forming sunscreen composition, and coating materials applied to each of the multiple zinc oxide particles in distinct layers via a gradation based on refractive index, wherein each of the coating materials has a refractive index that is between the refractive index of air and the refractive index of zinc oxide, and wherein the coating materials comprise a combination of (i) silicon dioxide, (ii) magnesium fluoride, (iii) one or more fluoropolymers, (iv) aluminum oxide, (v) zinc sulfide, and (vi) titanium dioxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 29, 2017
    Date of Patent: March 30, 2021
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Talia S. Gershon, Ning Li, Devendra Sadana, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Patent number: 10959923
    Abstract: Zinc oxide compositions as well as techniques for plasmonic enhancement of zinc oxide light absorption for sunscreen applications are provided herein. One example method includes selecting one or more metal particles to be used in conjunction with one or more zinc oxide particles in a sunscreen composition, wherein said selecting is based on the plasmon resonance frequency associated with each of the metal particles, and blending the metal particles and the zinc oxide particles within a medium to create the sunscreen composition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 7, 2016
    Date of Patent: March 30, 2021
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Talia S. Gershon, Ning Li, Devendra Sadana, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Patent number: 10957937
    Abstract: Three-terminal solid state Cu-ion actuated analog switching devices are provided. In one aspect, a method of forming a switching device includes: depositing a channel layer on a substrate; forming a source contact and a drain contact on opposite ends of the channel layer; forming a solid electrolyte on the channel layer over the source contact and the drain contact; and depositing a gate onto the solid electrolyte, wherein the source contact, the drain contact, and the gate are three terminals of the switching device. A switching device and a method of operating a switching device are also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 2019
    Date of Patent: March 23, 2021
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Teodor K. Todorov, Takashi Ando, Vijay Narayanan, John Rozen
  • Patent number: 10952942
    Abstract: Zinc oxide compositions as well as techniques for plasmonic enhancement of zinc oxide light absorption for sunscreen applications are provided herein. One example method includes selecting one or more metal particles to be used in conjunction with one or more zinc oxide particles in a sunscreen composition, wherein said selecting is based on the plasmon resonance frequency associated with each of the metal particles; and coating at least one portion of the surface of each of the one or more zinc oxide particles with the metal particles. Another example method includes selecting one or more metal particles to be used in conjunction with one or more zinc oxide particles in a sunscreen composition, wherein said selecting is based on the plasmon resonance frequency associated with each of the metal particles; and blending the metal particles and the zinc oxide particles within a medium to create the sunscreen composition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 29, 2016
    Date of Patent: March 23, 2021
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Talia S. Gershon, Ning Li, Devendra Sadana, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Patent number: 10940101
    Abstract: Zinc oxide compositions and methods for applying anti-reflective coating on oxide particles for sunscreen applications are provided herein. A composition includes multiple zinc oxide particles suspended within a medium forming sunscreen composition, and two or more coating materials applied to each of the multiple zinc oxide particles in distinct layers via a gradation based on refractive index, wherein each of the coating materials has a refractive index that is between the refractive index of air and the refractive index of zinc oxide, and wherein the two or more coating materials comprise zinc sulfide and titanium dioxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 29, 2017
    Date of Patent: March 9, 2021
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Talia S. Gershon, Ning Li, Devendra Sadana, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Patent number: 10938340
    Abstract: An integrated kesterite (e.g., CZT(S,Se)) photovoltaic device and battery is provided. In one aspect, a method of forming an integrated photovoltaic device and battery includes: forming a photovoltaic device having a substrate, an electrically conductive layer, an absorber layer, a buffer layer, a transparent front contact, and a metal grid; removing the substrate and the electrically conductive layer from the photovoltaic device to expose a backside surface of the absorber layer; forming at least one back contact on the backside surface of the absorber layer; and integrating the photovoltaic device with a battery, wherein the integrating includes connecting i) a positive contact of the battery with the back contact on the backside surface of the absorber layer and ii) a negative contact of the battery with the metal grid on the transparent front contact. An integrated photovoltaic device and battery is also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 17, 2019
    Date of Patent: March 2, 2021
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Priscilla D. Antunez, Richard A. Haight, James B. Hannon, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Patent number: 10936944
    Abstract: A neuromorphic device includes a first electrode layer arranged on a substrate, and an electrolyte layer arranged on the first electrode layer. The electrolyte layer includes a solid electrolyte material. The neuromorphic device further includes an ion permeable, electrically conductive membrane arranged on the electrolyte layer and an ion intercalation layer arranged on the ion permeable, electrically conductive membrane. The neuromorphic device includes a second electrode layer arranged on the ion intercalation layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 22, 2019
    Date of Patent: March 2, 2021
    Assignee: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
    Inventors: Teodor K. Todorov, John Rozen, Douglas M. Bishop
  • Patent number: 10925819
    Abstract: Zinc oxide compositions and methods for applying anti-reflective coating on oxide particles for sunscreen applications are provided herein. A composition includes multiple zinc oxide particles suspended within a medium forming sunscreen composition, and two or more coating materials applied to each of the multiple zinc oxide particles in distinct layers via a gradation based on refractive index, wherein each of the coating materials has a refractive index that is between the refractive index of air and the refractive index of zinc oxide, and wherein the two or more coating materials comprise one or more fluoropolymers and aluminum oxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 29, 2017
    Date of Patent: February 23, 2021
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Talia S. Gershon, Ning Li, Devendra Sadana, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Patent number: 10930809
    Abstract: A photovoltaic device with increased efficiency and a method for making the same. The present invention provides a photovoltaic device including: a transparent substrate; a transparent conductive electrode layer disposed on the transparent substrate; an n-type layer disposed on the transparent conductive electrode layer; a chalcogen absorber layer disposed on the n-type layer; a p-type molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) interlayer disposed on the chalcogen absorber layer; and a conductive layer disposed on the interlayer. A photovoltaic device having a superstrate configuration with the order of the layers reversed is also provided. The present invention further provides methods for making the photovoltaic devices according to the present invention.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 4, 2016
    Date of Patent: February 23, 2021
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Priscilla D. Antunez, Yun Seog Lee, Ravin Mankad, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Patent number: 10930844
    Abstract: Variable-resistance devices and methods of forming the same include a variable-resistance layer, formed between a first terminal and a second terminal, that varies in resistance based on an oxygen concentration in the variable-resistance layer. An electrolyte layer that is stable at room temperature and that conducts oxygen ions in accordance with an applied voltage is positioned over the variable-resistance layer. A gate layer is configured to apply a voltage on the electrolyte layer and the variable-resistance layer and is positioned over the electrolyte layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 11, 2018
    Date of Patent: February 23, 2021
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Teodor K. Todorov, Douglas M. Bishop, Jianshi Tang, John Rozen
  • Patent number: 10885431
    Abstract: A neuromorphic device includes a first electrode layer arranged on a substrate, and an electrolyte layer arranged on the first electrode layer. The electrolyte layer includes a solid electrolyte material. The neuromorphic device further includes an ion permeable, electrically conductive membrane arranged on the electrolyte layer and an ion intercalation layer arranged on the ion permeable, electrically conductive membrane. The neuromorphic device includes a second electrode layer arranged on the ion intercalation layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 22, 2019
    Date of Patent: January 5, 2021
    Assignee: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
    Inventors: Teodor K. Todorov, John Rozen, Douglas M. Bishop
  • Publication number: 20200395628
    Abstract: According to an embodiment of the present invention there is a cathode of an energy storage device. The cathode is made of Lithium Manganese Oxyfluoride (LMOF), with the approximate stoichiometry of Li2MnO2F. In some embodiments, the cathode is made of Lithium Manganese Oxyfluoride (LMOF), Li2MnO2F combined with a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE). Other materials such as conductive material and binders can be included in the cathode. Methods of making are disclosed. According to an embodiment of the present invention there is a composition of matter. The composition is made of Lithium Manganese Oxyfluoride (LMOF), with the approximate stoichiometry of Li2MnO2F combined with a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE). Other materials such as conductive material and binders can be included in the cathode. Methods of making are disclosed. The composition can be used as a cathode in an energy storage device. An energy storage device, e.g. a battery, is disclosed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 13, 2019
    Publication date: December 17, 2020
    Inventors: John Collins, Bucknell C. Webb, Paul S. Andry, Teodor Krassimirov Todorov, Devendra K. Sadana
  • Publication number: 20200380343
    Abstract: Techniques are disclosed for fabricating and using a neuromorphic computing device including biological neurons. For example, a method for fabricating a neuromorphic computing device includes forming a channel in a first substrate and forming at least one sensor in a second substrate. At least a portion of the channel in the first substrate is seeded with a biological neuron growth material. The second substrate is attached to the first substrate such that the at least one sensor is proximate to the biological neuron growth material and growth of the seeded biological neuron growth material is stimulated to grow a neuron in the at least a portion of the channel.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 28, 2019
    Publication date: December 3, 2020
    Inventors: Steven J. Holmes, Devendra K. Sadana, Stephen W. Bedell, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Patent number: 10835463
    Abstract: Zinc oxide compositions and methods for applying anti-reflective coating on oxide particles for sunscreen applications are provided herein. A composition includes multiple zinc oxide particles suspended within a medium forming sunscreen composition, and two or more coating materials applied to each of the multiple zinc oxide particles in distinct layers via a gradation based on refractive index, wherein each of the coating materials has a refractive index that is between the refractive index of air and the refractive index of zinc oxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 10, 2017
    Date of Patent: November 17, 2020
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Talia S. Gershon, Ning Li, Devendra Sadana, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Patent number: 10840404
    Abstract: Silver-containing absorbers for photovoltaic devices and techniques for fabrication thereof are provided. In one aspect, a method of forming an ink includes: mixing a silver halide and a solvent to form a first solution; mixing a metal, sulfur, and the solvent to form a second solution; combining the first solution and the second solution to form a precursor solution; and adding constituent components for an absorber material to the precursor solution to form the ink. Methods of forming an absorber film, a photovoltaic device, and the resulting photovoltaic device are also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 28, 2018
    Date of Patent: November 17, 2020
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Priscilla D. Antunez, Talia S. Gershon, Richard A. Haight, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Patent number: 10833326
    Abstract: Low-voltage rechargeable microbatteries having a vanadium-based cathode are provided. In one aspect, a method of forming a battery is provided. The method includes the steps of: forming a first contact on a substrate; forming a cathode on the first contact, wherein the cathode is formed from a vanadium-containing material; forming a solid electrolyte on the cathode; forming an anode on the solid electrolyte; and forming a second contact on the anode. A battery having a vanadium-based cathode is also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 15, 2018
    Date of Patent: November 10, 2020
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Kevin W. Brew, Oki Gunawan, Saurabh Singh, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Publication number: 20200343597
    Abstract: An interfacial additive layer for decreasing the interfacial resistance/impedance of a silicon based electrode-containing device such as, for example, an energy storage device or a micro-resistor, is disclosed. The interfacial additive, which is composed of evaporated lithium fluoride, is formed between a silicon based electrode and a solid polymer electrolyte layer of the device. The evaporated lithium fluoride serves as ion conductive layer. The presence of such an interfacial additive layer increases the ion and electron mobile dependent performances at the silicon based electrode interface due to significant decrease in the resistance/impedance that is observed at the respective interface as well as the impedance observed in the bulk of the device.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 29, 2019
    Publication date: October 29, 2020
    Inventors: John Collins, Teodor K. Todorov, Ali Afzali-Ardakani, Joel P. de Souza, Devendra K. Sadana
  • Publication number: 20200343531
    Abstract: A catholyte-like material including a cathode material and an interfacial additive layer for providing a lithium ion energy storage device having low impedance is disclosed. The interfacial additive layer, which is composed of vapor deposited iodine, is present between the cathode material and an electrolyte layer of the device. The presence of such an interfacial additive layer increases the ion and electron mobile dependent performances at the cathode material interface due to significant decrease in the resistance/impedance that is observed at the respective interface as well as the impedance observed in the bulk of the device. The catholyte-like material of the present application can be used to provide a lithium ion energy storage device having high charge/discharge rates and/or high capacity.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 29, 2019
    Publication date: October 29, 2020
    Inventors: John Collins, Ali Afzali-Ardakani, Joel P. de Souza, Teodor K. Todorov, Devendra K. Sadana
  • Patent number: 10818976
    Abstract: A lithium rechargeable lithium battery including a conductive substrate, a cathode material layer disposed over the conductive substrate, a solid electrolyte material layer disposed over the cathode material layer, an anode material layer disposed over the solid electrolyte material layer, and a conductive layer disposed over the anode material layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 29, 2016
    Date of Patent: October 27, 2020
    Assignee: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
    Inventors: Kevin W. Brew, Oki Gunawan, Singh Saurabh, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Publication number: 20200335826
    Abstract: Making a rechargeable Lithium energy storage device begins by forming one or more trenches in a solid silicon substrate. One or more region interface precursors are deposited in the trench followed by one or more anode materials, one or more solid polymer electrolytes (SPE), and one or more cathode materials. Electrically cycling transforms the battery structures prior to full operation of the battery. Some, or all, of the process steps can be performed while the materials are within the trench, i.e. in-situ.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 18, 2019
    Publication date: October 22, 2020
    Inventors: John Collins, Ali Afzali-Ardakani, Devendra K. Sadana, Teodor Krassimirov Todorov