Patents by Inventor Teodor K. Todorov

Teodor K. Todorov has filed for patents to protect the following inventions. This listing includes patent applications that are pending as well as patents that have already been granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

  • Patent number: 11335899
    Abstract: A catholyte-like material including a cathode material and an interfacial additive layer for providing a lithium ion energy storage device having low impedance is disclosed. The interfacial additive layer, which is composed of vapor deposited iodine, is present between the cathode material and an electrolyte layer of the device. The presence of such an interfacial additive layer increases the ion and electron mobile dependent performances at the cathode material interface due to significant decrease in the resistance/impedance that is observed at the respective interface as well as the impedance observed in the bulk of the device. The catholyte-like material of the present application can be used to provide a lithium ion energy storage device having high charge/discharge rates and/or high capacity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 29, 2019
    Date of Patent: May 17, 2022
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: John Collins, Ali Afzali-Ardakani, Joel P. de Souza, Teodor K. Todorov, Devendra K. Sadana
  • Patent number: 11309585
    Abstract: An interfacial additive layer for decreasing the interfacial resistance/impedance of a silicon based electrode-containing device such as, for example, an energy storage device or a micro-resistor, is disclosed. The interfacial additive layer, which is composed of a molten lithium containing salt, is formed between a silicon based electrode and a solid polymer electrolyte layer of the device. The presence of such an interfacial additive layer increases the ion and electron mobile dependent performances at the silicon based electrode interface due to significant decrease in the resistance/impedance that is observed at the respective interface as well as the impedance observed in the bulk of the device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 19, 2019
    Date of Patent: April 19, 2022
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: John Collins, Ali Afzali-Ardakani, Teodor K. Todorov, Joel P. de Souza, Devendra K. Sadana
  • Patent number: 11302967
    Abstract: Low-voltage rechargeable microbatteries are provided. In one aspect, a method of forming a microbattery includes: forming a cathode on a substrate, wherein the cathode includes a lithium intercalated material; forming a solid electrolyte on the cathode; forming an anode on the solid electrolyte; and forming a negative contact on the anode. A microbattery is also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 15, 2018
    Date of Patent: April 12, 2022
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Kevin W. Brew, Oki Gunawan, Saurabh Singh, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Patent number: 11205800
    Abstract: A device such as, for example, an energy storage device or a micro-resistor, is disclosed which includes a silicon based electrode in which decreased interfacial resistance/impedance throughout the charge-mobile region of the device is provided. The decreased interfacial resistance/impedance is provided by forming an interfacial additive composite layer composed of a molten lithium containing salt layer and a layer of a Li-salt containing conductive polymeric adhesive material between the silicon based electrode and a solid polymer electrolyte layer. The presence of such an interfacial additive composite layer increases the ion and electron mobile dependent performances at the silicon based electrode interface due to significant decrease in the resistance/impedance that is observed at the respective interface as well as the impedance observed in the bulk of the device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 19, 2019
    Date of Patent: December 21, 2021
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: John Collins, Ali Afzali-Ardakani, Teodor K. Todorov, Joel P. de Souza, Devendra K. Sadana
  • Patent number: 11195086
    Abstract: Techniques are disclosed for fabricating and using a neuromorphic computing device including biological neurons. For example, a method for fabricating a neuromorphic computing device includes forming a channel in a first substrate and forming at least one sensor in a second substrate. At least a portion of the channel in the first substrate is seeded with a biological neuron growth material. The second substrate is attached to the first substrate such that the at least one sensor is proximate to the biological neuron growth material and growth of the seeded biological neuron growth material is stimulated to grow a neuron in the at least a portion of the channel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 28, 2019
    Date of Patent: December 7, 2021
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Steven J. Holmes, Devendra K. Sadana, Stephen W. Bedell, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Patent number: 11127987
    Abstract: An interfacial additive layer for decreasing the interfacial resistance/impedance of a silicon based electrode-containing device such as, for example, an energy storage device or a micro-resistor, is disclosed. The interfacial additive, which is composed of evaporated lithium fluoride, is formed between a silicon based electrode and a solid polymer electrolyte layer of the device. The evaporated lithium fluoride serves as ion conductive layer. The presence of such an interfacial additive layer increases the ion and electron mobile dependent performances at the silicon based electrode interface due to significant decrease in the resistance/impedance that is observed at the respective interface as well as the impedance observed in the bulk of the device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 29, 2019
    Date of Patent: September 21, 2021
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: John Collins, Teodor K. Todorov, Ali Afzali-Ardakani, Joel P. de Souza, Devendra K. Sadana
  • Patent number: 11047049
    Abstract: Low temperature techniques for forming layered lithium cobalt oxide (LCO) are provided. In one aspect, a method of synthesizing layered LCO includes: forming a metal catalyst layer (e.g., platinum) on a substrate; depositing LCO onto the metal catalyst layer; and annealing the LCO under conditions sufficient to form the layered LCO on the metal catalyst layer. An adhesion layer can be deposited on the substrate, and the metal catalyst layer can be deposited onto the adhesion layer. In another aspect, a structure is provided including: a substrate; a metal catalyst layer (e.g., platinum) disposed on the substrate; and layered LCO formed on the metal catalyst layer. An adhesion layer can be disposed between the substrate and the metal catalyst layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 23, 2017
    Date of Patent: June 29, 2021
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Kevin W. Brew, Saurabh Singh, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Publication number: 20210151669
    Abstract: Methods of forming variable-resistance devices include forming a variable-resistance layer between a first terminal and a second terminal from a material that varies in resistance based on an oxygen concentration. An electrolyte layer is formed over the variable-resistance layer from a material that is stable at room temperature and that conducts oxygen ions in accordance with an applied voltage. A conductive gate layer is formed over the electrolyte layer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 23, 2020
    Publication date: May 20, 2021
    Inventors: Teodor K. Todorov, Douglas M. Bishop, Jianshi Tang, John Rozen
  • Patent number: 10959923
    Abstract: Zinc oxide compositions as well as techniques for plasmonic enhancement of zinc oxide light absorption for sunscreen applications are provided herein. One example method includes selecting one or more metal particles to be used in conjunction with one or more zinc oxide particles in a sunscreen composition, wherein said selecting is based on the plasmon resonance frequency associated with each of the metal particles, and blending the metal particles and the zinc oxide particles within a medium to create the sunscreen composition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 7, 2016
    Date of Patent: March 30, 2021
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Talia S. Gershon, Ning Li, Devendra Sadana, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Patent number: 10959924
    Abstract: Zinc oxide compositions and methods for applying anti-reflective coating on oxide particles for sunscreen applications are provided herein. A composition includes multiple zinc oxide particles suspended within a medium forming sunscreen composition, and coating materials applied to each of the multiple zinc oxide particles in distinct layers via a gradation based on refractive index, wherein each of the coating materials has a refractive index that is between the refractive index of air and the refractive index of zinc oxide, and wherein the coating materials comprise a combination of (i) silicon dioxide, (ii) magnesium fluoride, (iii) one or more fluoropolymers, (iv) aluminum oxide, (v) zinc sulfide, and (vi) titanium dioxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 29, 2017
    Date of Patent: March 30, 2021
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Talia S. Gershon, Ning Li, Devendra Sadana, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Patent number: 10952942
    Abstract: Zinc oxide compositions as well as techniques for plasmonic enhancement of zinc oxide light absorption for sunscreen applications are provided herein. One example method includes selecting one or more metal particles to be used in conjunction with one or more zinc oxide particles in a sunscreen composition, wherein said selecting is based on the plasmon resonance frequency associated with each of the metal particles; and coating at least one portion of the surface of each of the one or more zinc oxide particles with the metal particles. Another example method includes selecting one or more metal particles to be used in conjunction with one or more zinc oxide particles in a sunscreen composition, wherein said selecting is based on the plasmon resonance frequency associated with each of the metal particles; and blending the metal particles and the zinc oxide particles within a medium to create the sunscreen composition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 29, 2016
    Date of Patent: March 23, 2021
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Talia S. Gershon, Ning Li, Devendra Sadana, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Patent number: 10957937
    Abstract: Three-terminal solid state Cu-ion actuated analog switching devices are provided. In one aspect, a method of forming a switching device includes: depositing a channel layer on a substrate; forming a source contact and a drain contact on opposite ends of the channel layer; forming a solid electrolyte on the channel layer over the source contact and the drain contact; and depositing a gate onto the solid electrolyte, wherein the source contact, the drain contact, and the gate are three terminals of the switching device. A switching device and a method of operating a switching device are also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 2019
    Date of Patent: March 23, 2021
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Teodor K. Todorov, Takashi Ando, Vijay Narayanan, John Rozen
  • Patent number: 10940101
    Abstract: Zinc oxide compositions and methods for applying anti-reflective coating on oxide particles for sunscreen applications are provided herein. A composition includes multiple zinc oxide particles suspended within a medium forming sunscreen composition, and two or more coating materials applied to each of the multiple zinc oxide particles in distinct layers via a gradation based on refractive index, wherein each of the coating materials has a refractive index that is between the refractive index of air and the refractive index of zinc oxide, and wherein the two or more coating materials comprise zinc sulfide and titanium dioxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 29, 2017
    Date of Patent: March 9, 2021
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Talia S. Gershon, Ning Li, Devendra Sadana, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Patent number: 10938340
    Abstract: An integrated kesterite (e.g., CZT(S,Se)) photovoltaic device and battery is provided. In one aspect, a method of forming an integrated photovoltaic device and battery includes: forming a photovoltaic device having a substrate, an electrically conductive layer, an absorber layer, a buffer layer, a transparent front contact, and a metal grid; removing the substrate and the electrically conductive layer from the photovoltaic device to expose a backside surface of the absorber layer; forming at least one back contact on the backside surface of the absorber layer; and integrating the photovoltaic device with a battery, wherein the integrating includes connecting i) a positive contact of the battery with the back contact on the backside surface of the absorber layer and ii) a negative contact of the battery with the metal grid on the transparent front contact. An integrated photovoltaic device and battery is also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 17, 2019
    Date of Patent: March 2, 2021
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Priscilla D. Antunez, Richard A. Haight, James B. Hannon, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Patent number: 10936944
    Abstract: A neuromorphic device includes a first electrode layer arranged on a substrate, and an electrolyte layer arranged on the first electrode layer. The electrolyte layer includes a solid electrolyte material. The neuromorphic device further includes an ion permeable, electrically conductive membrane arranged on the electrolyte layer and an ion intercalation layer arranged on the ion permeable, electrically conductive membrane. The neuromorphic device includes a second electrode layer arranged on the ion intercalation layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 22, 2019
    Date of Patent: March 2, 2021
    Assignee: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
    Inventors: Teodor K. Todorov, John Rozen, Douglas M. Bishop
  • Patent number: 10930809
    Abstract: A photovoltaic device with increased efficiency and a method for making the same. The present invention provides a photovoltaic device including: a transparent substrate; a transparent conductive electrode layer disposed on the transparent substrate; an n-type layer disposed on the transparent conductive electrode layer; a chalcogen absorber layer disposed on the n-type layer; a p-type molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) interlayer disposed on the chalcogen absorber layer; and a conductive layer disposed on the interlayer. A photovoltaic device having a superstrate configuration with the order of the layers reversed is also provided. The present invention further provides methods for making the photovoltaic devices according to the present invention.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 4, 2016
    Date of Patent: February 23, 2021
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Priscilla D. Antunez, Yun Seog Lee, Ravin Mankad, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Patent number: 10930844
    Abstract: Variable-resistance devices and methods of forming the same include a variable-resistance layer, formed between a first terminal and a second terminal, that varies in resistance based on an oxygen concentration in the variable-resistance layer. An electrolyte layer that is stable at room temperature and that conducts oxygen ions in accordance with an applied voltage is positioned over the variable-resistance layer. A gate layer is configured to apply a voltage on the electrolyte layer and the variable-resistance layer and is positioned over the electrolyte layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 11, 2018
    Date of Patent: February 23, 2021
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Teodor K. Todorov, Douglas M. Bishop, Jianshi Tang, John Rozen
  • Patent number: 10925819
    Abstract: Zinc oxide compositions and methods for applying anti-reflective coating on oxide particles for sunscreen applications are provided herein. A composition includes multiple zinc oxide particles suspended within a medium forming sunscreen composition, and two or more coating materials applied to each of the multiple zinc oxide particles in distinct layers via a gradation based on refractive index, wherein each of the coating materials has a refractive index that is between the refractive index of air and the refractive index of zinc oxide, and wherein the two or more coating materials comprise one or more fluoropolymers and aluminum oxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 29, 2017
    Date of Patent: February 23, 2021
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Talia S. Gershon, Ning Li, Devendra Sadana, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Patent number: 10885431
    Abstract: A neuromorphic device includes a first electrode layer arranged on a substrate, and an electrolyte layer arranged on the first electrode layer. The electrolyte layer includes a solid electrolyte material. The neuromorphic device further includes an ion permeable, electrically conductive membrane arranged on the electrolyte layer and an ion intercalation layer arranged on the ion permeable, electrically conductive membrane. The neuromorphic device includes a second electrode layer arranged on the ion intercalation layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 22, 2019
    Date of Patent: January 5, 2021
    Assignee: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
    Inventors: Teodor K. Todorov, John Rozen, Douglas M. Bishop
  • Publication number: 20200380343
    Abstract: Techniques are disclosed for fabricating and using a neuromorphic computing device including biological neurons. For example, a method for fabricating a neuromorphic computing device includes forming a channel in a first substrate and forming at least one sensor in a second substrate. At least a portion of the channel in the first substrate is seeded with a biological neuron growth material. The second substrate is attached to the first substrate such that the at least one sensor is proximate to the biological neuron growth material and growth of the seeded biological neuron growth material is stimulated to grow a neuron in the at least a portion of the channel.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 28, 2019
    Publication date: December 3, 2020
    Inventors: Steven J. Holmes, Devendra K. Sadana, Stephen W. Bedell, Teodor K. Todorov