ANTIGEN BINDING MOLECULES COMPRISING A TRIMERIC TNF FAMILY LIGAND

- Hoffmann-La Roche Inc.

The invention relates to novel TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules comprising (a) at least one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, (b) a polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof that are connected to each other by peptide linkers and (c) a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association, and to methods of producing these molecules and to methods of using the same.

Skip to: Description  ·  Claims  · Patent History  ·  Patent History
Description
CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application claims priority to European Patent Application No. EP 15161880.8, filed Mar. 31, 2015, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

SEQUENCE LISTING

The present application contains a Sequence Listing which has been submitted in ASCII format via EFS-Web and is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. Said ASCII copy, created on Mar. 29, 2016, is named P32693-US_ST25.txt and is 412,194 bytes in size.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The invention relates to novel TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules comprising (a) at least one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, (b) a polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof that are connected to each other by a peptide linker, and (c) a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association. The invention further relates to methods of producing these molecules and to methods of using the same.

BACKGROUND

Ligands interacting with molecules of the TNF (tumor necrosis factor) receptor superfamily have pivotal roles in the organization and function of the immune system. While regulating normal functions such as immune responses, hematopoiesis and morphogenesis, the TNF family ligands (also called cytokines) play a role in tumorgenesis, transplant rejection, septic shock, viral replication, bone resorption, rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes (Aggarwal, 2003). Their diverse and important role in immunity has made them interesting for the development of cancer immunotherapeutics (Bremer, 2013). The TNF ligand family comprises 18 genes encoding 19 type II (i.e. intracellular N terminus and extracellular C-terminus) transmembrane proteins, characterized by the presence of a conserved C-terminal domain coined the TNF homology domain' (THD). This domain is responsible for receptor binding and is thus critical for the biological activity of the TNF ligand family members. The sequence identity between family members is ˜20-30% (Bodmer, 2002). Members of the TNF ligand family exert their biological function as self-assembling, noncovalent trimers (Banner et al, 1993). Thus, the TNF family ligands form a trimer that is able to bind to and to activate the corresponding receptors of TNFR superfamily. Some members of the TNF ligand family have costimulatory effects on T-cells, meaning that they sustain T-cell responses after initial T cell activation (Watts, 2005). 4-1BBL, OX40L, GITRL, CD70, CD30L and LIGHT belong to this group of costimulatory TNF family ligands.

Among several costimulatory molecules, the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family member OX40 (CD134) plays a key role in the survival and homeostasis of effector and memory T cells (Croft et al., 2009). OX40 (CD134) regulates immune responses against infections, tumors and self-antigens and its expression has been demonstrated on the surface of T-cells, NKT-cells and NK-cells as well as neutrophils (Baumann et al., 2004) and shown to be strictly inducible or strongly upregulated in response to various stimulatory signals. Combined with T-cell receptor triggering, OX40 engagement on T-cells by its natural ligand or agonistic antibodies leads to synergistic activation of the PI3K and NFκB signalling pathways (Song et al., 2008). In turn, this results in enhanced proliferation, increased cytokine receptor and cytokine production and better survival of activated T-cells.

4-1BB (CD137), a member of the TNF receptor superfamily, has been first identified as a molecule whose expression is induced by T-cell activation (Kwon and Weissman, 1989). Subsequent studies demonstrated expression of 4-1BB in T- and B-lymphocytes (Snell et al., 2011; Zhang et al., 2010), NK-cells (Lin et al., 2008), NKT-cells (Kim et al., 2008), monocytes (Kienzle and von Kempis, 2000; Schwarz et al., 1995), neutrophils (Heinisch et al., 2000), mast (Nishimoto et al., 2005) and dendritic cells as well as cells of non-hematopoietic origin such as endothelial and smooth muscle cells (Broll et al., 2001; Olofsson et al., 2008). Expression of 4-1BB in different cell types is mostly inducible and driven by various stimulatory signals, such as T-cell receptor (TCR) or B-cell receptor triggering, as well as signaling induced through co-stimulatory molecules or receptors of pro-inflammatory cytokines (Diehl et al., 2002; von Kempis et al., 1997; Zhang et al., 2010).

Expression of 4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL or CD137L) is more restricted and is observed on professional antigen presenting cells (APC) such as B-cells, dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages. Inducible expression of 4-1BBL is characteristic for T-cells, including both αβ and γδ T-cell subsets, and endothelial cells (reviewed in Shao and Schwarz, 2011).

CD137 signaling is known to stimulate IFNy secretion and proliferation of NK cells (Buechele et al., 2012; Lin et al., 2008; Melero et al., 1998) as well as to promote DC activation as indicated by their increased survival and capacity to secret cytokines and upregulate co-stimulatory molecules (Choi et al., 2009; Futagawa et al., 2002; Wilcox et al., 2002). However, CD137 is best characterized as a co-stimulatory molecule which modulates TCR-induced activation in both the CD4+ and CD8+ subsets of T-cells. In combination with TCR triggering, agonistic 4-1BB-specific antibodies enhance proliferation of T-cells, stimulate lymphokine secretion and decrease sensitivity of T-lymphocytes to activation-induced cells death (reviewed in (reviewed in Snell et al., 2011).

In line with these co-stimulatory effects of 4-1BB antibodies on T-cells in vitro, their administration to tumor bearing mice leads to potent anti-tumor effects in many experimental tumor models (Melero et al., 1997; Narazaki et al., 2010). However, 4-1BB usually exhibits its potency as an anti-tumor agent only when administered in combination with other immunomodulatory compounds (Curran et al., 2011; Guo et al., 2013; Morales-Kastresana et al., 2013; Teng et al., 2009; Wei et al., 2013), chemotherapeutic reagents (Ju et al., 2008; Kim et al., 2009), tumor-specific vaccination (Cuadros et al., 2005; Lee et al., 2011) or radiotherapy (Shi and Siemann, 2006). In vivo depletion experiments demonstrated that CD8+ T-cells play the most critical role in anti-tumoral effect of 4-1BB-specific antibodies. However, depending on the tumor model or combination therapy, which includes anti-4-1BB, contributions of other types of cells such as DCs, NK-cells or CD4+ T-cells have been reported (Melero et al., 1997; Murillo et al., 2009; Narazaki et al., 2010; Stagg et al., 2011).

In addition to their direct effects on different lymphocyte subsets, 4-1BB agonists can also induce infiltration and retention of activated T-cells in the tumor through 4-1BB-mediated upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1) on tumor vascular endothelium (Palazon et al., 2011).

4-1BB triggering may also reverse the state of T-cell anergy induced by exposure to soluble antigen that may contribute to disruption of immunological tolerance in the tumor micro-environment or during chronic infections (Wilcox et al., 2004).

It appears that the immunomodulatory properties of 4-1BB agonistic antibodies in vivo require the presence of the wild type Fc-portion on the antibody molecule thereby implicating Fc-receptor binding as an important event required for the pharmacological activity of such reagents as has been described for agonistic antibodies specific to other apoptosis-inducing or immunomodulatory members of the TNFR-superfamily (Li and Ravetch, 2011; Teng et al., 2009). However, systemic administration of 4-1BB-specific agonistic antibodies with the functionally active Fc domain also induces expansion of CD8+ T-cells associated with liver toxicity (Dubrot et al., 2010) that is diminished or significantly ameliorated in the absence of functional Fc-receptors in mice. In human clinical trials (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00309023), Fc-competent 4-1BB agonistic antibodies (BMS-663513) administered once every three weeks for 12 weeks induced stabilization of the disease in patients with melanoma, ovarian or renal cell carcinoma. However, the same antibody given in another trial (NCT00612664) caused grade 4 hepatitis leading to termination of the trial (Simeone and Ascierto, 2012).

Collectively, the available pre-clinical and clinical data clearly demonstrate that there is a high clinical need for effective 4-1BB agonists. However, new generation drug candidates should not only effectively engage 4-1BB on the surface of hematopoietic and endothelial cells but also be capable of achieving that through mechanisms other than binding to Fc-receptors in order to avoid uncontrollable side effects. The latter may be accomplished through preferential binding to and oligomerization on tumor-specific or tumor-associated moieties.

Fusion proteins composed of one extracellular domain of a 4-1BB ligand and a single chain antibody fragment (Mueller et al., 2008; Hornig et al., 2012, Kermer et al., 2014) or a single 4-1BB ligand fused to the C-terminus of a heavy chain (Zhang et al, 2007) have been made. EP 1 736 482 A1 relates to recombinant 4-1BBL polypeptides comprising the whole extracellular domain of native 4-1BBL and a cross-linkable peptide domain. WO 2010/010051 discloses the generation of fusion proteins that consist of three TNF ligand ectodomains linked to each other and fused to an antibody part.

However, there is a need of new antigen binding molecules that combine a moiety capable of preferred binding to tumor-specific or tumor-associated targets with a moiety capable of forming a costimulatory TNF family ligand trimer and that possess sufficient stability to be pharmaceutically useful. The antigen binding molecules of the present invention comprise both and therefore may be able to trigger TNF receptors not only effectively, but also very selectively at the desired site thereby reducing side effects.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

This invention provides a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule comprising

  • (a) at least one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen,
  • (b) a polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof that are connected to each other, optionally by peptide linkers, and
  • (c) a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association.

In one aspect, the invention provides a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule comprising

  • (a) at least one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen,
  • (b) a polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof that are connected to each other by peptide linkers and
  • (c) a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association.

In another aspect, the TNF family ligand trimer containing antigen binding molecule comprises

  • (a) at least one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen,
  • (b) a polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof that are connected to each other by peptide linkers and
  • (c) a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association, wherein the polypeptide comprising the three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof that are connected to each other by peptide linkers is fused to the N- or C-terminal amino acid of one of the two subunits of the Fc domain, optionally through a peptide linker.

In a particular aspect, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule comprises (a) at least one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, (b) a polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof that are connected to each other by peptide linkers and (c) a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association, wherein the TNF ligand family member costimulates human T-cell activation. Thus, the TNF ligand family member is a costimulatory TNF family ligand. In particular, the costimulatory TNF family ligand is selected from the group consisting of 4-1BBL, OX40L, GITRL, CD70, CD30L and LIGHT, more particularly the costimulatory TNF family ligand is selected from 4-1BBL and OX40L.

In one aspect, the TNF ligand family member is 4-1BBL.

In a further aspect, the ectodomain of a TNF ligand family member comprises the amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO:1, SEQ ID NO: 2, SEQ ID NO:3, SEQ ID NO:4, SEQ ID NO:99, SEQ ID NO: 100, SEQ ID NO:101 and SEQ ID NO:102, particularly the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:1 or SEQ ID NO:99.

In a particular aspect, the ectodomain of a TNF ligand family member or fragment thereof comprises the amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO:1, SEQ ID NO:2, SEQ ID NO:3 and SEQ ID NO:4, particularly the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:1.

In a further aspect, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention comprises

  • (a) at least one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen and
  • (b) a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103, and
  • (c) a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association. More particularly, the polypeptide comprises the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5.

In another aspect, the TNF ligand family member is OX40L.

In a particular aspect, the ectodomain of a TNF ligand family member comprises the amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO:6 and SEQ ID NO:7, particularly the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:6.

In a further aspect, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of of the invention comprises

  • (a) at least one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen and
  • (b) a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:8, and
  • (c) a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association.

In one aspect, the invention relates to the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof is fused at the C-terminal amino acid to the N-terminal amino acid of one of the subunits of the Fc domain. In particular, provided is a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule comprising

  • (a) at least one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen,
  • (b) a polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof that are connected to each other by a peptide linkers and
  • (c) a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association, wherein the polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof is fused at the C-terminal amino acid to the N-terminal amino acid of a CH2 domain in the Fc domain.

In another aspect, In another aspect, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule is one, wherein the polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof is fused at the N-terminal amino acid to a C-terminal amino acid of one of the subunits of the Fc domain, e.g. the polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof is fused at the N-terminal amino acid to the C-terminal amino acid of a CH3 domain in the Fc domain.

In another aspect, the invention relates to a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule comprising

  • (a) at least one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen,
  • (b) a polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof that are connected to each other by peptide linkers and
  • (c) a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen is not fused to the polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof.

In a further aspect, the invention provides a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as defined herein before, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen is selected from the group consisting of an antibody, an antibody fragment and a scaffold antigen binding protein.

In one aspect, the invention provides a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as defined herein before, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen is an antibody.

In another aspect, the invention provides a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as defined herein before, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen is an antibody fragment. In particular, the antibody fragment is selected from the group consisting of a Fab molecule, a crossover Fab molecule, a single chain Fab molecule, a Fv molecule, a scFv molecule, a single domain antibody, and aVH.

In a further aspect, the invention provides a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as defined herein before, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen is a scaffold antigen binding protein.

Thus, in a further aspect, the invention relates to a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as defined herein before, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen is selected from the group consisting of an antibody fragment, a Fab molecule, a crossover Fab molecule, a single chain Fab molecule, a Fv molecule, a scFv molecule, a single domain antibody, an aVH and a scaffold antigen binding protein.

In a particular aspect, the invention is concerned with a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as defined above, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen is a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen.

In another aspect, provided is a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention, wherein the target cell antigen is selected from the group consisting of Fibroblast Activation Protein (FAP), Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA), Melanoma-associated Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan (MCSP), Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), CD19, CD20 and CD33.

In a particular aspect, the target cell antigen is Fibroblast Activation Protein (FAP). In one aspect, the invention provides a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as decribed herein before, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to FAP comprises (a) a VH domain comprising (i) CDR-H1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:9, (ii) CDR-H2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:10 and (iii) CDR-H3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:11, and a VL domain comprising (iv) CDR-L1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:12, (v) CDR-L2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:13 and (vi) CDR-L3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:14, or

  • (b) a VH domain comprising (i) CDR-H1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:104, (ii) CDR-H2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:105 and (iii) CDR-H3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:106, and a VL domain comprising (iv) CDR-L1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:107, (v) CDR-L2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:108 and (vi) CDR-L3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:109.

In one aspect, the moiety capable of specific binding to FAP comprises a VH domain comprising (i) CDR-H1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:9, (ii) CDR-H2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:10 and (iii) CDR-H3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:11, and a VL domain comprising (iv) CDR-L1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:12, (v) CDR-L2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:13 and (vi) CDR-L3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:14. In another particular aspect, the moiety capable of specific binding to FAP comprises a VH domain comprising (i) CDR-H1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:104, (ii) CDR-H2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:105 and (iii) CDR-H3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:106, and a VL domain comprising (iv) CDR-L1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:107, (v) CDR-L2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:108 and (vi) CDR-L3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:109.

In a further aspect, the moiety capable of specific binding to FAP comprises a variable heavy chain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:16 and a variable light chain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:17 or wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to FAP comprises a variable heavy chain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:110 and a variable light chain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:111.

In another aspect, the target cell antigen is CEA. In one aspect, the invention provides a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as decribed herein before, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to CEA comprises a VH domain comprising (i) CDR-H1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:112, (ii) CDR-H2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:113 and (iii) CDR-H3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:114, and a VL domain comprising (iv) CDR-L1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:115, (v) CDR-L2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:116 and (vi) CDR-L3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:117. In particular, the moiety capable of specific binding to CEA comprises a variable heavy chain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:118 and a variable light chain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:119.

In yet another aspect, the target cell antigen is CD19. In one aspect, the invention provides a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as decribed herein before, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to CD19 comprises (a) a VH domain comprising (i) CDR-H1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:120, (ii) CDR-H2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:121 and (iii) CDR-H3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:122, and a VL domain comprising (iv) CDR-L1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:123, (v) CDR-L2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:124 and (vi) CDR-L3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:125, or (b) a VH domain comprising (i) CDR-H1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:128, (ii) CDR-H2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:129 and (iii) CDR-H3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:130, and a VL domain comprising (iv) CDR-L1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:131, (v) CDR-L2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:132 and (vi) CDR-L3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:133. In particular, the the moiety capable of specific binding to CD19 comprises a variable heavy chain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:126 and a variable light chain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:127 or wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to FAP comprises a variable heavy chain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:134 and a variable light chain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:135.

In a further aspect, provided is a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association is an IgG, particularly an IgG1 Fc domain or an IgG4 Fc domain. In particular, the Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association is an IgG1 Fc domain.

In another aspect, the invention is concerned with a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as defined herein before, comprising (c) an Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association, wherein the Fc domain comprises one or more amino acid substitution that reduces binding to an Fc receptor, in particular towards Fcy receptor.

In particular, the Fc domain comprises amino acid substitutions at positions 234 and 235 (EU numbering) and/or 329 (EU numbering). More particularly, provided is a trimeric TNF family ligand-containing antigen binding molecule according to the invention which comprises an Fc domain with the amino acid substitutions L234A, L235A and P329G (EU numbering) in the IgG heavy chains.

In a particular aspect, the invention provides a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the Fc domain is an IgG1 Fc domain and comprises amino acid substitutions at positions 234 and 235 (EU numbering) and 329 (EU numbering) of the IgG heavy chains.

In another aspect, provided is a monovalent TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, comprising one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen.

In particular, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention comprising (c) an Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association further comprises (a) a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, wherein the Fab heavy chain is fused at the C-terminus to the N-terminus of a CH2 domain in the Fc domain.

Furthermore, the invention provides a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises

  • (a) a heavy chain and a light chain, both comprising a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, and
  • (b) a fusion protein comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:15.

In another aspect, provided is a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described hereinbefore, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises

  • (a) a heavy chain and a light chain, both comprising a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, and
  • (b) the fusion protein comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:20.

In a further aspect, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule comprises

  • (i) a first heavy chain comprising the VH domain of a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen,
  • (ii) a light chain comprising the VL domain of a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, and
  • (iii) a second heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103 or SEQ ID NO:8.

In a particular aspect, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule comprises (i) a first heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:16 or a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:110, (ii) a light chain comprising a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:17 or a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:111, and (iii) a second heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103 or SEQ ID NO:8. In another aspect, TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule comprises (i) a first heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:118, (ii) a light chain comprising a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:119, and (iii) a second heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103 or SEQ ID NO:8. In a further aspect, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule comprises (i) a first heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:126 or a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:134, (ii) a light chain comprising a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:127 or a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:135, and (iii) a second heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103 or SEQ ID NO:8.

In another aspect, provided is a bivalent TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule, comprising two moieties capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen.

In one aspect, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule comprises

  • (i) a first heavy chain comprising a VH domain of a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen,
  • (ii) two light chains comprising each the VL domain of a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, and
  • (iii) a second heavy chain comprising a VH domain of a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen and the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103 or SEQ ID NO:8.

In a particular aspect, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule comprises (i) a first heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:16 or a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:110, (ii) two light chains comprising each a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:17 or a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:111, and (iii) a second heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:16 or a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:110 and the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103 or SEQ ID NO:8. In another aspect, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule comprises (i) a first heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:118, (ii) two light chains comprising each a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:119, and (iii) a second heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:118 and the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103 or SEQ ID NO:8. In yet another aspect, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule comprises (i) a first heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:126 or a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:134, (ii) two light chains comprising a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:127 or a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:135, and (iii) a second heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:126 or a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:134 and the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103 or SEQ ID NO:8.

In a particular aspect, provided is a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises

  • (i) a variable heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:16,
  • (ii) a variable light chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:17, and
  • (iii) a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5.

More particularly, provided is a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises

  • (i) a heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:18,
  • (ii) a light chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:19, and
  • (iii) a fusion protein comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:15.

In a particular aspect, provided is a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises

  • (i) a variable heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:16,
  • (ii) a variable light chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:17, and
  • (iii) a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:8.

More particularly, provided is a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises

  • (i) a heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:18,
  • (ii) a light chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:19, and
  • (iii) a fusion protein comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:20.

According to another aspect of the invention, there is provided an isolated polynucleotide encoding a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as defined herein before. The invention further provides a vector, particularly an expression vector, comprising the isolated polynucleotide of the invention and a host cell comprising the isolated polynucleotide or the vector of the invention. In some embodiments the host cell is a eukaryotic cell, particularly a mammalian cell.

In another aspect, provided is a method for producing the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention, comprising the steps of (i) culturing the host cell of the invention under conditions suitable for expression of the antigen binding molecule, and (ii) recovering the antigen binding molecule. The invention also encompasses a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule produced by the method of the invention.

The invention further provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention and at least one pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.

Also encompassed by the invention is the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention, or the pharmaceutical composition of the invention, for use as a medicament. In one aspect, provided is a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention, or the pharmaceutical composition of the invention, for use in the treatment of a disease in an individual in need thereof. In a specific embodiment, provided is the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention, or the pharmaceutical composition of the invention, for use in the treatment of cancer.

Also provided is the use of the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention for the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of a disease in an individual in need thereof, in particular for the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of cancer, as well as a method of treating a disease in an individual, comprising administering to said individual a therapeutically effective amount of a composition comprising the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention in a pharmaceutically acceptable form. In a specific embodiment, the disease is cancer. In any of the above embodiments the individual is preferably a mammal, particularly a human.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIGS. 1A and 1B show polypeptides comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof that are connected to each other by peptide linkers. FIG. 1A shows a polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of 4-1BBL that are connected to each other by peptide linkers and FIG. 1B shows a polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of OX40L that are connected to each other by peptide linkers.

FIGS. 2A and 2B schematically show variants (2A) and (2B) of the monovalent TNF ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules of the invention. The three TNF ligands are symbolized by the grey areas with white points. The white areas with black points symbolize the Fc part, the thick black point stands for the knob-into-hole modification.

A representative example of the TNF ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention is a FAP-targeted trimeric 4-1BB ligand Fc (kih) P329G LALA fusion antigen binding molecule as shown in FIG. 3A. Its preparation is described in Examples 1.1 and 1.3. FIG. 3B shows the “untargeted” variant (control 1) comprising a DP47 Fab molecule and the single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand Fc (kih) P329G LALA fusion antigen binding molecule as prepared in Example 2. FIG. 3C is a drawing of the monomeric 4-1BB Fc(kih) construct as prepared in Example 4.

Another example of the TNF ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention is a FAP-targeted trimeric OX40 ligand Fc (kih) P329G LALA fusion antigen binding molecule as shown in FIG. 4A. Its preparation is described in Example 6. FIG. 4B shows the “untargeted” variant comprising a DP47 Fab molecule and the single chain trimeric OX40 ligand Fc (kih) P329G LALA fusion molecule as prepared in Example 7. FIG. 4C is a drawing of the monomeric OX40 Fc(kih) construct as prepared in Example 8.

FIGS. 5A-D show the binding of FAP-targeted 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion molecule (compound S1) to recombinant 4-1BB Fc (kih) receptor as assessed by surface plasmon resonance. In FIG. 5A the setup of the assay is shown, 4-1BB Fc (kih) is immobilized on a SA chip. FIG. 5B shows binding to human 4-1BB Fc (kih), FIG. 5C binding to cynomolgus 4-1BB Fc (kih) and FIG. 5D binding to murine 4-1BB Fc (kih).

The binding of DP47 containing 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule (Control 1) to recombinant 4-1BB Fc kih receptor is shown in FIGS. 6A-C. 4-1BB Fc (kih) is immobilized on a SA chip. FIG. 6A shows binding to human 4-1BB Fc (kih), FIG. 6B binding to cynomolgus 4-1BB Fc (kih) and FIG. 6C binding to murine 4-1BB Fc (kih).

FIGS. 7A-E illustrate the binding of recombinant human 4-1BB to FAP-targeted 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule (compound Si). In FIG. 7A the setup of the affinity measurement is shown. FIGS. 7B and 7C show the binding of human 4-1BB avi-His tag to the FAP-targeted 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule (FAP-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BBL) and FIGS. 7D and 7E show the binding of human 4-1BB avi-His tag to DP47 containing 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule (DP47-containing single chain trimeric 4-1BBL molecule).

FIGS. 8A-D shows the binding of FAP-targeted OX40 ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule (compound S10) to recombinant OX40 Fc (kih) receptor as assessed by surface plasmon resonance. In FIG. 8A the setup of the assay is shown, OX40 Fc (kih) is immobilized on a SA chip. FIG. 8B shows binding to human OX40 Fc (kih), FIG. 8C binding to cynomolgus OX40 Fc (kih) and FIG. 8D binding to murine OX40 Fc (kih).

In FIGS. 9A-C, the binding of DP47-containing OX40 ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion molecule (Control 3) to recombinant OX40 Fc kih receptor is demonstrated. OX40 Fc (kih) is immobilized on a SA chip. FIG. 9A shows binding to human OX40 Fc (kih), FIG. 9B binding to cynomolgus OX40 Fc (kih) and FIG. 9C binding to murine OX40 Fc (kih).

FIGS. 10A-C show the binding of recombinant human OX40 to FAP-targeted OX40 ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule (Compound S10). In FIG. 10A the setup of the affinity measurement is shown. In FIG. 10B the binding of human OX40 avi-His tag to the FAP-targeted OX40 ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule (FAP-targeted single chain OX40 ligand) is shown and FIG. 10C illustrates the binding of human 4-1BB avi-His tag to DP47-containing OX40 ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion molecule (DP47-containing single chain trimeric OX40L).

4-1BB and OX40 are not expressed on resting (naïve) human PBMCs (FIGS. 11A, 11C, 11E and 11G, FIGS. 12A and 12C). After activation of human PBMCs 4-1BB and OX40 are up-regulated on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells whereas human CD8+ T cells (FIGS. 11B, 11F, 11K and 11M and 12B) show a 10 times higher 4-1BB but a 4 times lower OX40 upregulation than on CD4+ T cells (FIGS. 11D, 11H, 11J and 11L and 12D). As shown, FAP-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BBL or OX40L Fc(kih) fusion antigen binding molecules (filled circle) and DP47-containing (“untargeted”) single chain trimeric 4-1BBL and OX40L (open circle, dotted line) show a similar binding to activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells but no binding to naïve human T cells. Therefore independent of FAP- or DP47-binding, both single chain trimeric 4-1BBL and single chain trimeric OX40L show similar binding to human 4-1BB or OX40 expressing cells. In the absence of human 4-1BB or OX40 expressing cells no binding can be observed (resting, naïve cells). Shown is the binding as median of fluorescence intensity (MFI) of red macrophytic algae Phycoerythrin (R-PE)- or Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated anti-human IgG Fcγ-specific goat IgG F(ab′)2 fragment which is used as secondary detection antibody. MFI was measured by flow cytometry and baseline corrected by subtracting the MFI of the blank control. The x-axis shows the concentration of FAP- or DP47-containing single chain trimeric 4-1BBL or OX40L Fc(kih) fusion molecules.

FIGS. 11A-D relate to the binding of FAP-targeted 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing Fc(kih) fusion antigen binding molecule (Compound S1, filled circles) or DP47-containing 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing Fc(kih) fusion molecule (Control 1, open circles) to resting (naive) or activated human PMBCs. Specifically, the binding to resting (naive) or activated human CD8+ T cells is shown in the upper two graphs and to resting (naive) or activated human CD4+ T cells in the two graphs below, respectively.

FIGS. 11E-H show the binding of monovalent targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecules to resting and activated human T cells. 4-1BB is not expressed on resting (naive) CD4 or CD8 T cells isolated from the blood of healthy donors. After activation 4-1BB is upregulated on CD4+ (see graph right below) and CD8+ (see graph right above) T cells whereas CD8+ T cells show a 5-10 times higher 4-1BB expression than CD4+ T cells (depending on the donor). As shown, all monovalent targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BBL Fc (kih) fusion molecules bound similar to 4-1BB+ human T cells, independent of their targeting. Shown is on the the y-axis the mean of fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the R-PE-conjugated anti-human IgG Fcγ fragment-specific F(ab′)2 goat IgG fragment. On the x-axis the tested concentration of the different targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecules (compounds S1, S3 and S5) are indicated. Values were baseline corrected by subtracting the MFI of blank control.

In FIGS. 11J-M it is shown the binding of monovalent versus bivalent targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecules to activated human T cells. After activation 4-1BB is upregulated on CD4+ (left hand side) and CD8+ (right hand side) T cells. As shown, all monovalent and bivalent targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BBL Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecules bound similar to 4-1BB+ human T cells, independent of their targeting. Shown is on the the y-axis the mean of fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the R-PE-conjugated anti-human IgG Fcγ fragment-specific F(ab′)2 goat IgG fragment. On the x-axis the tested concentration of the different targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecules (Compounds S1, S3, S2 and S4) are indicated. Values were baseline corrected by subtracting the MFI of blank control.

FIGS. 12A-D show the binding of FAP-targeted OX40 ligand trimer-containing Fc(kih) fusion antigen binding molecule (Compound S10, filled circles) or DP47-containing OX40 ligand trimer-containing Fc(kih) fusion molecule (DP47 single chain OX40L trimer, Control 3, open circles) to resting (naive) or activated human PMBCs. Specifically, the binding to resting (naive) or activated human CD8+ T cells is shown in FIGS. 12A and 12B, respectively, and to resting (naive) or activated human CD4+ T cells in FIG. 12C and 12D, respectively. The binding of DP47 human IgG1 P329G LALA is symbolized by the filled diamonds (negative control).

FIGS. 13A-E shows the binding of single chain TNF ligand trimer-containing Fc(kih) fusion antigen binding molecules (compound S1 and S10, respectively) to transgenic modified mouse embryonic fibroblast NIH/3T3-huFAP clone 39 (FIG. 13A) or to fibroblast activation protein (FAP)-expressing human WM266-4 cell line (FIG. 13B). These cells express high levels of human fibroblast activation protein (huFAP). Shown is the binding as median of fluorescence intensity (MFI) of Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled anti-human IgG Fcγ-specific goat IgG F(ab′)2 fragment which is used as secondary detection antibody. MFI was measured by flow cytometry. The x-axis shows the concentration of FAP-targeted or DP47-targeted (“untargeted”) single chain trimeric 4-1BBL or OX40L antigen binding molecule. In FIG. 13A it is shown that only the FAP-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BBL molecule (Compound S1, filled circles), but not the DP47-containing single chain trimeric 4-1BBL antigen binding molecule (open circles, dotted line) binds to NIH/3T3-huFAP clone 39 cells, FIG. 13B demonstrates that only the FAP-targeted single chain trimeric OX40L antigen binding molecule (Compound S10, filled circles), but not the DP47-containing single chain trimeric OX40 antigen binding molecule (open circles, dotted line) binds to WM266-4 cells. As a negative control DP47 human IgG1 P329G LALA symbolized by the filled diamonds did also not bind.

In FIGS. 13C and 13D it is shown the binding of monovalent versus bivalent FAP (4B9 or 28H1)-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecules to FAP-expressing tumor cells. As shown, the FAP (4B9)-targeted molecules show the strongest binding to FAP with a lower EC50 value. With the strong FAP (4B9) binder we see only very small differences in MFI or EC50 between the monovalent and the bivalent targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand (kih) fusion antigen molecules (compounds S3 and S2, respectively). This is different for the weaker FAP-binder 28H1 (compound S1). Here a bivalent binding (shown with the bivalent binding FAP (28H1)-targeted huIgG1 P329G LALA) gives a lower MFI. DP47-untargeted molecules do not bind to the FAP+ tumor cells and are therefore truly untargeted. Shown is on the the y-axis the mean of fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the R-PE-conjugated anti-human IgG Fcγ fragment-specific F(ab')2 goat IgG fragment. On the x-axis the tested concentration of the different targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecules are indicated.

FIG. 13E shows the binding of monovalent versus bivalent CEA-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecules to a CEA-expressing tumor cell line. The binding of the bivalent CEA-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule (compound S4) gives a lower MFI than that of the monovalent CEA-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule (compound S5). This can be explained by the occupation of two CEA-molecules on the surface of the tumor cell at the same time. The DP47-untargeted molecules (Control 1 and 2, respectively) do not bind to the CEA+MKN45 tumor cells and are therefore truly untargeted. Shown is on the the y-axis the mean of fluorescence intensity (MFI) of the PE-conjugated anti-human IgG Fcγ fragment-specific F(ab′)2 goat IgG fragment. On the x-axis the tested concentration of the different targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecules are indicated.

In FIGS. 14A and 14B it is shown that FAP-targeted 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing Fc(kih) fusion antigen binding molecules (compound 51, filled circles) or DP47-containing 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing Fc(kih) fusion antigen binding molecules (Control 1; open circles) do not bind to mouse 4-1BB expressing activated mouse splenocytes. An anti-mouse CD137-specific human IgG1 P329G LALA antibody (clone Lob12.3) was used as positive control (triangles). The binding is characterized by plotting the MFI of R-PE-labeled anti-human IgG Fcγ-specific goat IgG F(ab′)2 fragment that is used as secondary detection antibody versus the concentration in nM of the tested primary 4-1BBL trimer antigen binding molecules. MFI was measured by flow cytometry and baseline corrected by subtracting the MFI of the blank control.

The scheme in FIG. 15 illustrates the general principal of the NFκB activity assay described in Example 11.1.2. using a reporter cell line. The ratio of anti-hu IgG1 Fcγ-specific antibody to human 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing Fc(kih) fusion antigen binding molecules was 1 to 4.

In FIG. 16 it is shown the activation of NFκB signaling pathway in the reporter cell line by secondary-antibody-crosslinked FAP-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BBL antigen binding molecules (Compound S1, filled circles) or secondary-antibody-crosslinked DP47-containing single chain trimeric 4-1BBL molecules (Control 1, open circle, dotted line). The reporter cells were cultured for 6 hours in the presence of single chain 4-1BBL trimer-containing antigen binding molecules at the indicated concentrations together with crosslinking secondary poly-clonal anti-huIgG1 Fcγ-specific goat IgG F(ab)2 fragment in a 1 to 4 ratio. Luciferase activity was assessed as described in Example 11.1.1. Activity is characterized by blotting the units of released light (URL) measured during 0.5 s versus the concentration in nM of tested single chain human 4-1BBL trimer antigen binding molecules. URLs are emitted due to luciferase-mediated oxidation of luciferin to oxyluciferin.

The scheme in FIG. 17 illustrates the general principal of the NFκB-mediated luciferase-activity assay as described in Example 11.1.3. using HeLa-hu4-1BB-NFkB-luc clone 26 as reporter cell line. The used ratio of FAP-expressing tumor cells to human 4-1BB expressing reporter cells was 5 to 1.

FIGS. 18A-D show the activation of the NFκB signaling pathway in the reporter cells via FAP-expressing tumor cell line crosslinked FAP-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BBL Fc(kih) fusion antigen binding molecules (Compound S1, filled circles). The data for not-crosslinked DP47-containing single chain trimeric 4-1BBL molecules is shown as a negative control (Control 1, open circles, dotted line). The reporter cells were cultured for 6 hours in the presence of titrated FAP-targeted or DP47-containing single chain trimeric 4-1BBL molecules and crosslinking FAP+ tumor cell lines. The ratio between reporter cells and FAP-expressing tumor cells was 1 to 5. NFκB-mediated luciferase activity is characterized by blotting the units of released light (URL) measured during 0.5 s versus the concentration in nM of tested single chain trimeric 4-1BBL antigen binding molecules. URLs are emitted due to luciferase-mediated oxidation of luciferin to oxyluciferin. Values are baseline corrected by subtracting the URLs of the blank control. FIG. 18A shows the activation with MV3 cell line as target cells, cell line NIH/3T3-human FAP clone 39 was used as target cells in FIG. 18B. FIG. 18C shows the activation with WM-266-4 cell lines as target cells and FIG. 18D shows the measured data if no FAP+ targeting cells are present.

FIGS. 19A-C show the activation of NK-KB via 4-1BB activation mediated by FAP-targeted crosslinking of single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecules. Shown is the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway in the HeLa-hu4-1BB-NFkB-luc clone 26 reporter cells via FAP-expressing tumor cell line crosslinked FAP-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand Fc (kih) fusion molecules. DP47-untargeted single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand Fc (kih) fusion molecules do not induce NK-κB activation (Controls 1 and 2). Monovalent FAP-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecules (Compounds S1 and S3) induce a stronger NF-KB activation than bivalent FAP-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand Fc (kih) fusion molecule (Compound S2). The HeLa-hu4-1BB-NF-κB-luc reporter cells were cultured for 6 hours in the presence of titrated FAP-targeted or DP47-untargeted single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecules and crosslinking FAP+ tumor cell lines. The ratio between reporter cells and FAP-expressing tumor cells was 1:5. NF-κB-mediated luciferase activity is characterized by blotting the units of released light (URL) measured during 0.5 s versus the concentration in nM of tested single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligands. URLs are emitted due to luciferase-mediated oxidation of luciferin to oxyluciferin. Values are baseline corrected by subtracting the URLs of the blank control. FIG. 19A shows the activation with MV3 cell line as target cells and FIG. 19B the activation with WM-266-4 cell lines as target cells. FIG. 19C shows the measured data if no FAP+ targeting cells are present.

In FIGS. 20A-B it is shown the activation of NF-KB signaling pathway in the HeLa-hu4-1BB-NFkB-luc clone 26 reporter cells via CEA-expressing tumor cell line crosslinked CEA (sm9b)-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecules (Compounds S4 and S5). DP47-untargeted single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand Fc (kih) fusion molecules do not induce NK-κB activation (Control 1 and 2). Monovalent CEA (sm9b)-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand Fc (kih) fusion antigen molecules (compound S5) induce a stronger NF-κB activation than bivalent CEA (sm9b)-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecules (compound S4). The HeLa-hu4-1BB-NF-κB-luc reporter cells were cultured for 6 hours in the presence of titrated CEA (Sm9b)-targeted or DP47-untargeted single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand Fc (kih) fusion molecules and crosslinking CEA+ MKN45 tumor cell line. The ratio between reporter cells and CEA-expressing MKN45 tumor cells was 1:5. NF-κB-mediated luciferase activity is characterized by blotting the units of released light (URL) measured during 0.5 s versus the concentration in nM of tested single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligands. URLs are emitted due to luciferase-mediated oxidation of luciferin to oxyluciferin. Values are baseline corrected by subtracting the URLs of the blank control. FIG. 20A shows the activation with MKN45 cell line as target cells and FIG. 20B shows the measured data if no CEA+ targeting cells are present.

The activation of the NFKB signaling pathway in the HeLa-huOX40-NFkB-luc1 reporter cells via FAP-expressing WM266-4 tumor cell line crosslinking FAP-targeted single chain trimeric OX40L molecules (filled circles, Compounds S10) is shown in FIG. 21B. Not crosslinked DP47-containing single chain trimeric OX40L molecules (open circle, dotted line, Control 3) are shown as a negative control. The reporter cells were cultured for 6 hours in the presence of titrated FAP-targeted or DP47-containing single chain trimeric OX40L molecules and crosslinking FAP+ tumor cell lines. The ratio between reporter cells and FAP-expressing tumor cells was 1 to 2.5. NFκB-mediated luciferase activity is characterized by blotting the units of released light (URL) measured during 0.5 s versus the concentration in nM of tested single chain trimeric OX40L antigen binding molecules. URLs are emitted due to luciferase-mediated oxidation of luciferin to oxyluciferin. Values are baseline corrected by subtracting the URLs of the blank control. As shown in FIG. 21A, FAP-targeted single chain trimeric OX40L molecules (Compound S10, filled circles) and DP47-containing single chain trimeric OX40L antigen binding molecules (Control 3) already induce a certain amount of NFκB activation if no FAP+ targeting cells are present and thus no cross-linking happened.

The scheme in FIG. 22 illustrates the general principal of the antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell activation assay described in Example 10.2.2.

FIGS. 23A-F and 24A-F show the effect of single chain trimeric 4-1BBL antigen binding molecules on CD137 expression (FIGS. 23A-F) of NLV-specific CD8+ T cells on IFNγ secretion of NLV-specific CD8+ T cells (FIGS. 24A-F). Prolonged IFNγ secretion and CD137 expression of NLV-specific CD8+ T cells is strictly dependent on simultaneous activation of T-cells via recognition of NLV-HLA-A2 complexes (signal 1, Figures A and B) and 4-1BB-triggering by FAP-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BBL antigen binding molecules (signal 2, Figures C to F). Filled circles: FAP-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BBL molecules (compound S1); open circles: DP47-containing single chain trimeric 4-1BBL molecules (control 3). The effect of 4-1BB upregulation is shown in FIGS. 23A to 23F, whereas the effect of INFγ expression of CD8+ T cells is presented in FIGS. 24A to 24F. Shown is always the median of fluorescence intensity (left panels) and the frequency in percentage of positive cells in the total CD8+ T cell population (right panels).

In FIGS. 25A-F and 26A-F is shown the prolonged IFNy secretion and CD137 expression of NLV-specific CD8+ T cells that is strictly dependent on simultaneous activation of T-cells via recognition of NLV-HLA-A2 complexes (signal 1, Figures A and B) and 4-1BB-triggering by FAP-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand (signal 2, Figures C to F). The effect of 4-1BB upregulation is shown in FIGS. 25A to 25F, whereas the effect of INFγ expression is shown in FIGS. 26A to 26F. Shown is always the median of fluorescence intensity (left panels) and the frequency in percentage of positive cells in the total CD8+ T cell population (right panels) versus the used concentration of monovalent or bivalent FAP (28H1 or 4B9)-targeted or DP47-untargeted single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand (kih) fusion antigen binding molecules.

FIGS. 27A-F demonstrate that costimulation with DP47-containing trimeric single chain OX40L molecules (open circle, dotted line, Control 3) only slightly promoted proliferation and induced an enhanced activated phenotype (CD25 expression) in human CD4+ (left side) and CD8+ T cells (right side) stimulated suboptimally with anti-human CD3 antibody. Hyper-crosslinking of the FAP-targeted trimeric single chain Ox40L molecules by the present NIH/3T3-huFAP clone 39 cells strongly increased this effect (filled circle, Compound S10). Shown is either the event count, the percentage of proliferating (CFSE-low) cells or the MFI of CD25-PerCPCy5.5 on vital CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Baseline values of blank samples containing only anti-human CD3 (clone V9, huIgG1), resting human PBMC and NIH/3T3-huFAP clone 39) were subtracted from test compound samples. Thus the enhancing effect of OX40L co-stimulation but not the effect of suboptimal anti-CD3 stimulation per se is shown here.

FIG. 28A shows a polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of 4-1BBL that are connected to each other by peptide linkers. FIG. 28B shows a representative example of a bivalent TNF ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention comprising the polypeptide of FIG. 28A. The three TNF ligands are symbolized by the grey areas at the bottom. The white areas with black points symbolize the Fc part, the thick black point stands for the knob-into-hole modification.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Definitions

Unless defined otherwise, technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as generally used in the art to which this invention belongs. For purposes of interpreting this specification, the following definitions will apply and whenever appropriate, terms used in the singular will also include the plural and vice versa.

As used herein, the term “antigen binding molecule” refers in its broadest sense to a molecule that specifically binds an antigenic determinant. Examples of antigen binding molecules are antibodies, antibody fragments and scaffold antigen binding proteins.

As used herein, the term “moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen” refers to a polypeptide molecule that specifically binds to an antigenic determinant. In one aspect, the antigen binding moiety is able to activate signaling through its target cell antigen. In a particular aspect, the antigen binding moiety is able to direct the entity to which it is attached (e.g. the TNF family ligand trimer) to a target site, for example to a specific type of tumor cell or tumor stroma bearing the antigenic determinant. Moieties capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen include antibodies and fragments thereof as further defined herein. In addition, moieties capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen include scaffold antigen binding proteins as further defined herein, e.g. binding domains which are based on designed repeat proteins or designed repeat domains (see e.g. WO 2002/020565).

In relation to an antibody or fragment thereof, the term “moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen” refers to the part of the molecule that comprises the area which specifically binds to and is complementary to part or all of an antigen. A moiety capable of specific antigen binding may be provided, for example, by one or more antibody variable domains (also called antibody variable regions). Particularly, a moiety capable of specific antigen binding comprises an antibody light chain variable region (VL) and an antibody heavy chain variable region (VH).

The term “antibody” herein is used in the broadest sense and encompasses various antibody structures, including but not limited to monoclonal antibodies, polyclonal antibodies, monospecific and multispecific antibodies (e.g., bispecific antibodies), and antibody fragments so long as they exhibit the desired antigen-binding activity.

The term “monoclonal antibody” as used herein refers to an antibody obtained from a population of substantially homogeneous antibodies, i.e., the individual antibodies comprising the population are identical and/or bind the same epitope, except for possible variant antibodies, e.g. containing naturally occurring mutations or arising during production of a monoclonal antibody preparation, such variants generally being present in minor amounts. In contrast to polyclonal antibody preparations, which typically include different antibodies directed against different determinants (epitopes), each monoclonal antibody of a monoclonal antibody preparation is directed against a single determinant on an antigen.

The term “monospecific” antibody as used herein denotes an antibody that has one or more binding sites each of which bind to the same epitope of the same antigen. The term “bispecific” means that the antigen binding molecule is able to specifically bind to at least two distinct antigenic determinants. Typically, a bispecific antigen binding molecule comprises two antigen binding sites, each of which is specific for a different antigenic determinant. In certain embodiments the bispecific antigen binding molecule is capable of simultaneously binding two antigenic determinants, particularly two antigenic determinants expressed on two distinct cells.

The term “valent” as used within the current application denotes the presence of a specified number of binding sites in an antigen binding molecule. As such, the terms “bivalent”, “tetravalent”, and “hexavalent” denote the presence of two binding sites, four binding sites, and six binding sites, respectively, in an antigen binding molecule.

The terms “full length antibody”, “intact antibody”, and “whole antibody” are used herein interchangeably to refer to an antibody having a structure substantially similar to a native antibody structure. “Native antibodies” refer to naturally occurring immunoglobulin molecules with varying structures. For example, native IgG-class antibodies are heterotetrameric glycoproteins of about 150,000 daltons, composed of two light chains and two heavy chains that are disulfide-bonded. From N- to C-terminus, each heavy chain has a variable region (VH), also called a variable heavy domain or a heavy chain variable domain, followed by three constant domains (CH1, CH2, and CH3), also called a heavy chain constant region. Similarly, from N- to C-terminus, each light chain has a variable region (VL), also called a variable light domain or a light chain variable domain, followed by a light chain constant domain (CL), also called a light chain constant region. The heavy chain of an antibody may be assigned to one of five types, called a (IgA), δ (IgD), ϵ (IgE), γ (IgG), or μ (IgM), some of which may be further divided into subtypes, e.g. γ1 (IgG1), γ2 (IgG2), γ3 (IgG3), γ4 (IgG4), α1 (IgA1) and α2 (IgA2). The light chain of an antibody may be assigned to one of two types, called kappa (κ) and lambda (λ), based on the amino acid sequence of its constant domain.

An “antibody fragment” refers to a molecule other than an intact antibody that comprises a portion of an intact antibody that binds the antigen to which the intact antibody binds. Examples of antibody fragments include but are not limited to Fv, Fab, Fab′, Fab′-SH, F(ab′)2; diabodies, triabodies, tetrabodies, cross-Fab fragments; linear antibodies; single-chain antibody molecules (e.g. scFv); and single domain antibodies. For a review of certain antibody fragments, see Hudson et al., Nat Med 9, 129-134 (2003). For a review of scFv fragments, see e.g. PlUckthun, in The Pharmacology of Monoclonal Antibodies, vol. 113, Rosenburg and Moore eds., Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 269-315 (1994); see also WO 93/16185; and U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,571,894 and 5,587,458. For discussion of Fab and F(ab′)2 fragments comprising salvage receptor binding epitope residues and having increased in vivo half-life, see U.S. Pat. No. 5,869,046. Diabodies are antibody fragments with two antigen-binding sites that may be bivalent or bispecific, see, for example, EP 404,097; WO 1993/01161; Hudson et al., Nat Med 9, 129-134 (2003); and Hollinger et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90, 6444-6448 (1993). Triabodies and tetrabodies are also described in Hudson et al., Nat Med 9, 129-134 (2003). Single-domain antibodies are antibody fragments comprising all or a portion of the heavy chain variable domain or all or a portion of the light chain variable domain of an antibody. In certain embodiments, a single-domain antibody is a human single-domain antibody (Domantis, Inc., Waltham, Mass.; see e.g. U.S. Pat. No. 6,248,516 B1). Antibody fragments can be made by various techniques, including but not limited to proteolytic digestion of an intact antibody as well as production by recombinant host cells (e.g. E. coli or phage), as described herein.

Papain digestion of intact antibodies produces two identical antigen-binding fragments, called “Fab” fragments containing each the heavy- and light-chain variable domains and also the constant domain of the light chain and the first constant domain (CH1) of the heavy chain. As used herein, Thus, the term “Fab fragment” refers to an antibody fragment comprising a light chain fragment comprising a VL domain and a constant domain of a light chain (CL), and a VH domain and a first constant domain (CH1) of a heavy chain. Fab' fragments differ from Fab fragments by the addition of a few residues at the carboxy terminus of the heavy chain CH1 domain including one or more cysteins from the antibody hinge region. Fab′-SH are Fab′ fragments wherein the cysteine residue(s) of the constant domains bear a free thiol group. Pepsin treatment yields an F(ab′)2 fragment that has two antigen-combining sites (two Fab fragments) and a part of the Fc region.

The term “cross-Fab fragment” or “xFab fragment” or “crossover Fab fragment” refers to a Fab fragment, wherein either the variable regions or the constant regions of the heavy and light chain are exchanged. Two different chain compositions of a crossover Fab molecule are possible and comprised in the bispecific antibodies of the invention: On the one hand, the variable regions of the Fab heavy and light chain are exchanged, i.e. the crossover Fab molecule comprises a peptide chain composed of the light chain variable region (VL) and the heavy chain constant region (CH1), and a peptide chain composed of the heavy chain variable region (VH) and the light chain constant region (CL). This crossover Fab molecule is also referred to as CrossFab (VLVH). On the other hand, when the constant regions of the Fab heavy and light chain are exchanged, the crossover Fab molecule comprises a peptide chain composed of the heavy chain variable region (VH) and the light chain constant region (CL), and a peptide chain composed of the light chain variable region (VL) and the heavy chain constant region (CH1). This crossover Fab molecule is also referred to as CrossFab(CLCH1).

A “single chain Fab fragment” or “scFab” is a polypeptide consisting of an antibody heavy chain variable domain (VH), an antibody constant domain 1 (CH1), an antibody light chain variable domain (VL), an antibody light chain constant domain (CL) and a linker, wherein said antibody domains and said linker have one of the following orders in N-terminal to C-terminal direction: a) VH-CH1-linker-VL-CL, b) VL-CL-linker-VH-CH1, c) VH-CL-linker-VL-CH1 or d) VL-CH1-linker-VH-CL; and wherein said linker is a polypeptide of at least 30 amino acids, preferably between 32 and 50 amino acids. Said single chain Fab fragments are stabilized via the natural disulfide bond between the CL domain and the CH1 domain. In addition, these single chain Fab molecules might be further stabilized by generation of interchain disulfide bonds via insertion of cysteine residues (e.g. position 44 in the variable heavy chain and position 100 in the variable light chain according to Kabat numbering).

A “crossover single chain Fab fragment” or “x-scFab” is a is a polypeptide consisting of an antibody heavy chain variable domain (VH), an antibody constant domain 1 (CH1), an antibody light chain variable domain (VL), an antibody light chain constant domain (CL) and a linker, wherein said antibody domains and said linker have one of the following orders in N-terminal to C-terminal direction: a) VH-CL-linker-VL-CH1 and b) VL-CH1-linker-VH-CL; wherein VH and VL form together an antigen-binding site which binds specifically to an antigen and wherein said linker is a polypeptide of at least 30 amino acids. In addition, these x-scFab molecules might be further stabilized by generation of interchain disulfide bonds via insertion of cysteine residues (e.g. position 44 in the variable heavy chain and position 100 in the variable light chain according to Kabat numbering).

A “single-chain variable fragment (scFv)” is a fusion protein of the variable regions of the heavy (VH) and light chains (VL) of an antibody, connected with a short linker peptide of ten to about 25 amino acids. The linker is usually rich in glycine for flexibility, as well as serine or threonine for solubility, and can either connect the N-terminus of the VH with the C-terminus of the VL, or vice versa. This protein retains the specificity of the original antibody, despite removal of the constant regions and the introduction of the linker. scFv antibodies are, e.g. described in

Houston, J.S., Methods in Enzymol. 203 (1991) 46-96). In addition, antibody fragments comprise single chain polypeptides having the characteristics of a VH domain, namely being able to assemble together with a VL domain, or of a VL domain, namely being able to assemble together with a VH domain to a functional antigen binding site and thereby providing the antigen binding property of full length antibodies.

“Scaffold antigen binding proteins” are known in the art, for example, fibronectin and designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins) have been used as alternative scaffolds for antigen-binding domains, see, e.g., Gebauer and Skerra, Engineered protein scaffolds as next-generation antibody therapeutics. Curr Opin Chem Biol 13:245-255 (2009) and Stumpp et al., Darpins: A new generation of protein therapeutics. Drug Discovery Today 13: 695-701 (2008). In one aspect of the invention, a scaffold antigen binding protein is selected from the group consisting of CTLA-4 (Evibody), Lipocalins (Anticalin), a Protein A-derived molecule such as Z-domain of Protein A (Affibody), an A-domain (Avimer/Maxibody), a serum transferrin (trans-body); a designed ankyrin repeat protein (DARPin), a variable domain of antibody light chain or heavy chain (single-domain antibody, sdAb), a variable domain of antibody heavy chain (nanobody, aVH), VNAR fragments, a fibronectin (AdNectin), a C-type lectin domain (Tetranectin); a variable domain of a new antigen receptor beta-lactamase (VNAR fragments), a human gamma-crystallin or ubiquitin (Affilin molecules); a kunitz type domain of human protease inhibitors, microbodies such as the proteins from the knottin family, peptide aptamers and fibronectin (adnectin).

CTLA-4 (Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-associated Antigen 4) is a CD28-family receptor expressed on mainly CD4+ T-cells. Its extracellular domain has a variable domain-like Ig fold. Loops corresponding to CDRs of antibodies can be substituted with heterologous sequence to confer different binding properties. CTLA-4 molecules engineered to have different binding specificities are also known as Evibodies (e.g. U.S. Pat. No. 7,166,697B1). Evibodies are around the same size as the isolated variable region of an antibody (e.g. a domain antibody). For further details see Journal of Immunological Methods 248 (1-2), 31-45 (2001).

Lipocalins are a family of extracellular proteins which transport small hydrophobic molecules such as steroids, bilins, retinoids and lipids. They have a rigid beta-sheet secondary structure with a number of loops at the open end of the conical structure which can be engineered to bind to different target antigens. Anticalins are between 160-180 amino acids in size, and are derived from lipocalins. For further details see Biochim Biophys Acta 1482: 337-350 (2000), U.S. Pat. No. 7,250,297B1 and US20070224633.

An affibody is a scaffold derived from Protein A of Staphylococcus aureus which can be engineered to bind to antigen. The domain consists of a three-helical bundle of approximately 58 amino acids. Libraries have been generated by randomization of surface residues. For further details see Protein Eng. Des. Sel. 2004, 17, 455-462 and EP 1641818A1.

Avimers are multidomain proteins derived from the A-domain scaffold family. The native domains of approximately 35 amino acids adopt a defined disulfide bonded structure. Diversity is generated by shuffling of the natural variation exhibited by the family of A-domains. For further details see Nature Biotechnology 23(12), 1556-1561 (2005) and Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs 16(6), 909-917 (June 2007).

A transferrin is a monomeric serum transport glycoprotein. Transferrins can be engineered to bind different target antigens by insertion of peptide sequences in a permissive surface loop. Examples of engineered transferrin scaffolds include the Trans-body. For further details see J. Biol. Chem 274, 24066-24073 (1999).

Designed Ankyrin Repeat Proteins (DARPins) are derived from Ankyrin which is a family of proteins that mediate attachment of integral membrane proteins to the cytoskeleton. A single ankyrin repeat is a 33 residue motif consisting of two alpha-helices and a beta-turn. They can be engineered to bind different target antigens by randomizing residues in the first alpha-helix and a beta-turn of each repeat. Their binding interface can be increased by increasing the number of modules (a method of affinity maturation). For further details see J. Mol. Biol. 332, 489-503 (2003), PNAS 100(4), 1700-1705 (2003) and J. Mol. Biol. 369, 1015-1028 (2007) and US20040132028A1.

A single-domain antibody is an antibody fragment consisting of a single monomeric variable antibody domain. The first single domains were derived from the variable domain of the antibody heavy chain from camelids (nanobodies or VHH fragments). Furthermore, the term single-domain antibody includes an autonomous human heavy chain variable domain (aVH) or VNAR fragments derived from sharks.

Fibronectin is a scaffold which can be engineered to bind to antigen. Adnectins consists of a backbone of the natural amino acid sequence of the 10th domain of the 15 repeating units of human fibronectin type III (FN3). Three loops at one end of the .beta.-sandwich can be engineered to enable an Adnectin to specifically recognize a therapeutic target of interest. For further details see Protein Eng. Des. Sel. 18, 435-444 (2005), US20080139791, WO2005056764 and U.S. Pat. No. 6,818,418B1.

Peptide aptamers are combinatorial recognition molecules that consist of a constant scaffold protein, typically thioredoxin (TrxA) which contains a constrained variable peptide loop inserted at the active site. For further details see Expert Opin. Biol. Ther. 5, 783-797 (2005).

Microbodies are derived from naturally occurring microproteins of 25-50 amino acids in length which contain 3-4 cysteine bridges—examples of microproteins include KalataBI and conotoxin and knottins. The microproteins have a loop which can be engineered to include upto 25 amino acids without affecting the overall fold of the microprotein. For further details of engineered knottin domains, see WO2008098796.

An “antigen binding molecule that binds to the same epitope” as a reference molecule refers to an antigen binding molecule that blocks binding of the reference molecule to its antigen in a competition assay by 50% or more, and conversely, the reference molecule blocks binding of the antigen binding molecule to its antigen in a competition assay by 50% or more.

The term “antigen binding domain” refers to the part of an antigen binding molecule that comprises the area which specifically binds to and is complementary to part or all of an antigen. Where an antigen is large, an antigen binding molecule may only bind to a particular part of the antigen, which part is termed an epitope. An antigen binding domain may be provided by, for example, one or more variable domains (also called variable regions). Preferably, an antigen binding domain comprises an antibody light chain variable region (VL) and an antibody heavy chain variable region (VH).

As used herein, the term “antigenic determinant” is synonymous with “antigen” and “epitope,” and refers to a site (e.g. a contiguous stretch of amino acids or a conformational configuration made up of different regions of non-contiguous amino acids) on a polypeptide macromolecule to which an antigen binding moiety binds, forming an antigen binding moiety-antigen complex. Useful antigenic determinants can be found, for example, on the surfaces of tumor cells, on the surfaces of virus-infected cells, on the surfaces of other diseased cells, on the surface of immune cells, free in blood serum, and/or in the extracellular matrix (ECM). The proteins useful as antigens herein can be any native form the proteins from any vertebrate source, including mammals such as primates (e.g. humans) and rodents (e.g. mice and rats), unless otherwise indicated. In a particular embodiment the antigen is a human protein. Where reference is made to a specific protein herein, the term encompasses the “full-length”, unprocessed protein as well as any form of the protein that results from processing in the cell. The term also encompasses naturally occurring variants of the protein, e.g. splice variants or allelic variants.

By “specific binding” is meant that the binding is selective for the antigen and can be discriminated from unwanted or non-specific interactions. The ability of an antigen binding molecule to bind to a specific antigen can be measured either through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or other techniques familiar to one of skill in the art, e.g. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) technique (analyzed on a BlAcore instrument) (Liljeblad et al., Glyco J 17, 323-329 (2000)), and traditional binding assays (Heeley, Endocr Res 28, 217-229 (2002)).

In one embodiment, the extent of binding of an antigen binding molecule to an unrelated protein is less than about 10% of the binding of the antigen binding molecule to the antigen as measured, e.g. by SPR. In certain embodiments, an molecule that binds to the antigen has a dissociation constant (Kd) of ≤1 μM, ≤100 nM, ≤10 nM, ≤1 nM, ≤0.1 nM, ≤0.01 nM, or ≤0.001 nM (e.g. 10−8M or less, e.g. from 10−8M to 10−13M, e.g. from 10−9M to 10−13 M).

“Affinity” or “binding affinity” refers to the strength of the sum total of non-covalent interactions between a single binding site of a molecule (e.g. an antibody) and its binding partner (e.g. an antigen). Unless indicated otherwise, as used herein, “binding affinity” refers to intrinsic binding affinity which reflects a 1:1 interaction between members of a binding pair (e.g. antibody and antigen). The affinity of a molecule X for its partner Y can generally be represented by the dissociation constant (Kd), which is the ratio of dissociation and association rate constants (koff and kon, respectively). Thus, equivalent affinities may comprise different rate constants, as long as the ratio of the rate constants remains the same. Affinity can be measured by common methods known in the art, including those described herein. A particular method for measuring affinity is Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR).

A “target cell antigen” as used herein refers to an antigenic determinant presented on the surface of a target cell, for example a cell in a tumor such as a cancer cell or a cell of the tumor stroma. In certain embodiments, the target cell antigen is an antigen on the surface of a tumor cell. In one embodiment, target cell antigen is selected from the group consisting of Fibroblast Activation Protein (FAP), Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA), Melanoma-associated Chondroitin

Sulfate Proteoglycan (MCSP), Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), CD19, CD20 and CD33. In particular, the target cell antigen is Fibroblast Activation Protein (FAP).

The term “Fibroblast activation protein (FAP)”, also known as Prolyl endopeptidase FAP or Seprase (EC 3.4.21), refers to any native FAP from any vertebrate source, including mammals such as primates (e.g. humans) non-human primates (e.g. cynomolgus monkeys) and rodents (e.g. mice and rats), unless otherwise indicated. The term encompasses “full-length,” unprocessed FAP as well as any form of FAP which results from processing in the cell. The term also encompasses naturally occurring variants of FAP, e.g., splice variants or allelic variants. In one embodiment, the antigen binding molecule of the invention is capable of specific binding to human, mouse and/or cynomolgus FAP. The amino acid sequence of human FAP is shown in UniProt (www.uniprot.org) accession no. Q12884 (version 149, SEQ ID NO:21), or NCBI (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) RefSeq NP_004451.2. The extracellular domain (ECD) of human FAP extends from amino acid position 26 to 760. The amino acid and nucleotide sequences of a His-tagged human FAP ECD is shown in SEQ ID NOs 22 and 23, respectively. The amino acid sequence of mouse FAP is shown in UniProt accession no. P97321 (version 126, SEQ ID NO:24), or NCBI RefSeq NP_032012.1. The extracellular domain (ECD) of mouse FAP extends from amino acid position 26 to 761. SEQ ID NOs 25 and 26 show the amino acid and nucleotide sequences, respectively, of a His-tagged mouse FAP ECD. SEQ ID NOs 27 and 28 show the amino acid and nucleotide sequences, respectively, of a His-tagged cynomolgus FAP ECD. Preferably, an anti-FAP binding molecule of the invention binds to the extracellular domain of FAP. Exemplary anti-FAP binding molecules are described in International Patent Application No. WO 2012/020006 A2.

The term “Carcinoembroynic antigen (CEA)”, also known as Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5), refers to any native CEA from any vertebrate source, including mammals such as primates (e.g. humans) non-human primates (e.g. cynomolgus monkeys) and rodents (e.g. mice and rats), unless otherwise indicated. The amino acid sequence of human CEA is shown in UniProt accession no. P06731 (version 151, SEQ ID NO:29). CEA has long been identified as a tumor-associated antigen (Gold and Freedman, J Exp Med., 121:439-462, 1965; Berinstein N. L., J Clin Oncol., 20:2197-2207, 2002). Originally classified as a protein expressed only in fetal tissue, CEA has now been identified in several normal adult tissues. These tissues are primarily epithelial in origin, including cells of the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and urogential tracts, and cells of colon, cervix, sweat glands, and prostate (Nap et al., Tumour Biol., 9(2-3):145-53, 1988; Nap et al., Cancer Res., 52(8):2329-23339, 1992). Tumors of epithelial origin, as well as their metastases, contain CEA as a tumor associated antigen. While the presence of CEA itself does not indicate transformation to a cancerous cell, the distribution of CEA is indicative. In normal tissue, CEA is generally expressed on the apical surface of the cell (Hammarstrom S., Semin Cancer Biol. 9(2):67-81 (1999)), making it inaccessible to antibody in the blood stream. In contrast to normal tissue, CEA tends to be expressed over the entire surface of cancerous cells (Hammarstrom S., Semin Cancer Biol. 9(2):67-81 (1999)). This change of expression pattern makes CEA accessible to antibody binding in cancerous cells. In addition, CEA expression increases in cancerous cells. Furthermore, increased CEA expression promotes increased intercellular adhesions, which may lead to metastasis (Marshall J., Semin Oncol., 30(a Suppl. 8):30-6, 2003). The prevalence of CEA expression in various tumor entities is generally very high. In concordance with published data, own analyses performed in tissue samples confirmed its high prevalence, with approximately 95% in colorectal carcinoma (CRC), 90% in pancreatic cancer, 80% in gastric cancer, 60% in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, where it is co-expressed with HER3), and 40% in breast cancer; low expression was found in small cell lung cancer and glioblastoma. CEA is readily cleaved from the cell surface and shed into the blood stream from tumors, either directly or via the lymphatics. Because of this property, the level of serum CEA has been used as a clinical marker for diagnosis of cancers and screening for recurrence of cancers, particularly colorectal cancer (Goldenberg D M., The International Journal of Biological Markers, 7:183-188, 1992; Chau I., et al., J Clin Oncol., 22:1420-1429, 2004; Flamini et al., Clin Cancer Res; 12(23):6985-6988, 2006).

The term “Melanoma-associated Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan (MCSP)”, also known as Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) refers to any native MCSP from any vertebrate source, including mammals such as primates (e.g. humans) non-human primates (e.g. cynomolgus monkeys) and rodents (e.g. mice and rats), unless otherwise indicated. The amino acid sequence of human MCSP is shown in UniProt accession no. Q6UVK1 (version 103, SEQ ID NO:30). The term “Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)”, also named Proto-oncogene c-ErbB-1 or Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-1, refers to any native EGFR from any vertebrate source, including mammals such as primates (e.g. humans) non-human primates (e.g. cynomolgus monkeys) and rodents (e.g. mice and rats), unless otherwise indicated. The amino acid sequence of human EGFR is shown in UniProt accession no. P00533 (version 211, SEQ ID NO:31).

The term “CD19” refers to B-lymphocyte antigen CD19, also known as B-lymphocyte surface antigen B4 or T-cell surface antigen Leu-12 and includes any native CD19 from any vertebrate source, including mammals such as primates (e.g. humans) non-human primates (e.g. cynomolgus monkeys) and rodents (e.g. mice and rats), unless otherwise indicated. The amino acid sequence of human CD19 is shown in Uniprot accession no. P15391 (version 160, SEQ ID NO:32). The term encompasses “full-length” unprocessed human CD19 as well as any form of human CD19 that results from processing in the cell as long as the antibody as reported herein binds thereto. CD19 is a structurally distinct cell surface receptor expressed on the surface of human B cells, including, but not limited to, pre-B cells, B cells in early development {i.e., immature B cells), mature B cells through terminal differentiation into plasma cells, and malignant B cells. CD19 is expressed by most pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALL), non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemias (CLL), pro-lymphocytic leukemias, hairy cell leukemias, common acute lymphocytic leukemias, and some Null-acute lymphoblastic leukemias. The expression of CD19 on plasma cells further suggests it may be expressed on differentiated B cell tumors such as multiple myeloma. Therefore, the CD19 antigen is a target for immunotherapy in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and/or acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

“CD20” refers to B-lymphocyte antigen CD20, also known as membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A member 1 (MS4A1), B-lymphocyte surface antigen B1 or Leukocyte surface antigen Leu-16, and includes any native CD20 from any vertebrate source, including mammals such as primates (e.g. humans) non-human primates (e.g. cynomolgus monkeys) and rodents (e.g. mice and rats), unless otherwise indicated. The amino acid sequence of human CD20 is shown in Uniprot accession no. P11836 (version 149, SEQ ID NO:33). “CD33” refers to Myeloid cell surface antigen CD33, also known as SIGLEC3 or gp67, and includes any native CD33 from any vertebrate source, including mammals such as primates (e.g. humans) non-human primates (e.g. cynomolgus monkeys) and rodents (e.g. mice and rats), unless otherwise indicated. The amino acid sequence of human CD33 is shown in Uniprot accession no. P20138 (version 157, SEQ ID NO:34).

The term “variable region” or “variable domain” refers to the domain of an antibody heavy or light chain that is involved in binding the antigen binding molecule to antigen. The variable domains of the heavy chain and light chain (VH and VL, respectively) of a native antibody generally have similar structures, with each domain comprising four conserved framework regions (FRs) and three hypervariable regions (HVRs). See, e.g., Kindt et al., Kuby Immunology, 6th ed., W.H. Freeman and Co., page 91 (2007). A single VH or VL domain may be sufficient to confer antigen-binding specificity.

The term “hypervariable region” or “HVR,” as used herein refers to each of the regions of an antibody variable domain which are hypervariable in sequence and/or form structurally defined loops (“hypervariable loops”). Generally, native four-chain antibodies comprise six HVRs; three in the VH (H1, H2, H3), and three in the VL (L1, L2, L3). HVRs generally comprise amino acid residues from the hypervariable loops and/or from the “complementarity determining regions” (CDRs), the latter being of highest sequence variability and/or involved in antigen recognition. Exemplary hypervariable loops occur at amino acid residues 26-32 (L1), 50-52 (L2), 91-96 (L3), 26-32 (H1), 53-55 (H2), and 96-101 (H3). (Chothia and Lesk, J. Mol. Biol. 196:901-917 (1987).) Exemplary CDRs (CDR-L1, CDR-L2, CDR-L3, CDR-H1, CDR-H2, and CDR-H3) occur at amino acid residues 24-34 of L1, 50-56 of L2, 89-97 of L3, 31-35B of H1, 50-65 of H2, and 95-102 of H3. (Kabat et al., Sequences of Proteins of Immunological Interest, 5th Ed. Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md. (1991).) Hypervariable regions (HVRs) are also referred to as complementarity determining regions (CDRs), and these terms are used herein interchangeably in reference to portions of the variable region that form the antigen binding regions. This particular region has been described by Kabat et al., U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, “Sequences of Proteins of Immunological Interest” (1983) and by Chothia et al., J. Mol. Biol. 196:901-917 (1987), where the definitions include overlapping or subsets of amino acid residues when compared against each other. Nevertheless, application of either definition to refer to a CDR of an antibody or variants thereof is intended to be within the scope of the term as defined and used herein. The appropriate amino acid residues which encompass the CDRs as defined by each of the above cited references are set forth below in Table A as a comparison. The exact residue numbers which encompass a particular CDR will vary depending on the sequence and size of the CDR. Those skilled in the art can routinely determine which residues comprise a particular CDR given the variable region amino acid sequence of the antibody.

TABLE A CDR Definitions1 CDR Kabat Chothia AbM2 VH CDR1 31-35 26-32 26-35 VH CDR2 50-65 52-58 50-58 VH CDR3  95-102  95-102  95-102 VL CDR1 24-34 26-32 24-34 VL CDR2 50-56 50-52 50-56 VL CDR3 89-97 91-96 89-97 1Numbering of all CDR definitions in Table A is according to the numbering conventions set forth by Kabat et al. (see below). 2“AbM” with a lowercase “b” as used in Table A refers to the CDRs as defined by Oxford Molecular's “AbM” antibody modeling software.

Kabat et al. also defined a numbering system for variable region sequences that is applicable to any antibody. One of ordinary skill in the art can unambiguously assign this system of “Kabat numbering” to any variable region sequence, without reliance on any experimental data beyond the sequence itself. As used herein, “Kabat numbering” refers to the numbering system set forth by Kabat et al., U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, “Sequence of Proteins of Immunological Interest” (1983). Unless otherwise specified, references to the numbering of specific amino acid residue positions in an antibody variable region are according to the Kabat numbering system.

With the exception of CDR1 in VH, CDRs generally comprise the amino acid residues that form the hypervariable loops. CDRs also comprise “specificity determining residues,” or “SDRs,” which are residues that contact antigen. SDRs are contained within regions of the CDRs called abbreviated-CDRs, or a-CDRs. Exemplary a-CDRs (a-CDR-L1, a-CDR-L2, a-CDR-L3, a-CDR-H1, a-CDR-H2, and a-CDR-H3) occur at amino acid residues 31-34 of L1, 50-55 of L2, 89-96 of L3, 31-35B of H1, 50-58 of H2, and 95-102 of H3. (See Almagro and Fransson, Front. Biosci. 13:1619-1633 (2008).) Unless otherwise indicated, HVR residues and other residues in the variable domain (e.g., FR residues) are numbered herein according to Kabat et al., supra.

As used herein, the term “affinity matured” in the context of antigen binding molecules (e.g., antibodies) refers to an antigen binding molecule that is derived from a reference antigen binding molecule, e.g., by mutation, binds to the same antigen, preferably binds to the same epitope, as the reference antibody; and has a higher affinity for the antigen than that of the reference antigen binding molecule. Affinity maturation generally involves modification of one or more amino acid residues in one or more CDRs of the antigen binding molecule. Typically, the affinity matured antigen binding molecule binds to the same epitope as the initial reference antigen binding molecule.

“Framework” or “FR” refers to variable domain residues other than hypervariable region (HVR) residues. The FR of a variable domain generally consists of four FR domains: FR1, FR2, FR3, and FR4. Accordingly, the HVR and FR sequences generally appear in the following sequence in VH (or VL): FR1-H1(L1)-FR2-H2(L2)-FR3-H3(L3)-FR4.

An “acceptor human framework” for the purposes herein is a framework comprising the amino acid sequence of a light chain variable domain (VL) framework or a heavy chain variable domain (VH) framework derived from a human immunoglobulin framework or a human consensus framework, as defined below. An acceptor human framework “derived from” a human immunoglobulin framework or a human consensus framework may comprise the same amino acid sequence thereof, or it may contain amino acid sequence changes. In some embodiments, the number of amino acid changes are 10 or less, 9 or less, 8 or less, 7 or less, 6 or less, 5 or less, 4 or less, 3 or less, or 2 or less. In some embodiments, the VL acceptor human framework is identical in sequence to the VL human immunoglobulin framework sequence or human consensus framework sequence.

The term “chimeric” antibody refers to an antibody in which a portion of the heavy and/or light chain is derived from a particular source or species, while the remainder of the heavy and/or light chain is derived from a different source or species.

The “class” of an antibody refers to the type of constant domain or constant region possessed by its heavy chain. There are five major classes of antibodies: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM, and several of these may be further divided into subclasses (isotypes), e.g. IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, IgA1, and IgA2. The heavy chain constant domains that correspond to the different classes of immunoglobulins are called α, δ, ϵ, γ, and μ respectively.

A “humanized” antibody refers to a chimeric antibody comprising amino acid residues from non-human HVRs and amino acid residues from human FRs. In certain embodiments, a humanized antibody will comprise substantially all of at least one, and typically two, variable domains, in which all or substantially all of the HVRs (e.g., CDRs) correspond to those of a non-human antibody, and all or substantially all of the FRs correspond to those of a human antibody. A humanized antibody optionally may comprise at least a portion of an antibody constant region derived from a human antibody. A “humanized form” of an antibody, e.g., a non-human antibody, refers to an antibody that has undergone humanization. Other forms of “humanized antibodies” encompassed by the present invention are those in which the constant region has been additionally modified or changed from that of the original antibody to generate the properties according to the invention, especially in regard to C1q binding and/or Fc receptor (FcR) binding.

A “human” antibody is one which possesses an amino acid sequence which corresponds to that of an antibody produced by a human or a human cell or derived from a non-human source that utilizes human antibody repertoires or other human antibody-encoding sequences. This definition of a human antibody specifically excludes a humanized antibody comprising non-human antigen-binding residues.

The term “Fe domain” or “Fc region” herein is used to define a C-terminal region of an antibody heavy chain that contains at least a portion of the constant region. The term includes native sequence Fc regions and variant Fc regions. An IgG Fc region comprises an IgG CH2 and an IgG CH3 domain. The “CH2 domain” of a human IgG Fc region usually extends from an amino acid residue at about position 231 to an amino acid residue at about position 340. In one embodiment, a carbohydrate chain is attached to the CH2 domain. The CH2 domain herein may be a native sequence CH2 domain or variant CH2 domain. The “CH3 domain” comprises the stretch of residues C-terminal to a CH2 domain in an Fc region (i.e. from an amino acid residue at about position 341 to an amino acid residue at about position 447 of an IgG). The CH3 region herein may be a native sequence CH3 domain or a variant CH3 domain (e.g. a CH3 domain with an introduced “protuberance” (“knob”) in one chain thereof and a corresponding introduced “cavity” (“hole”) in the other chain thereof; see U.S. Pat. No. 5,821,333, expressly incorporated herein by reference). Such variant CH3 domains may be used to promote heterodimerization of two non-identical antibody heavy chains as herein described. In one embodiment, a human IgG heavy chain Fc region extends from Cys226, or from Pro230, to the carboxyl-terminus of the heavy chain. However, the C-terminal lysine (Lys447) of the Fc region may or may not be present. Unless otherwise specified herein, numbering of amino acid residues in the Fc region or constant region is according to the EU numbering system, also called the EU index, as described in Kabat et al., Sequences of Proteins of Immunological Interest, 5th Ed. Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md., 1991.

The “knob-into-hole” technology is described e.g. in U.S. Pat. No. 5,731,168; U.S. Pat. No. 7,695,936; Ridgway et al., Prot Eng 9, 617-621 (1996) and Carter, J Immunol Meth 248, 7-15 (2001). Generally, the method involves introducing a protuberance (“knob”) at the interface of a first polypeptide and a corresponding cavity (“hole”) in the interface of a second polypeptide, such that the protuberance can be positioned in the cavity so as to promote heterodimer formation and hinder homodimer formation. Protuberances are constructed by replacing small amino acid side chains from the interface of the first polypeptide with larger side chains (e.g. tyrosine or tryptophan). Compensatory cavities of identical or similar size to the protuberances are created in the interface of the second polypeptide by replacing large amino acid side chains with smaller ones (e.g. alanine or threonine). The protuberance and cavity can be made by altering the nucleic acid encoding the polypeptides, e.g. by site-specific mutagenesis, or by peptide synthesis. In a specific embodiment a knob modification comprises the amino acid substitution T366W in one of the two subunits of the Fc domain, and the hole modification comprises the amino acid substitutions T366S, L368A and Y407V in the other one of the two subunits of the Fc domain. In a further specific embodiment, the subunit of the Fc domain comprising the knob modification additionally comprises the amino acid substitution S354C, and the subunit of the Fc domain comprising the hole modification additionally comprises the amino acid substitution Y349C. Introduction of these two cysteine residues results in the formation of a disulfide bridge between the two subunits of the Fc region, thus further stabilizing the dimer (Carter, J Immunol Methods 248, 7-15 (2001)). The numbering is according to EU index of Kabat et al, Sequences of Proteins of Immunological Interest, 5th Ed. Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 1991.

A “region equivalent to the Fc region of an immunoglobulin” is intended to include naturally occurring allelic variants of the Fc region of an immunoglobulin as well as variants having alterations which produce substitutions, additions, or deletions but which do not decrease substantially the ability of the immunoglobulin to mediate effector functions (such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity). For example, one or more amino acids can be deleted from the N-terminus or C-terminus of the Fc region of an immunoglobulin without substantial loss of biological function. Such variants can be selected according to general rules known in the art so as to have minimal effect on activity (see, e.g., Bowie, J. U. et al., Science 247:1306-10 (1990)).

The term “effector functions” refers to those biological activities attributable to the Fc region of an antibody, which vary with the antibody isotype. Examples of antibody effector functions include: C1q binding and complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), Fc receptor binding, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), cytokine secretion, immune complex-mediated antigen uptake by antigen presenting cells, down regulation of cell surface receptors (e.g. B cell receptor), and B cell activation.

An “activating Fc receptor” is an Fc receptor that following engagement by an Fc region of an antibody elicits signaling events that stimulate the receptor-bearing cell to perform effector functions. Activating Fc receptors include FcγRIIIa (CD16a), FcγRI (CD64), FcγRIIa (CD32), and FcαRI (CD89). A particular activating Fc receptor is human FcγRIIIa (see UniProt accession no. P08637, version 141).

The term “TNF ligand family member” or “TNF family ligand” refers to a proinflammatory cytokine. Cytokines in general, and in particular the members of the TNF ligand family, play a crucial role in the stimulation and coordination of the immune system. At present, nineteen cyctokines have been identified as members of the TNF (tumour necrosis factor) ligand superfamily on the basis of sequence, functional, and structural similarities. All these ligands are type II transmembrane proteins with a C-terminal extracellular domain (ectodomain), N-terminal intracellular domain and a single transmembrane domain. The C-terminal extracellular domain, known as TNF homology domain (THD), has 20-30% amino acid identity between the superfamily members and is responsible for binding to the receptor. The TNF ectodomain is also responsible for the TNF ligands to form trimeric complexes that are recognized by their specific receptors.

Members of the TNF ligand family are selected from the group consisting of Lymphotoxin a (also known as LTA or TNFSF1), TNF (also known as TNFSF2), LTβ (also known as TNFSF3), OX40L (also known as TNFSF4), CD40L (also known as CD154 or TNFSF5), FasL (also known as CD95L, CD178 or TNFSF6), CD27L (also known as CD70 or TNFSF7), CD30L (also known as CD153 or TNFSF8), 4-1BBL (also known as TNFSF9), TRAIL (also known as APO2L, CD253 or TNFSF10), RANKL (also known as CD254 or TNFSF11), TWEAK (also known as TNFSF12), APRIL (also known as CD256 or TNFSF13), BAFF (also known as CD257 or TNFSF13B), LIGHT (also known as CD258 or TNFSF14), TL1A (also known as VEGI or TNFSF15), GITRL (also known as TNFSF18), EDA-Al (also known as ectodysplasin A1) and EDA-A2 (also known as ectodysplasin A2). The term refers to any native TNF family ligand from any vertebrate source, including mammals such as primates (e.g. humans), non-human primates (e.g. cynomolgus monkeys) and rodents (e.g. mice and rats), unless otherwise indicated. In specific embodiments of the invention, the TNF ligand family member is selected from the group consisting of 4-1BBL, OX40L, GITRL, CD70, CD30L, CD40L and LIGHT. In a particular embodiment, the TNF ligand family member is selected from 4-1BBL and OX40L.

Further information, in particular sequences, of the TNF ligand family members may be obtained from publically accessible databases such as Uniprot (www.uniprot.org). For instance, the human TNF ligands have the following amino acid sequences: human Lymphotoxin α (UniProt accession no. P01374, SEQ ID NO:35), human TNF (UniProt accession no. P01375, SEQ ID NO:36), human Lymphotoxin β (UniProt accession no. Q06643, SEQ ID NO:37), human OX40L (UniProt accession no. P23510, SEQ ID NO:38), human CD40L (UniProt accession no. P29965, SEQ ID NO:39), human FasL (UniProt accession no. P48023, SEQ ID NO:40), human CD27L (UniProt accession no. P32970, SEQ ID NO:41), human CD30L (UniProt accession no. P32971, SEQ ID NO:42), 4-1BBL (UniProt accession no. P41273, SEQ ID NO:43), TRAIL (UniProt accession no. P50591, SEQ ID NO:44), RANKL (UniProt accession no. 014788, SEQ ID NO:45), TWEAK (UniProt accession no. 043508, SEQ ID NO:46), APRIL (UniProt accession no. O75888, SEQ ID NO:47), BAFF (UniProt accession no. Q9Y275, SEQ ID NO:48), LIGHT (UniProt accession no. O43557, SEQ ID NO:49), TL1A (UniProt accession no. O95150, SEQ ID NO:50), GITRL (UniProt accession no. Q9UNG2, SEQ ID NO:51) and ectodysplasin A (UniProt accession no. Q92838, SEQ ID NO:52).

An “ectodomain” is the domain of a membrane protein that extends into the extracellular space (i.e. the space outside the target cell). Ectodomains are usually the parts of proteins that initiate contact with surfaces, which leads to signal transduction. The ectodomain of TNF ligand family member as defined herein thus refers to the part of the TNF ligand protein that extends into the extracellular space (the extracellular domain), but also includes shorter parts or fragments thereof that are responsible for the trimerization and for the binding to the corresponding TNF receptor. The term “ectodomain of a TNF ligand family member or a fragment thereof” thus refers to the extracellular domain of the TNF ligand family member that forms the extracellular domain or to parts thereof that are still able to bind to the receptor (receptor binding domain).

The term “costimulatory TNF ligand family member” or “costimulatory TNF family ligand” refers to a subgroup of TNF ligand family members, which are able to costimulate proliferation and cytokine production of T-cells. These TNF family ligands can costimulate TCR signals upon interaction with their corresponding TNF receptors and the interaction with their receptors leads to recruitment of TNFR-associated factors (TRAF), which initiate signalling cascades that result in T-cell activation. Costimulatory TNF family ligands are selected from the group consisting of 4-1BBL, OX40L, GITRL, CD70, CD30L and LIGHT, more particularly the costimulatory TNF ligand family member is selected from 4-1BBL and OX40L.

As described herein before, 4-1BBL is a type II transmembrane protein and one member of the TNF ligand family. Complete or full length 4-1BBL having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:43 has been described to form trimers on the surface of cells. The formation of trimers is enabled by specific motives of the ectodomain of 4-1BBL. Said motives are designated herein as “trimerization region”. The amino acids 50-254 of the human 4-1BBL sequence (SEQ ID NO:53) form the extracellular domain of 4-1BBL, but even fragments thereof are able to form the trimers.

In specific embodiments of the invention, the term “ectodomain of 4-1BBL or a fragment thereof” refers to a polypeptide having an amino acid sequence selected from SEQ ID NO:4 (amino acids 52-254 of human 4-1BBL), SEQ ID NO:1 (amino acids 71-254 of human 4-1BBL), SEQ ID NO:3 (amino acids 80-254 of human 4-1BBL), SEQ ID NO:2 (amino acids 85-254 of human 4-1BBL), SEQ ID NO:99 (amino acids 71-248 of human 4-1BBL), SEQ ID NO:100 (amino acids 85-248 of human 4-1BBL), SEQ ID NO:101 (amino acids 80-248 of human 4-1BBL) and SEQ ID NO:102 (amino acids 52-254 of human 4-1BBL), but also other fragments of the ectodomain capable of trimerization are included herein.

As described herein before, OX40L is another type II transmembrane protein and a further member of the TNF ligand family. Complete or full length human OX40L has the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:38. The amino acids 51-183 of the human OX40L sequence (SEQ ID NO:6) form the extracellular domain of OX40L, but even fragments thereof that are able to form the trimers. In specific embodiments of the invention, the term “ectodomain of OX40L or a fragment thereof” refers to a polypeptide having an amino acid sequence selected from SEQ ID NO:6 (amino acids 51-183 of human OX40L) or SEQ ID NO:7 (amino acids 52-183 of human OX40L), but also other fragments of the ectodomain capable of trimerization are included herein.

The term “peptide linker” refers to a peptide comprising one or more amino acids. A peptide linker comprises 1 to 44 amino acids, more particularly 2 to 20 amino acids. Peptide linkers are known in the art or are described herein. Suitable, non-immunogenic linker peptides are, for example, (G4S)n, (SG4)n or G4(SG4)n peptide linkers, wherein “n” is generally a number between 1 and 10, typically between 2 and 4, in particular 2, i.e. the peptides selected from the group consisting of GGGGS (SEQ ID NO:136), GGGGSGGGGS (SEQ ID NO:54), SGGGGSGGGG (SEQ ID NO:55) and GGGGSGGGGSGGGG (SEQ ID NO:56), but also include the sequences GSPGSSSSGS (SEQ ID NO:57), GSGSGSGS (SEQ ID NO:58), GSGSGNGS (SEQ ID NO:59), GGSGSGSG (SEQ ID NO:60), GGSGSG (SEQ ID NO:61), GGSG (SEQ ID NO:62), GGSGNGSG (SEQ ID NO:63), GGNGSGSG (SEQ ID NO:64) and GGNGSG (SEQ ID NO:65). Peptide linkers of particular interest are ((G4S)1 or GGGGS (SEQ ID NO:136), (G45)2 or GGGGSGGGGS (SEQ ID NO:54) and GSPGSSSSGS (SEQ ID NO:57), more particularly (G45)2 or GGGGSGGGGS (SEQ ID NO:54) and GSPGSSSSGS (SEQ ID NO:57).

The term “amino acid” as used within this application denotes the group of naturally occurring carboxy α-amino acids comprising alanine (three letter code: ala, one letter code: A), arginine (arg, R), asparagine (asn, N), aspartic acid (asp, D), cysteine (cys, C), glutamine (gln, Q), glutamic acid (glu, E), glycine (gly, G), histidine (his, H), isoleucine (ile, I), leucine (leu, L), lysine (lys, K), methionine (met, M), phenylalanine (phe, F), proline (pro, P), serine (ser, S), threonine (thr, T), tryptophan (trp, W), tyrosine (tyr, Y), and valine (val, V).

A “single chain fusion protein” as used herein refers to a single chain polypeptide composed of one or two ectodomains of said TNF ligand family member fused to a part of antigen binding moiety or Fc part. The fusion may occur by directly linking the N or C-terminal amino acid of the antigen binding moiety via a peptide linker to the C- or N-terminal amino acid of the ectodomain of said TNF ligand family member.

By “fused” or “connected” is meant that the components (e.g. a polypeptide and an ectodomain of said TNF ligand family member) are linked by peptide bonds, either directly or via one or more peptide linkers.

“Percent (%) amino acid sequence identity” with respect to a reference polypeptide (protein) sequence is defined as the percentage of amino acid residues in a candidate sequence that are identical with the amino acid residues in the reference polypeptide sequence, after aligning the sequences and introducing gaps, if necessary, to achieve the maximum percent sequence identity, and not considering any conservative substitutions as part of the sequence identity. Alignment for purposes of determining percent amino acid sequence identity can be achieved in various ways that are within the skill in the art, for instance, using publicly available computer software such as BLAST, BLAST-2, ALIGN. SAWI or Megalign (DNASTAR) software. Those skilled in the art can determine appropriate parameters for aligning sequences, including any algorithms needed to achieve maximal alignment over the full length of the sequences being compared. For purposes herein, however, % amino acid sequence identity values are generated using the sequence comparison computer program ALIGN-2. The ALIGN-2 sequence comparison computer program was authored by Genentech, Inc., and the source code has been filed with user documentation in the U.S. Copyright Office, Washington D.C., 20559, where it is registered under U.S. Copyright Registration No. TXU510087. The ALIGN-2 program is publicly available from Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, Calif., or may be compiled from the source code. The ALIGN-2 program should be compiled for use on a UNIX operating system, including digital UNIX V4.0D. All sequence comparison parameters are set by the ALIGN-2 program and do not vary. In situations where ALIGN-2 is employed for amino acid sequence comparisons, the % amino acid sequence identity of a given amino acid sequence A to, with, or against a given amino acid sequence B (which can alternatively be phrased as a given amino acid sequence A that has or comprises a certain % amino acid sequence identity to, with, or against a given amino acid sequence B) is calculated as follows:


100 times the fraction X/Y

where X is the number of amino acid residues scored as identical matches by the sequence alignment program ALIGN-2 in that program's alignment of A and B, and where Y is the total number of amino acid residues in B. It will be appreciated that where the length of amino acid sequence A is not equal to the length of amino acid sequence B, the % amino acid sequence identity of A to B will not equal the % amino acid sequence identity of B to A. Unless specifically stated otherwise, all % amino acid sequence identity values used herein are obtained as described in the immediately preceding paragraph using the ALIGN-2 computer program.

In certain embodiments, amino acid sequence variants of the TNF ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules provided herein are contemplated. For example, it may be desirable to improve the binding affinity and/or other biological properties of the TNF ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules. Amino acid sequence variants of the TNF ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules may be prepared by introducing appropriate modifications into the nucleotide sequence encoding the molecules, or by peptide synthesis. Such modifications include, for example, deletions from, and/or insertions into and/or substitutions of residues within the amino acid sequences of the antibody. Any combination of deletion, insertion, and substitution can be made to arrive at the final construct, provided that the final construct possesses the desired characteristics, e.g., antigen-binding. Sites of interest for substitutional mutagenesis include the HVRs and Framework (FRs). Conservative substitutions are provided in Table B under the heading “Preferred Substitutions” and further described below in reference to amino acid side chain classes (1) to (6). Amino acid substitutions may be introduced into the molecule of interest and the products screened for a desired activity, e.g., retained/improved antigen binding, decreased immunogenicity, or improved ADCC or CDC.

TABLE B Original Exemplary Preferred Residue Substitutions Substitutions Ala (A) Val; Leu; Ile Val Arg (R) Lys; Gin; Asn Lys Asn (N) Gln; His; Asp, Lys; Arg Gln Asp (D) Glu; Asn Glu Cys (C) Ser; Ala Ser Gln (Q) Asn; Glu Asn Glu (E) Asp; Gln Asp Gly (G) Ala Ala His (H) Asn; Gln; Lys; Arg Arg Ile (I) Leu; Val; Met; Ala; Phe; Norleucine Leu Leu (L) Norleucine; Ile; Val; Met; Ala; Phe Ile Lys (K) Arg; Gln; Asn Arg Met (M) Leu; Phe; Ile Leu Phe (F) Trp; Leu; Val; Ile; Ala; Tyr Tyr Pro (P) Ala Ala Ser (S) Thr Thr Thr (T) Val; Ser Ser Trp (W) Tyr; Phe Tyr Tyr (Y) Trp; Phe; Thr; Ser Phe Val (V) Ile; Leu; Met; Phe; Ala; Norleucine Leu

Amino acids may be grouped according to common side-chain properties:

(1) hydrophobic: Norleucine, Met, Ala, Val, Leu, Ile;

(2) neutral hydrophilic: Cys, Ser, Thr, Asn, Gln;

(3) acidic: Asp, Glu;

(4) basic: His, Lys, Arg;

(5) residues that influence chain orientation: Gly, Pro;

(6) aromatic: Trp, Tyr, Phe.

Non-conservative substitutions will entail exchanging a member of one of these classes for another class.

The term “amino acid sequence variants” includes substantial variants wherein there are amino acid substitutions in one or more hypervariable region residues of a parent antigen binding molecule (e.g. a humanized or human antibody). Generally, the resulting variant(s) selected for further study will have modifications (e.g., improvements) in certain biological properties (e.g., increased affinity, reduced immunogenicity) relative to the parent antigen binding molecule and/or will have substantially retained certain biological properties of the parent antigen binding molecule. An exemplary substitutional variant is an affinity matured antibody, which may be conveniently generated, e.g., using phage display-based affinity maturation techniques such as those described herein. Briefly, one or more HVR residues are mutated and the variant antigen binding molecules displayed on phage and screened for a particular biological activity (e.g. binding affinity). In certain embodiments, substitutions, insertions, or deletions may occur within one or more HVRs so long as such alterations do not substantially reduce the ability of the antigen binding molecule to bind antigen. For example, conservative alterations (e.g., conservative substitutions as provided herein) that do not substantially reduce binding affinity may be made in HVRs. A useful method for identification of residues or regions of an antibody that may be targeted for mutagenesis is called “alanine scanning mutagenesis” as described by Cunningham and Wells (1989) Science, 244:1081-1085. In this method, a residue or group of target residues (e.g., charged residues such as Arg, Asp, His, Lys, and Glu) are identified and replaced by a neutral or negatively charged amino acid (e.g., alanine or polyalanine) to determine whether the interaction of the antibody with antigen is affected. Further substitutions may be introduced at the amino acid locations demonstrating functional sensitivity to the initial substitutions. Alternatively, or additionally, a crystal structure of an antigen-antigen binding molecule complex to identify contact points between the antibody and antigen. Such contact residues and neighboring residues may be targeted or eliminated as candidates for substitution. Variants may be screened to determine whether they contain the desired properties.

Amino acid sequence insertions include amino- and/or carboxyl-terminal fusions ranging in length from one residue to polypeptides containing a hundred or more residues, as well as intrasequence insertions of single or multiple amino acid residues. Examples of terminal insertions include TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule with an N-terminal methionyl residue. Other insertional variants of the molecule include the fusion to the N- or C-terminus to a polypeptide which increases the serum half-life of the TNF ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules.

In certain embodiments, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules provided herein are altered to increase or decrease the extent to which the antibody is glycosylated. Glycosylation variants of the molecules may be conveniently obtained by altering the amino acid sequence such that one or more glycosylation sites is created or removed. Where the TNF ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule comprises an Fc region, the carbohydrate attached thereto may be altered. Native antibodies produced by mammalian cells typically comprise a branched, biantennary oligosaccharide that is generally attached by an N-linkage to Asn297 of the CH2 domain of the Fc region. See, e.g., Wright et al. TIBTECH 15:26-32 (1997). The oligosaccharide may include various carbohydrates, e.g., mannose, N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc), galactose, and sialic acid, as well as a fucose attached to a GlcNAc in the “stem” of the biantennary oligosaccharide structure. In some embodiments, modifications of the oligosaccharide in TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule may be made in order to create variants with certain improved properties. In one aspect, variants of TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules are provided having a carbohydrate structure that lacks fucose attached (directly or indirectly) to an Fc region. Such fucosylation variants may have improved ADCC function, see e.g. US Patent Publication Nos. US 2003/0157108 (Presta, L.) or US 2004/0093621 (Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co., Ltd). Further variants of the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules of the invention include those with bisected oligosaccharides, e.g., in which a biantennary oligosaccharide attached to the Fc region is bisected by GlcNAc. Such variants may have reduced fucosylation and/or improved ADCC function., see for example WO 2003/011878 (Jean-Mairet et al.); US Pat. No. 6,602,684 (Umana et al.); and US 2005/0123546 (Umana et al.). Variants with at least one galactose residue in the oligosaccharide attached to the Fc region are also provided. Such antibody variants may have improved CDC function and are described, e.g., in WO 1997/30087 (Patel et al.); WO 1998/58964 (Raju, S.); and WO 1999/22764 (Raju, S.).

In certain embodiments, it may be desirable to create cysteine engineered variants of the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention, e.g., “thioMAbs,” in which one or more residues of the molecule are substituted with cysteine residues. In particular embodiments, the substituted residues occur at accessible sites of the molecule. By substituting those residues with cysteine, reactive thiol groups are thereby positioned at accessible sites of the antibody and may be used to conjugate the antibody to other moieties, such as drug moieties or linker-drug moieties, to create an immunoconjugate. In certain embodiments, any one or more of the following residues may be substituted with cysteine: V205 (Kabat numbering) of the light chain; A118 (EU numbering) of the heavy chain; and 5400 (EU numbering) of the heavy chain Fc region. Cysteine engineered antigen binding molecules may be generated as described, e.g., in U.S. Pat. No. 7,521,541.

In certain aspects, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules provided herein may be further modified to contain additional non-proteinaceous moieties that are known in the art and readily available. The moieties suitable for derivatization of the antibody include but are not limited to water soluble polymers. Non-limiting examples of water soluble polymers include, but are not limited to, polyethylene glycol (PEG), copolymers of ethylene glycol/propylene glycol, carboxymethylcellulose, dextran, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, poly-1,3-dioxolane, poly-1,3,6-trioxane, ethylene/maleic anhydride copolymer, polyaminoacids (either homopolymers or random copolymers), and dextran or poly(n-vinyl pyrrolidone)polyethylene glycol, propropylene glycol homopolymers, prolypropylene oxide/ethylene oxide co-polymers, polyoxyethylated polyols (e.g., glycerol), polyvinyl alcohol, and mixtures thereof. Polyethylene glycol propionaldehyde may have advantages in manufacturing due to its stability in water. The polymer may be of any molecular weight, and may be branched or unbranched. The number of polymers attached to the antibody may vary, and if more than one polymer is attached, they can be the same or different molecules. In general, the number and/or type of polymers used for derivatization can be determined based on considerations including, but not limited to, the particular properties or functions of the antibody to be improved, whether the bispecific antibody derivative will be used in a therapy under defined conditions, etc. In another aspect, conjugates of an antibody and non-proteinaceous moiety that may be selectively heated by exposure to radiation are provided. In one embodiment, the non-proteinaceous moiety is a carbon nanotube (Kam, N. W. et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102 (2005) 11600-11605). The radiation may be of any wavelength, and includes, but is not limited to, wavelengths that do not harm ordinary cells, but which heat the non-proteinaceous moiety to a temperature at which cells proximal to the antibody-non-proteinaceous moiety are killed.

In another aspect, immunoconjugates of the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules provided herein maybe obtained. An “immunoconjugate” is an antibody conjugated to one or more heterologous molecule(s), including but not limited to a cytotoxic agent.

The term “polynucleotide” refers to an isolated nucleic acid molecule or construct, e.g. messenger RNA (mRNA), virally-derived RNA, or plasmid DNA (pDNA). A polynucleotide may comprise a conventional phosphodiester bond or a non-conventional bond (e.g. an amide bond, such as found in peptide nucleic acids (PNA). The term “nucleic acid molecule” refers to any one or more nucleic acid segments, e.g. DNA or RNA fragments, present in a polynucleotide.

By “isolated” nucleic acid molecule or polynucleotide is intended a nucleic acid molecule, DNA or RNA, which has been removed from its native environment. For example, a recombinant polynucleotide encoding a polypeptide contained in a vector is considered isolated for the purposes of the present invention. Further examples of an isolated polynucleotide include recombinant polynucleotides maintained in heterologous host cells or purified (partially or substantially) polynucleotides in solution. An isolated polynucleotide includes a polynucleotide molecule contained in cells that ordinarily contain the polynucleotide molecule, but the polynucleotide molecule is present extrachromosomally or at a chromosomal location that is different from its natural chromosomal location. Isolated RNA molecules include in vivo or in vitro RNA transcripts of the present invention, as well as positive and negative strand forms, and double-stranded forms. Isolated polynucleotides or nucleic acids according to the present invention further include such molecules produced synthetically. In addition, a polynucleotide or a nucleic acid may be or may include a regulatory element such as a promoter, ribosome binding site, or a transcription terminator.

By a nucleic acid or polynucleotide having a nucleotide sequence at least, for example, 95% “identical” to a reference nucleotide sequence of the present invention, it is intended that the nucleotide sequence of the polynucleotide is identical to the reference sequence except that the polynucleotide sequence may include up to five point mutations per each 100 nucleotides of the reference nucleotide sequence. In other words, to obtain a polynucleotide having a nucleotide sequence at least 95% identical to a reference nucleotide sequence, up to 5% of the nucleotides in the reference sequence may be deleted or substituted with another nucleotide, or a number of nucleotides up to 5% of the total nucleotides in the reference sequence may be inserted into the reference sequence. These alterations of the reference sequence may occur at the 5′ or 3′ terminal positions of the reference nucleotide sequence or anywhere between those terminal positions, interspersed either individually among residues in the reference sequence or in one or more contiguous groups within the reference sequence. As a practical matter, whether any particular polynucleotide sequence is at least 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98% or 99% identical to a nucleotide sequence of the present invention can be determined conventionally using known computer programs, such as the ones discussed above for polypeptides (e.g. ALIGN-2).

The term “expression cassette” refers to a polynucleotide generated recombinantly or synthetically, with a series of specified nucleic acid elements that permit transcription of a particular nucleic acid in a target cell. The recombinant expression cassette can be incorporated into a plasmid, chromosome, mitochondrial DNA, plastid DNA, virus, or nucleic acid fragment. Typically, the recombinant expression cassette portion of an expression vector includes, among other sequences, a nucleic acid sequence to be transcribed and a promoter. In certain embodiments, the expression cassette of the invention comprises polynucleotide sequences that encode bispecific antigen binding molecules of the invention or fragments thereof.

The term “vector” or “expression vector” is synonymous with “expression construct” and refers to a DNA molecule that is used to introduce and direct the expression of a specific gene to which it is operably associated in a target cell. The term includes the vector as a self-replicating nucleic acid structure as well as the vector incorporated into the genome of a host cell into which it has been introduced. The expression vector of the present invention comprises an expression cassette. Expression vectors allow transcription of large amounts of stable mRNA. Once the expression vector is inside the target cell, the ribonucleic acid molecule or protein that is encoded by the gene is produced by the cellular transcription and/or translation machinery. In one embodiment, the expression vector of the invention comprises an expression cassette that comprises polynucleotide sequences that encode bispecific antigen binding molecules of the invention or fragments thereof.

The terms “host cell”, “host cell line,” and “host cell culture” are used interchangeably and refer to cells into which exogenous nucleic acid has been introduced, including the progeny of such cells. Host cells include “transformants” and “transformed cells,” which include the primary transformed cell and progeny derived therefrom without regard to the number of passages.

Progeny may not be completely identical in nucleic acid content to a parent cell, but may contain mutations. Mutant progeny that have the same function or biological activity as screened or selected for in the originally transformed cell are included herein. A host cell is any type of cellular system that can be used to generate the bispecific antigen binding molecules of the present invention. Host cells include cultured cells, e.g. mammalian cultured cells, such as CHO cells, BHK cells, NSO cells, SP2/0 cells, YO myeloma cells, P3X63 mouse myeloma cells, PER cells, PER.C6 cells or hybridoma cells, yeast cells, insect cells, and plant cells, to name only a few, but also cells comprised within a transgenic animal, transgenic plant or cultured plant or animal tissue.

An “effective amount” of an agent refers to the amount that is necessary to result in a physiological change in the cell or tissue to which it is administered.

A “therapeutically effective amount” of an agent, e.g. a pharmaceutical composition, refers to an amount effective, at dosages and for periods of time necessary, to achieve the desired therapeutic or prophylactic result. A therapeutically effective amount of an agent for example eliminates, decreases, delays, minimizes or prevents adverse effects of a disease.

An “individual” or “subject” is a mammal. Mammals include, but are not limited to, domesticated animals (e.g. cows, sheep, cats, dogs, and horses), primates (e.g. humans and non-human primates such as monkeys), rabbits, and rodents (e.g. mice and rats). Particularly, the individual or subject is a human.

The term “pharmaceutical composition” refers to a preparation which is in such form as to permit the biological activity of an active ingredient contained therein to be effective, and which contains no additional components which are unacceptably toxic to a subject to which the formulation would be administered.

A “pharmaceutically acceptable excipient” refers to an ingredient in a pharmaceutical composition, other than an active ingredient, which is nontoxic to a subject. A pharmaceutically acceptable excipient includes, but is not limited to, a buffer, a stabilizer, or a preservative.

The term “package insert” is used to refer to instructions customarily included in commercial packages of therapeutic products, that contain information about the indications, usage, dosage, administration, combination therapy, contraindications and/or warnings concerning the use of such therapeutic products.

As used herein, “treatment” (and grammatical variations thereof such as “treat” or “treating”) refers to clinical intervention in an attempt to alter the natural course of the individual being treated, and can be performed either for prophylaxis or during the course of clinical pathology. Desirable effects of treatment include, but are not limited to, preventing occurrence or recurrence of disease, alleviation of symptoms, diminishment of any direct or indirect pathological consequences of the disease, preventing metastasis, decreasing the rate of disease progression, amelioration or palliation of the disease state, and remission or improved prognosis. In some embodiments, the molecules of the invention are used to delay development of a disease or to slow the progression of a disease.

The term “cancer” as used herein refers to proliferative diseases, such as lymphomas, carcinoma, lymphoma, blastoma, sarcoma, leukemia, lymphocytic leukemias, lung cancer, non-small cell lung (NSCL) cancer, bronchioloalviolar cell lung cancer, bone cancer, pancreatic cancer, skin cancer, cancer of the head or neck, cutaneous or intraocular melanoma, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, rectal cancer, cancer of the anal region, stomach cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer (CRC), pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, triple-negative breast cancer , uterine cancer, carcinoma of the fallopian tubes, carcinoma of the endometrium, carcinoma of the cervix, carcinoma of the vagina, carcinoma of the vulva, Hodgkin's Disease, cancer of the esophagus, cancer of the small intestine, cancer of the endocrine system, cancer of the thyroid gland, cancer of the parathyroid gland, cancer of the adrenal gland, sarcoma of soft tissue, cancer of the urethra, cancer of the penis, prostate cancer, cancer of the bladder, cancer of the kidney or ureter, renal cell carcinoma, carcinoma of the renal pelvis, mesothelioma, hepatocellular cancer, biliary cancer, neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS), spinal axis tumors, brain stem glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, astrocytomas, schwanomas, ependymonas, medulloblastomas, meningiomas, squamous cell carcinomas, pituitary adenoma and Ewings sarcoma, melanoma, multiple myeloma, B-cell cancer (lymphoma), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), hairy cell leukemia, chronic myeloblastic leukemia, including refractory versions of any of the above cancers, or a combination of one or more of the above cancers.

TNF Family Ligand Trimer-Containing Antigen Binding Molecules of the Invention

The invention provides novel TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules with particularly advantageous properties such as producibility, stability, binding affinity, biological activity, targeting efficiency and reduced toxicity.

Thus, the invention relates to a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule comprising

  • (a) at least one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen,
  • (b) a polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof that are connected to each other, optionally by peptide linkers, and
  • (c) a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association.

In one aspect, the invention provides a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule comprising

  • (a) at least one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen,
  • (b) a polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof that are connected to each other by peptide linkers and
  • (c) a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association.

In another aspect, the TNF family ligand trimer containing antigen binding molecule comprises

  • (a) at least one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen,
  • (b) a polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof that are connected to each other by peptide linkers and
  • (c) a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association, wherein the polypeptide comprising the three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof that are connected to each other by peptide linkers is fused to the N- or C-terminal amino acid of one of the two subunits of the Fc domain, optionally through a peptide linker.

In a particular aspect, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule comprises (a) at least one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, (b) a polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof that are connected to each other by peptide linkers and (c) a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association, wherein the TNF ligand family member costimulates human T-cell activation. Thus, the TNF ligand family member is a costimulatory TNF family ligand. In particular, the costimulatory TNF family ligand is selected from the group consisting of 4-1BBL, OX40L, GITRL, CD70, CD30L and LIGHT, more particularly the costimulatory TNF family ligand is selected from 4-1BBL and OX40L.

In one aspect, the TNF ligand family member is 4-1BBL.

In a further aspect, the ectodomain of a TNF ligand family member comprises the amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO:1, SEQ ID NO: 2, SEQ ID NO:3, SEQ ID NO:4, SEQ ID NO:99, SEQ ID NO: 100, SEQ ID NO:101 and SEQ ID NO:102, particularly the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:1 or SEQ ID NO:99.

In a particular aspect, the ectodomain of a TNF ligand family member or fragment thereof comprises the amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO:1, SEQ ID NO:2, SEQ ID NO:3 and SEQ ID NO:4, particularly the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:1.

In a further aspect, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention comprises

  • (a) at least one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen and
  • (b) a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103, and
  • (c) a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association. More particularly, the polypeptide comprises the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5.

In another aspect, the TNF ligand family member is OX40L.

In another aspect, the ectodomain of a TNF ligand family member comprises the amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO:6 and SEQ ID NO:7, particularly the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:6.

In a further aspect, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention comprises

  • (a) at least one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen and
  • (b) a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:8 and
  • (c) a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association.

In one aspect, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule comprises (a) at least one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, (b) a polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof that are connected to each other and (c) a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association, wherein the three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof are linked to each other directly, or with a suitable chemical linker, such as a disulfide, ester or ether bridge.

In another aspect, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule comprises (a) at least one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, (b) a polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof that are connected to each other by peptide linkers and (c) a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association, wherein the three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof are linked to each other by peptide linkers that are the same or different and are selected from the group consisting of GGGGSGGGGS (SEQ ID NO:54), SGGGGSGGGG (SEQ ID NO:55) and GGGGSGGGGSGGGG (SEQ ID NO:56), but also include the sequences GSPGSSSSGS (SEQ ID NO:57), GSGSGSGS (SEQ ID NO:58), GSGSGNGS (SEQ ID NO:59), GGSGSGSG (SEQ ID NO:60), GGSGSG (SEQ ID NO:61), GGSG (SEQ ID NO:62), GGSGNGSG (SEQ ID NO:63), GGNGSGSG (SEQ ID NO:64) and GGNGSG (SEQ ID NO:65). In particular, the peptide linkers are the same and are selected from the group consisting of (G45)2 (SEQ ID NO:54) and GSPGSSSSGS (SEQ ID NO:57). More particularly, the invention relates to a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as defined above, wherein the three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof are connected to each other by (G45)2 linkers.

In another aspect, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention comprises (a) at least one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, (b) a polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof that are connected to each other by peptide linkers and (c) a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association, wherein the polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof is fused at the C-terminal amino acid to the N-terminal amino acid of one of the subunits of the Fc domain. In a particular aspect, the polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof is fused at the C-terminal amino acid to the N-terminal amino acid of a CH2 domain in the Fc domain. In a further aspect, the polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof is connected at the C-terminal amino acid by a peptide linker to the N-terminal amino acid of the Fc domain.

In another aspect, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention comprises (a) at least one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, (b) a polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof that are connected to each other by peptide linkers and (c) a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association, wherein the polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof is fused at the N-terminal amino acid to the C-terminal amino acid of the Fc domain. In a particular aspect, the polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof is fused at the N-terminal amino acid to the C-terminal amino acid of a CH3 domain in the Fc domain. In a further aspect, the polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof is connected at the N-terminal amino acid by a peptide linker to the C-terminal amino acid of the Fc domain.

In another aspect, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule comprises (a) at least one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, (b) a polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof that are connected to each other by peptide linkers and (c) a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen is not fused to the polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof.

In a further aspect, the invention provides a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as defined herein before, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen is selected from the group consisting of an antibody, an antibody fragment and a scaffold antigen binding protein.

In one aspect, the invention provides a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as defined herein before, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen is an antibody.

In another aspect, the invention provides a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as defined herein before, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen is an antibody fragment. In particular, the antibody fragment is selected from the group consisting of a Fab molecule, a crossover Fab molecule, a single chain Fab molecule, a Fv molecule, a scFv molecule, a single domain antibody, and aVH.

In a further aspect, the invention provides a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as defined herein before, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen is a scaffold antigen binding protein.

Thus, in a further aspect, the invention relates to a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as defined herein before, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen is selected from the group consisting of an antibody fragment, a Fab molecule, a crossover Fab molecule, a single chain Fab molecule, a Fv molecule, a scFv molecule, a single domain antibody, an aVH and a scaffold antigen binding protein. Thus, in a particular aspect, the invention provides a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule comprising (a) at least one antibody fragment capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen which is selected from the group consisting of a Fab molecule, a crossover Fab molecule, a single chain Fab molecule, a Fv molecule, a scFv molecule, a single domain antibody, an aVH and a scaffold antigen binding protein, (b) a polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof that are connected to each other by peptide linkers and (c) a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association. In one aspect, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule comprising (a) one antibody fragment capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen which is selected from the group consisting of a Fab molecule, a crossover Fab molecule, a single chain Fab molecule, a Fv molecule, a scFv molecule, a single domain antibody, an aVH and a scaffold antigen binding protein.

In a particular aspect, the invention is concerned with a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as defined above, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen is a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen. Thus, the invention provides a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule comprising (a) at least one Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, (b) a polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof that are connected to each other by peptide linkers and (c) a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association.

In another aspect, provided is a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention, wherein the target cell antigen is selected from the group consisting of Fibroblast Activation Protein (FAP), Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA), Melanoma-associated Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan (MCSP), Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), CD19, CD20 and CD33.

In a further aspect, provided is a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association is an IgG Fc domain, particularly an IgG1 Fc domain or an IgG4 Fc domain. In particular, the Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association is an IgG1 Fc domain. In a particular aspect, the Fc domain comprises a modification promoting the association of the first and second subunit of the Fc domain.

Fc Domain Modifications Reducing Fc Receptor Binding and/or Effector Function

The Fc domain of the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules of the invention consists of a pair of polypeptide chains comprising heavy chain domains of an immunoglobulin molecule. For example, the Fc domain of an immunoglobulin G (IgG) molecule is a dimer, each subunit of which comprises the CH2 and CH3 IgG heavy chain constant domains. The two subunits of the Fc domain are capable of stable association with each other.

The Fc domain confers favorable pharmacokinetic properties to the antigen binding molecules of the invention, including a long serum half-life which contributes to good accumulation in the target tissue and a favorable tissue-blood distribution ratio. The Fc domain thus favorably contributes to the pharmacokinetic parameters (PK data) of the antigen binding molecules, such as as clearance, volume of distribution or elimination half-time (t1/2). At the same time it may, however, lead to undesirable targeting of the bispecific antibodies of the invention to cells expressing Fc receptors rather than to the preferred antigen-bearing cells. Accordingly, in particular aspects, the Fc domain of the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention exhibits reduced binding affinity to an Fc receptor and/or reduced effector function, as compared to a native IgG1 Fc domain. In one aspect, the Fc does not substantially bind to an Fc receptor and/or does not induce effector function. In a particular aspect the Fc receptor is an Fcy receptor. In one aspect, the Fc receptor is a human Fc receptor. In a specific aspect, the Fc receptor is an activating human Fcy receptor, more specifically human FcγRIIIa, FcγRI or FcγRIIa, most specifically human FcγRIIIa. In one aspect, the Fc domain does not induce effector function. The reduced effector function can include, but is not limited to, one or more of the following: reduced complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), reduced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), reduced antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), reduced cytokine secretion, reduced immune complex-mediated antigen uptake by antigen-presenting cells, reduced binding to NK cells, reduced binding to macrophages, reduced binding to monocytes, reduced binding to polymorphonuclear cells, reduced direct signaling inducing apoptosis, reduced dendritic cell maturation, or reduced T cell priming.

In certain aspects, one or more amino acid modifications may be introduced into the Fc region of a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule provided herein, thereby generating an Fc region variant. The Fc region variant may comprise a human Fc region sequence (e.g., a human IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 or IgG4 Fc region) comprising an amino acid modification (e.g. a substitution) at one or more amino acid positions.

In one aspect, the invention is concerned with a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as defined herein before, comprising

  • (a) at least one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen,
  • (b) a polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof that are connected to each other by peptide linkers and
  • (c) a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association, wherein the Fc domain comprises one or more amino acid substitution that reduces binding to an Fc receptor, in particular towards Fcy receptor.

In one aspect, the Fc domain of the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention comprises one or more amino acid mutation that reduces the binding affinity of the Fc domain to an Fc receptor and/or effector function. Typically, the same one or more amino acid mutation is present in each of the two subunits of the Fc domain. In particular, the Fc domain comprises an amino acid substitution at a position of E233, L234, L235, N297, P331 and P329 (EU numbering). In particular, the Fc domain comprises amino acid substitutions at positions 234 and 235 (EU numbering) and/or 329 (EU numbering) of the IgG heavy chains. More particularly, provided is a trimeric TNF family ligand-containing antigen binding molecule according to the invention which comprises an Fc domain with the amino acid substitutions L234A, L235A and P329G (“P329G LALA”, EU numbering) in the IgG heavy chains. The amino acid substitutions L234A and L235A refer to the so-called LALA mutation. The “P329G LALA” combination of amino acid substitutions almost completely abolishes Fcy receptor binding of a human IgG1 Fc domain and is described in International Patent Appl. Publ. No. WO 2012/130831 A1 which also describes methods of preparing such mutant Fc domains and methods for determining its properties such as Fc receptor binding or effector functions. “EU numbering” refers to the numbering according to EU index of Kabat et al , Sequences of Proteins of Immunological Interest, 5th Ed. Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Mf., 1991.

Fc domains with reduced Fc receptor binding and/or effector function also include those with substitution of one or more of Fc domain residues 238, 265, 269, 270, 297, 327 and 329 (U.S. Pat. No. 6,737,056). Such Fc mutants include Fc mutants with substitutions at two or more of amino acid positions 265, 269, 270, 297 and 327, including the so-called “DANA” Fc mutant with substitution of residues 265 and 297 to alanine (U.S. Pat. No. 7,332,581).

In another aspect, the Fc domain is an IgG4 Fc domain. IgG4 antibodies exhibit reduced binding affinity to Fc receptors and reduced effector functions as compared to IgG1 antibodies. In a more specific aspect, the Fc domain is an IgG4 Fc domain comprising an amino acid substitution at position 5228 (Kabat numbering), particularly the amino acid substitution S228P. In a more specific aspect, the Fc domain is an IgG4 Fc domain comprising amino acid substitutions L235E and S228P and P329G (EU numbering). Such IgG4 Fc domain mutants and their Fcy receptor binding properties are also described in WO 2012/130831.

Mutant Fc domains can be prepared by amino acid deletion, substitution, insertion or modification using genetic or chemical methods well known in the art. Genetic methods may include site-specific mutagenesis of the encoding DNA sequence, PCR, gene synthesis, and the like. The correct nucleotide changes can be verified for example by sequencing.

Binding to Fc receptors can be easily determined e.g. by ELISA, or by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) using standard instrumentation such as a BlAcore instrument (GE Healthcare), and Fc receptors such as may be obtained by recombinant expression. A suitable such binding assay is described herein. Alternatively, binding affinity of Fc domains or cell activating bispecific antigen binding molecules comprising an Fc domain for Fc receptors may be evaluated using cell lines known to express particular Fc receptors, such as human NK cells expressing FcγIIIa receptor.

Effector function of an Fc domain, or bispecific antibodies of the invention comprising an

Fc domain, can be measured by methods known in the art. A suitable assay for measuring ADCC is described herein. Other examples of in vitro assays to assess ADCC activity of a molecule of interest are described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,500,362; Hellstrom et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83, 7059-7063 (1986) and Hellstrom et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82, 1499-1502 (1985); U.S. Pat. No. 5,821,337; Bruggemann et al., J Exp Med 166, 1351-1361 (1987). Alternatively, non-radioactive assays methods may be employed (see, for example, ACTITM non-radioactive cytotoxicity assay for flow cytometry (CellTechnology, Inc. Mountain View, CA); and CytoTox 96® non-radioactive cytotoxicity assay (Promega, Madison, WI)). Useful effector cells for such assays include peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and Natural Killer (NK) cells. Alternatively, or additionally, ADCC activity of the molecule of interest may be assessed in vivo, e.g. in a animal model such as that disclosed in Clynes et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95, 652-656 (1998).

In some embodiments, binding of the Fc domain to a complement component, specifically to C1q, is reduced. Accordingly, in some embodiments wherein the Fc domain is engineered to have reduced effector function, said reduced effector function includes reduced CDC. C1q binding assays may be carried out to determine whether the bispecific antibodies of the invention is able to bind C1q and hence has CDC activity. See e.g., C1q and C3c binding ELISA in WO 2006/029879 and WO 2005/100402. To assess complement activation, a CDC assay may be performed (see, for example, Gazzano-Santoro et al., J Immunol Methods 202, 163 (1996); Cragg et al., Blood 101, 1045-1052 (2003); and Cragg and Glennie, Blood 103, 2738-2743 (2004)).

In a particular aspect, the Fc domain comprises a modification promoting the association of the first and second subunit of the Fc domain.

Fc Domain Modifications Promoting Heterodimerization

The Fc domain comprises different moieties, fused to one or the other of the two subunits of the Fc domain that are typically comprised in two non-identical polypetide chains (“heavy chains”). Recombinant co-expression of these polypeptides and subsequent dimerization leads to several possible combinations of the two polypeptides. To improve the yield and purity of the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules in recombinant production, it will thus be advantageous to introduce in the Fc domain of the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules of the invention a modification promoting the association of the desired polypeptides.

Accordingly, the Fc domain of the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules of the invention comprises a modification promoting the association of the first and the second subunit of the Fc domain. The site of most extensive protein-protein interaction between the two subunits of a human IgG Fc domain is in the CH3 domain of the Fc domain. Thus, said modification is particularly in the CH3 domain of the Fc domain.

In a specific aspect, said modification is a so-called “knob-into-hole” modification, comprising a “knob” modification in one of the two subunits of the Fc domain and a “hole” modification in the other one of the two subunits of the Fc domain. Thus, in a particular aspect, the invention relates to a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before which comprises an IgG molecule, wherein the Fc part of the first heavy chain comprises a first dimerization module and the Fc part of the second heavy chain comprises a second dimerization module allowing a heterodimerization of the two heavy chains of the IgG molecule and the first dimerization module comprises knobs and the second dimerization module comprises holes according to the knob into hole technology.

The knob-into-hole technology is described e.g. in U.S. Pat. No. 5,731,168; U.S. Pat. No. 7,695,936; Ridgway et al., Prot Eng 9, 617-621 (1996) and Carter, J Immunol Meth 248, 7-15 (2001). Generally, the method involves introducing a protuberance (“knob”) at the interface of a first polypeptide and a corresponding cavity (“hole”) in the interface of a second polypeptide, such that the protuberance can be positioned in the cavity so as to promote heterodimer formation and hinder homodimer formation. Protuberances are constructed by replacing small amino acid side chains from the interface of the first polypeptide with larger side chains (e.g. tyrosine or tryptophan). Compensatory cavities of identical or similar size to the protuberances are created in the interface of the second polypeptide by replacing large amino acid side chains with smaller ones (e.g. alanine or threonine).

Accordingly, in a particular aspect, in the CH3 domain of the first subunit of the Fc domain of the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules of the invention an amino acid residue is replaced with an amino acid residue having a larger side chain volume, thereby generating a protuberance within the CH3 domain of the first subunit which is positionable in a cavity within the CH3 domain of the second subunit, and in the CH3 domain of the second subunit of the Fc domain an amino acid residue is replaced with an amino acid residue having a smaller side chain volume, thereby generating a cavity within the CH3 domain of the second subunit within which the protuberance within the CH3 domain of the first subunit is positionable.

The protuberance and cavity can be made by altering the nucleic acid encoding the polypeptides, e.g. by site-specific mutagenesis, or by peptide synthesis.

In a specific aspect, in the CH3 domain of the first subunit of the Fc domain the threonine residue at position 366 is replaced with a tryptophan residue (T366W), and in the CH3 domain of the second subunit of the Fc domain the tyrosine residue at position 407 is replaced with a valine residue (Y407V). More particularly, in the second subunit of the Fc domain additionally the threonine residue at position 366 is replaced with a serine residue (T366S) and the leucine residue at position 368 is replaced with an alanine residue (L368A). More particularly, in the first subunit of the Fc domain additionally the serine residue at position 354 is replaced with a cysteine residue (S354C), and in the second subunit of the Fc domain additionally the tyrosine residue at position 349 is replaced by a cysteine residue (Y349C). The introduction of these two cysteine residues results in the formation of a disulfide bridge between the two subunits of the Fc domain. The disulfide bridge further stabilizes the dimer (Carter, J Immunol Methods 248, 7-15 (2001)).

In an alternative aspect, a modification promoting association of the first and the second subunit of the Fc domain comprises a modification mediating electrostatic steering effects, e.g. as described in PCT publication WO 2009/089004. Generally, this method involves replacement of one or more amino acid residues at the interface of the two Fc domain subunits by charged amino acid residues so that homodimer formation becomes electrostatically unfavorable but heterodimerization electrostatically favorable.

Particular TNF Family Ligand Trimer-Containing Antigen Binding Molecules

In another aspect, provided is a monovalent TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, comprising one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen.

In particular, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention comprising (c) an Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association further comprises (a) a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, wherein the Fab heavy chain is fused at the C-terminus to the N-terminus of a CH2 domain in the Fc domain.

Furthermore, the invention provides a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises

  • (a) a heavy chain and a light chain, both comprising a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, and
  • (b) a fusion protein comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:15.

In a further aspect, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule comprises

  • (i) a first heavy chain comprising the VH domain of a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen,
  • (ii) a light chain comprising the VL domain of a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, and
  • (iii) a second heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103 or SEQ ID NO:8.

In a particular aspect, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule comprises (i) a first heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:16 or a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:110, (ii) a light chain comprising a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:17 or a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:111, and (iii) a second heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103 or SEQ ID NO:8. In another aspect, TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule comprises (i) a first heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:118, (ii) a light chain comprising a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:119, and (iii) a second heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103 or SEQ ID NO:8. In a further aspect, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule comprises (i) a first heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:126 or a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:134, (ii) a light chain comprising a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:127 or a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:135, and (iii) a second heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103 or SEQ ID NO:8.

In another aspect, provided is a bivalent TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule, comprising two moieties capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen.

In one aspect, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule comprises

  • (i) a first heavy chain comprising a VH domain or a VL domain of a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen,
  • (ii) two light chains comprising each a VL domain or a VH domain of a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, and
  • (iii) a second heavy chain comprising a VH domain or a VL domain of a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen and the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103 or SEQ ID NO:8.

In one aspect, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule comprises

  • (i) a first heavy chain comprising a VH domain of a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen,
  • (ii) two light chains comprising each the VL domain of a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, and
  • (iii) a second heavy chain comprising a VH domain of a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen and the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103 or SEQ ID NO:8.

In a particular aspect, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule comprises (i) a first heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:16 or a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:110, (ii) two light chains comprising each a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:17 or a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:111, and (iii) a second heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:16 or a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:110 and the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103 or SEQ ID NO:8. In another aspect, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule comprises (i) a first heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:118, (ii) two light chains comprising each a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:119, and (iii) a second heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:118 and the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103 or SEQ ID NO:8. In yet another aspect, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule comprises (i) a first heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:126 or a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:134, (ii) two light chains comprising a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:127 or a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:135, and (iii) a second heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:126 or a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:134 and the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103 or SEQ ID NO:8.

In one aspect, provided is a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule according to the invention, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises

  • (a) a heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising (i) CDR-H1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:9, (ii) CDR-H2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:10 and (iii) CDR-H3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:11, and a light chain comprising a VL domain comprising (iv) CDR-L1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:12, (v) CDR-L2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:13 and (vi) CDR-L3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:14, and
  • (b) a fusion protein comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:15.

In a further aspect, the invention provides a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule according to the invention, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises

  • (a) a moiety capable of specific binding to FAP comprising a VH domain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:16 and a VL domain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:17 and
  • (b) a fusion protein comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:15.

In a particular aspect, provided is a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises

  • (i) a variable heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:16,
  • (ii) a variable light chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:17, and
  • (iii) a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5.

In a particular aspect, provided is a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises

  • (i) a heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:16,
  • (ii) a light chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:17, and
  • (iii) a fusion protein comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:15.

In another aspect, provided is a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described hereinbefore, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises

  • (a) a heavy chain and a light chain, both comprising a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, and
  • (b) the fusion protein comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:20.

In one aspect, provided is a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule according to the invention, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises

  • (a) a heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising (i) CDR-H1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:9, (ii) CDR-H2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:10 and (iii) CDR-H3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:11, and a light chain comprising a VL domain comprising (iv) CDR-L1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:12, (v) CDR-L2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:13 and (vi) CDR-L3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:14, and
  • (b) a fusion protein comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:20.

In a further aspect, the invention provides a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule according to the invention, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises

  • (a) a moiety capable of specific binding to FAP comprising a VH domain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:16 and a VL domain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:17 and
  • (b) a fusion protein comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:20.

In a particular aspect, provided is a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises

  • (i) a variable heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:16,
  • (ii) a variable light chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:17, and
  • (iii) a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:8.

In a particular aspect, provided is a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises

  • (i) a heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:16,
  • (ii) a light chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:17, and
  • (iii) a fusion protein comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:20.

TNF Family Ligand Trimer-Containing Antigen Binding Molecules, Wherein the Target Cell Antigen is FAP

In a particular aspect, the target cell antigen is Fibroblast Activation Protein (FAP). In one aspect, the invention provides a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as decribed herein before, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to FAP comprises

  • (a) a VH domain comprising (i) CDR-H1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:9, (ii) CDR-H2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:10 and (iii) CDR-H3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:11, and a VL domain comprising (iv) CDR-L1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:12, (v) CDR-L2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:13 and (vi) CDR-L3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:14, or
  • (b) a VH domain comprising (i) CDR-H1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:104, (ii) CDR-H2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:105 and (iii) CDR-H3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:106, and a VL domain comprising (iv) CDR-L1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:107, (v) CDR-L2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:108 and (vi) CDR-L3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:109.

In one aspect, the moiety capable of specific binding to FAP comprises a VH domain comprising (i) CDR-H1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:9, (ii) CDR-H2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:10 and (iii) CDR-H3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:11, and a VL domain comprising (iv) CDR-L1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:12, (v) CDR-L2 comprising the amino acid sequence of

SEQ ID NO:13 and (vi) CDR-L3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:14. In another particular aspect, the moiety capable of specific binding to FAP comprises a VH domain comprising (i) CDR-H1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:104, (ii) CDR-H2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:105 and (iii) CDR-H3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:106, and a VL domain comprising (iv) CDR-L1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:107, (v) CDR-L2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:108 and (vi) CDR-L3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:109.

In a further aspect, the moiety capable of specific binding to FAP comprises a heavy chain variable region comprising an amino acid sequence that is at least about 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or 100% identical to the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:16 and a light chain variable region comprising an amino acid sequence that is at least about 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or 100% identical to the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:17. In a particular aspect, the moiety capable of specific binding to FAP comprises a heavy chain variable region comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:16 and a light chain variable region comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:17. In a specific aspect, the moiety capable of specific binding to FAP comprises a VH domain consisting of amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:16 and a VL domain consisting of the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:17.

In a further particular aspect, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention comprises a heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:18 and a light chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:19. In a specific aspect, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule comprises a heavy chain consisting of amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:18 and a light chain consisting of the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:19.

In another aspect, the moiety capable of specific binding to FAP comprises a heavy chain variable region comprising an amino acid sequence that is at least about 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or 100% identical to the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:110 and a light chain variable region comprising an amino acid sequence that is at least about 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or 100% identical to the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:111. In a particular aspect, the moiety capable of specific binding to FAP comprises a heavy chain variable region comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:110 and a light chain variable region comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:111. In a specific aspect, the moiety capable of specific binding to FAP comprises a VH domain consisting of amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:110 and a VL domain consisting of the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:111.

In one aspect, provided is a monovalent TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, comprising one moiety capable of specific binding to FAP.

In a particular aspect, provided is a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises

  • (i) a variable heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:18,
  • (ii) a variable light chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:19, and
  • (iii) a fusion protein comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:15.

In a further particular aspect, provided is a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises

  • (i) a variable heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:140,
  • (ii) a variable light chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:142, and
  • (iii) a fusion protein comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:15.

In another particular aspect, provided is a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises

  • (i) a variable heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:18,
  • (ii) a variable light chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:19, and
  • (iii) a fusion protein comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:20.

In another aspect, provided is a bivalent TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, comprising two moieties capable of specific binding to FAP.

In a particular aspect, provided is a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises

  • (i) a variable heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:140,
  • (ii) a variable light chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:142, and
  • (iii) a fusion protein comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:141.

TNF Family Ligand Trimer-Containing Antigen Binding Molecules, Wherein the Target Cell Antigen is CEA

In another aspect, the target cell antigen is CEA. In one aspect, the invention provides a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as decribed herein before, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to CEA comprises a VH domain comprising (i) CDR-H1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:112, (ii) CDR-H2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:113 and (iii) CDR-H3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:114, and a VL domain comprising (iv) CDR-L1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:115, (v) CDR-L2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:116 and (vi) CDR-L3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:117.

In a further aspect, the moiety capable of specific binding to CEA comprises a heavy chain variable region comprising an amino acid sequence that is at least about 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or 100% identical to the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:118 and a light chain variable region comprising an amino acid sequence that is at least about 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or 100% identical to the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:119. In a particular aspect, the moiety capable of specific binding to CEA comprises a heavy chain variable region comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:118 and a light chain variable region comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:119. In a specific aspect, the moiety capable of specific binding to FAP comprises a VH domain consisting of amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:118 and a VL domain consisting of the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:119.

In one aspect, provided is a monovalent TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, comprising one moiety capable of specific binding to CEA.

In a particular aspect, provided is a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises

  • (i) a variable heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:146,
  • (ii) a variable light chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:148, and
  • (iii) a fusion protein comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:15.

In another aspect, provided is a bivalent TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, comprising two moieties capable of specific binding to CEA.

In a particular aspect, provided is a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises

  • (i) a variable heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:146,
  • (ii) a variable light chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:148, and (iii) a fusion protein comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:147.

TNF Family Ligand Trimer-Containing Antigen Binding Molecules, Wherein the Target Cell Antigen is CD19

In yet another aspect, the target cell antigen is CD19. In one aspect, the invention provides a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as decribed herein before, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to CD19 comprises (a) a VH domain comprising (i) CDR-H1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:120, (ii) CDR-H2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:121 and (iii) CDR-H3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:122, and a VL domain comprising (iv) CDR-L1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:123, (v) CDR-L2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:124 and (vi) CDR-L3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:125, or (b) a VH domain comprising (i) CDR-H1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:128, (ii) CDR-H2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:129 and (iii) CDR-H3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:130, and a VL domain comprising (iv) CDR-L1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:131, (v) CDR-L2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:132 and (vi) CDR-L3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:133.

In a further aspect, the moiety capable of specific binding to CD19 comprises a heavy chain variable region comprising an amino acid sequence that is at least about 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or 100% identical to the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:126 and a light chain variable region comprising an amino acid sequence that is at least about 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or 100% identical to the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:127. In another aspect, the moiety capable of specific binding to CD19 comprises a heavy chain variable region comprising an amino acid sequence that is at least about 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or 100% identical to the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:134 and a light chain variable region comprising an amino acid sequence that is at least about 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or 100% identical to the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:135. In a particular aspect, the moiety capable of specific binding to CD19 comprises a heavy chain variable region comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:126 and a light chain variable region comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:127. In a specific aspect, the moiety capable of specific binding to FAP comprises a VH domain consisting of amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:118 and a VL domain consisting of the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:119. In another particular aspect, moiety capable of specific binding to CD19 comprises a variable heavy chain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:134 and a variable light chain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:135. In a specific aspect, the moiety capable of specific binding to FAP comprises a VH domain consisting of amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:134 and a VL domain consisting of the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:135.

In one aspect, provided is a monovalent TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, comprising one moiety capable of specific binding to CD19.

In a particular aspect, provided is a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises

  • (i) a variable heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:152,
  • (ii) a variable light chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:154, and
  • (iii) a fusion protein comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:15.

In a further particular aspect, provided is a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises

  • (i) a variable heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:158,
  • (ii) a variable light chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:160, and
  • (iii) a fusion protein comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:15.

In another aspect, provided is a bivalent TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, comprising two moieties capable of specific binding to CD19.

In a particular aspect, provided is a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises

  • (i) a variable heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:152,
  • (ii) a variable light chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:154, and
  • (iii) a fusion protein comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:153.

In a further particular aspect, provided is a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises

  • (i) a variable heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:158,
  • (ii) a variable light chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:160, and
  • (iii) a fusion protein comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:159.

Polynucleotides

The invention further provides isolated polynucleotides encoding a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein or a fragment thereof.

The isolated polynucleotides encoding TNF ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules of the invention may be expressed as a single polynucleotide that encodes the entire antigen binding molecule or as multiple (e.g., two or more) polynucleotides that are co-expressed. Polypeptides encoded by polynucleotides that are co-expressed may associate through, e.g., disulfide bonds or other means to form a functional antigen binding molecule. For example, the light chain portion of an immunoglobulin may be encoded by a separate polynucleotide from the heavy chain portion of the immunoglobulin. When co-expressed, the heavy chain polypeptides will associate with the light chain polypeptides to form the immunoglobulin.

In some aspects, the isolated polynucleotide encodes the entire TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule according to the invention as described herein. In other embodiments, the isolated polynucleotide encodes a polypeptide comprised in the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule according to the invention as described herein.

In one aspect, the present invention is directed to an isolated polynucleotide encoding a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule, wherein the polynucleotide comprises (a) a sequence that encodes a moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, (b) a sequence that encodes polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof that are connected to each other by peptide linkers and (c) a sequence that encodes a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association.

In another aspect, provided is an isolated polynucleotide encoding a 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule, wherein the polynucleotide comprises (a) a sequence that encodes a moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, (b) a sequence that encodes polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of 4-1BBL or fragments thereof that are connected to each other by peptide linkers and (c) a sequence that encodes a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association.

In a further aspect, the invention is directed to an isolated polynucleotide comprising a sequence that encodes a polypeptide comprising three 4-1BBL fragments comprising an amino acid sequence that is at least about 90%, 95%, 98% or 100% identical to an amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:1, SEQ ID NO: 2, SEQ ID NO:3, SEQ ID NO:4, SEQ ID NO:99, SEQ ID NO: 100, SEQ ID NO:101 and SEQ ID NO:102. In one aspect, provided is an isolated polynucleotide comprising a sequence that encodes a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103.

In another aspect, provided is an isolated polynucleotide encoding a OX40 ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule, wherein the polynucleotide comprises (a) a sequence that encodes a moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, (b) a sequence that encodes polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of OX40L or fragments thereof that are connected to each other by peptide linkers and (c) a sequence that encodes a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association.

In a further aspect, the invention is directed to an isolated polynucleotide comprising a sequence that encodes a polypeptide comprising three OX40L fragments comprising an amino acid sequence that is at least about 90%, 95%, 98% or 100% identical to an amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:6 or SEQ ID NO:7. In one aspect, provided is an isolated polynucleotide comprising a sequence that encodes a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:8.

In another aspect, provided is an isolated polynucleotide encoding a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule, wherein the polynucleotide comprises (a) a sequence that encodes a moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, (b) a sequence that encodes a polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof that are connected to each other by peptide linkers and that is fused at the C-terminal amino acid to the N-terminal amino acid of a CH2 domain in the Fc domain (c) a sequence that encodes a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association. In a further aspect, provided is an isolated polynucleotide encoding a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule, wherein the polynucleotide comprises (a) a sequence that encodes a moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, (b) a sequence that encodes a polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof that are connected to each other by peptide linkers is fused at the N-terminal amino acid to the C-terminal amino acid of a CH3 domain in the Fc domain and (c) a sequence that encodes a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association.

In one aspect, the invention is directed to an isolated polynucleotide that comprises a sequence that encodes an IgG1 Fc domain. In a particular aspect, the isolated polynucleotide comprises a sequence that encodes an Fc domain with amino acid substitutions at positions 234, 235 and/or 329 (EU numbering).

In another aspect, the invention is directed to an isolated polynucleotide that comprises a sequence that is at least about 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, or 99% identical to a nucleic acid sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO:66. In a further aspect, provided is an isolated polynucleotide that comprises a sequence that is at least about 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, or 99% identical to a nucleic acid sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO:87.

In a further aspect, the invention is directed to an isolated polynucleotide encoding a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule, wherein the polynucleotide comprises sequences encoding a heavy chain and a light chain, both comprising a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, and the nucleic acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:66. In a further aspect, the invention is directed to an isolated polynucleotide encoding a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule, wherein the polynucleotide comprises sequences encoding a heavy chain and a light chain, both comprising a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, and the nucleic acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:87.

In one aspect, provided is an isolated polynucleotide encoding a 4-1BBL trimer-containing antigen binding molecule, wherein the polynucleotide comprises sequences encoding (a) a heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising (i) CDR-H1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:9, (ii) CDR-H2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:10 and (iii) CDR-H3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:11, and a light chain comprising a

VL domain comprising (iv) CDR-L1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:12, (v) CDR-L2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:13 and (vi) CDR-L3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:14, and (b) a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5.

In another aspect, provided is an isolated polynucleotide encoding a 4-1BBL trimer-containing antigen binding molecule, wherein the polynucleotide comprises sequences encoding (a) a heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising (i) CDR-H1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:104, (ii) CDR-H2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:105 and (iii) CDR-H3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:106, and a light chain comprising a VL domain comprising (iv) CDR-L1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:107, (v) CDR-L2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:108 and (vi) CDR-L3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:109, and (b) a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5.

In a further aspect, provided is an isolated polynucleotide encoding a 4-1BBL trimer-containing antigen binding molecule, wherein the polynucleotide comprises sequences encoding (a) a heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising (i) CDR-H1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:112, (ii) CDR-H2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:113 and (iii) CDR-H3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:114, and a light chain comprising a VL domain comprising (iv) CDR-L1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:115, (v) CDR-L2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:116 and (vi) CDR-L3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:117, and (b) a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5.

In yet another aspect, provided is an isolated polynucleotide encoding a 4-1BBL trimer-containing antigen binding molecule, wherein the polynucleotide comprises sequences encoding (a) a heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising (i) CDR-H1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:120, (ii) CDR-H2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:121 and (iii) CDR-H3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:122, and a light chain comprising a VL domain comprising (iv) CDR-L1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:123, (v) CDR-L2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:124 and (vi) CDR-L3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:125, and (b) a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5.

In a further aspect, provided is an isolated polynucleotide encoding a 4-1BBL trimer-containing antigen binding molecule, wherein the polynucleotide comprises sequences encoding (a) a heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising (i) CDR-H1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:128, (ii) CDR-H2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:129 and (iii) CDR-H3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:130, and a light chain comprising a VL domain comprising (iv) CDR-L1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:131, (v) CDR-L2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:132 and (vi) CDR-L3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:133, and (b) a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5.

In a further aspect, the invention provides an isolated polynucleotide encoding a 4-1BBL trimer-containing antigen binding molecule, wherein the polynucleotide comprises sequences encoding (a) a moiety capable of specific binding to FAP comprising a VH domain consisting of amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:16 and a VL domain consisting of the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:17 and b) a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5.

In a particular aspect, the invention provides an isolated polynucleotide encoding a 4-1BBL trimer-containing antigen binding molecule, wherein the polynucleotide comprises sequences encoding (i) a heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:16, (ii) a light chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:17, and (iii) a fusion protein comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:15.

In a further aspect, the invention provides an isolated polynucleotide encoding a 4-1BBL trimer-containing antigen binding molecule, wherein the polynucleotide comprises sequences encoding (a) a moiety capable of specific binding to FAP comprising a VH domain consisting of amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:110 and a VL domain consisting of the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:111 and b) a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5.

In a particular aspect, the invention provides an isolated polynucleotide encoding a 4-1BBL trimer-containing antigen binding molecule, wherein the polynucleotide comprises sequences encoding (i) a heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:110, (ii) a light chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:111, and (iii) a fusion protein comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:15.

In another aspect, provided is an isolated polynucleotide encoding a OX40L trimer-containing antigen binding molecule, wherein the polynucleotide comprises sequences encoding (a) a heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising (i) CDR-H1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:9, (ii) CDR-H2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:10 and (iii) CDR-H3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:11, and a light chain comprising a VL domain comprising (iv) CDR-L1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:12, (v) CDR-L2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:13 and (vi) CDR-L3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:14, and (b) a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:8.

In a further aspect, the invention provides an isolated polynucleotide encoding a OX40L trimer-containing antigen binding molecule, wherein the polynucleotide comprises sequences encoding (a) a moiety capable of specific binding to FAP comprising a VH domain consisting of amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:16 and a VL domain consisting of the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:17 and b) a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:8.

In a particular aspect, the invention provides an isolated polynucleotide encoding a OX40L trimer-containing antigen binding molecule, wherein the polynucleotide comprises sequences encoding (i) a heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:16, (ii) a light chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:17, and (iii) a fusion protein comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:20.

In certain embodiments the polynucleotide or nucleic acid is DNA. In other embodiments, a polynucleotide of the present invention is RNA, for example, in the form of messenger RNA (mRNA). RNA of the present invention may be single stranded or double stranded.

Recombinant Methods

TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules of the invention may be obtained, for example, by solid-state peptide synthesis (e.g. Merrifield solid phase synthesis) or recombinant production. For recombinant production one or more polynucleotide encoding the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule or polypeptide fragments thereof, e.g., as described above, is isolated and inserted into one or more vectors for further cloning and/or expression in a host cell. Such polynucleotide may be readily isolated and sequenced using conventional procedures. In one aspect of the invention, a vector, preferably an expression vector, comprising one or more of the polynucleotides of the invention is provided. Methods which are well known to those skilled in the art can be used to construct expression vectors containing the coding sequence of the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule (fragment) along with appropriate transcriptional/translational control signals. These methods include in vitro recombinant DNA techniques, synthetic techniques and in vivo recombination/genetic recombination. See, for example, the techniques described in Maniatis et al., MOLECULAR CLONING: A LABORATORY MANUAL, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, N.Y. (1989); and Ausubel et al., CURRENT PROTOCOLS IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Greene Publishing Associates and Wiley Interscience, N.Y. (1989). The expression vector can be part of a plasmid, virus, or may be a nucleic acid fragment. The expression vector includes an expression cassette into which the polynucleotide encoding the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule or polypeptide fragments thereof (i.e. the coding region) is cloned in operable association with a promoter and/or other transcription or translation control elements. As used herein, a “coding region” is a portion of nucleic acid which consists of codons translated into amino acids. Although a “stop codon” (TAG, TGA, or TAA) is not translated into an amino acid, it may be considered to be part of a coding region, if present, but any flanking sequences, for example promoters, ribosome binding sites, transcriptional terminators, introns, 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions, and the like, are not part of a coding region. Two or more coding regions can be present in a single polynucleotide construct, e.g. on a single vector, or in separate polynucleotide constructs, e.g. on separate (different) vectors. Furthermore, any vector may contain a single coding region, or may comprise two or more coding regions, e.g. a vector of the present invention may encode one or more polypeptides, which are post- or co-translationally separated into the final proteins via proteolytic cleavage. In addition, a vector, polynucleotide, or nucleic acid of the invention may encode heterologous coding regions, either fused or unfused to a polynucleotide encoding the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention or polypeptide fragments thereof, or variants or derivatives thereof. Heterologous coding regions include without limitation specialized elements or motifs, such as a secretory signal peptide or a heterologous functional domain. An operable association is when a coding region for a gene product, e.g. a polypeptide, is associated with one or more regulatory sequences in such a way as to place expression of the gene product under the influence or control of the regulatory sequence(s). Two DNA fragments (such as a polypeptide coding region and a promoter associated therewith) are “operably associated” if induction of promoter function results in the transcription of mRNA encoding the desired gene product and if the nature of the linkage between the two DNA fragments does not interfere with the ability of the expression regulatory sequences to direct the expression of the gene product or interfere with the ability of the DNA template to be transcribed. Thus, a promoter region would be operably associated with a nucleic acid encoding a polypeptide if the promoter was capable of effecting transcription of that nucleic acid. The promoter may be a cell-specific promoter that directs substantial transcription of the DNA only in predetermined cells. Other transcription control elements, besides a promoter, for example enhancers, operators, repressors, and transcription termination signals, can be operably associated with the polynucleotide to direct cell-specific transcription.

Suitable promoters and other transcription control regions are disclosed herein. A variety of transcription control regions are known to those skilled in the art. These include, without limitation, transcription control regions, which function in vertebrate cells, such as, but not limited to, promoter and enhancer segments from cytomegaloviruses (e.g. the immediate early promoter, in conjunction with intron-A), simian virus 40 (e.g. the early promoter), and retroviruses (such as, e.g. Rous sarcoma virus). Other transcription control regions include those derived from vertebrate genes such as actin, heat shock protein, bovine growth hormone and rabbit {circumflex over (α)}-globin, as well as other sequences capable of controlling gene expression in eukaryotic cells. Additional suitable transcription control regions include tissue-specific promoters and enhancers as well as inducible promoters (e.g. promoters inducible tetracyclins). Similarly, a variety of translation control elements are known to those of ordinary skill in the art. These include, but are not limited to ribosome binding sites, translation initiation and termination codons, and elements derived from viral systems (particularly an internal ribosome entry site, or IRES, also referred to as a CITE sequence). The expression cassette may also include other features such as an origin of replication, and/or chromosome integration elements such as retroviral long terminal repeats (LTRs), or adeno-associated viral (AAV) inverted terminal repeats (ITRs).

Polynucleotide and nucleic acid coding regions of the present invention may be associated with additional coding regions which encode secretory or signal peptides, which direct the secretion of a polypeptide encoded by a polynucleotide of the present invention. For example, if secretion of the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule or polypeptide fragments thereof is desired, DNA encoding a signal sequence may be placed upstream of the nucleic acid encoding a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention or polypeptide fragments thereof. According to the signal hypothesis, proteins secreted by mammalian cells have a signal peptide or secretory leader sequence which is cleaved from the mature protein once export of the growing protein chain across the rough endoplasmic reticulum has been initiated. Those of ordinary skill in the art are aware that polypeptides secreted by vertebrate cells generally have a signal peptide fused to the N-terminus of the polypeptide, which is cleaved from the translated polypeptide to produce a secreted or “mature” form of the polypeptide. In certain embodiments, the native signal peptide, e.g. an immunoglobulin heavy chain or light chain signal peptide is used, or a functional derivative of that sequence that retains the ability to direct the secretion of the polypeptide that is operably associated with it. Alternatively, a heterologous mammalian signal peptide, or a functional derivative thereof, may be used. For example, the wild-type leader sequence may be substituted with the leader sequence of human tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) or mouse β-glucuronidase.

DNA encoding a short protein sequence that could be used to facilitate later purification (e.g. a histidine tag) or assist in labeling the fusion protein may be included within or at the ends of the polynucleotide encoding a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention or polypeptide fragments thereof.

In a further aspect of the invention, a host cell comprising one or more polynucleotides of the invention is provided. In certain embodiments a host cell comprising one or more vectors of the invention is provided. The polynucleotides and vectors may incorporate any of the features, singly or in combination, described herein in relation to polynucleotides and vectors, respectively. In one aspect, a host cell comprises (e.g. has been transformed or transfected with) a vector comprising a polynucleotide that encodes (part of) a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention of the invention. As used herein, the term “host cell” refers to any kind of cellular system which can be engineered to generate the fusion proteins of the invention or fragments thereof. Host cells suitable for replicating and for supporting expression of antigen binding molecules are well known in the art. Such cells may be transfected or transduced as appropriate with the particular expression vector and large quantities of vector containing cells can be grown for seeding large scale fermenters to obtain sufficient quantities of the antigen binding molecule for clinical applications. Suitable host cells include prokaryotic microorganisms, such as E. coli, or various eukaryotic cells, such as Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO), insect cells, or the like. For example, polypeptides may be produced in bacteria in particular when glycosylation is not needed. After expression, the polypeptide may be isolated from the bacterial cell paste in a soluble fraction and can be further purified. In addition to prokaryotes, eukaryotic microbes such as filamentous fungi or yeast are suitable cloning or expression hosts for polypeptide-encoding vectors, including fungi and yeast strains whose glycosylation pathways have been “humanized”, resulting in the production of a polypeptide with a partially or fully human glycosylation pattern. See Gerngross, Nat Biotech 22, 1409-1414 (2004), and Li et al., Nat Biotech 24, 210-215 (2006).

Suitable host cells for the expression of (glycosylated) polypeptides are also derived from multicellular organisms (invertebrates and vertebrates). Examples of invertebrate cells include plant and insect cells. Numerous baculoviral strains have been identified which may be used in conjunction with insect cells, particularly for transfection of Spodoptera frugiperda cells. Plant cell cultures can also be utilized as hosts. See e.g. U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,959,177, 6,040,498, 6,420,548, 7,125,978, and 6,417,429 (describing PLANTIBODIES™ technology for producing antibodies in transgenic plants). Vertebrate cells may also be used as hosts. For example, mammalian cell lines that are adapted to grow in suspension may be useful. Other examples of useful mammalian host cell lines are monkey kidney CV1 line transformed by SV40 (COS-7); human embryonic kidney line (293 or 293T cells as described, e.g., in Graham et al., J Gen Virol 36, 59 (1977)), baby hamster kidney cells (BHK), mouse sertoli cells (TM4 cells as described, e.g., in Mather, Biol Reprod 23, 243-251 (1980)), monkey kidney cells (CV1), African green monkey kidney cells (VERO-76), human cervical carcinoma cells (HELA), canine kidney cells (MDCK), buffalo rat liver cells (BRL 3A), human lung cells (W138), human liver cells (Hep G2), mouse mammary tumor cells (MMT 060562), TRI cells (as described, e.g., in Mather et al., Annals N.Y. Acad Sci 383, 44-68 (1982)), MRC 5 cells, and FS4 cells. Other useful mammalian host cell lines include Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, including dhfr-CHO cells (Urlaub et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77, 4216 (1980)); and myeloma cell lines such as YO, NS0, P3X63 and Sp2/0. For a review of certain mammalian host cell lines suitable for protein production, see, e.g., Yazaki and Wu, Methods in Molecular Biology, Vol. 248 (B.K.C. Lo, ed., Humana Press, Totowa, N.J.), pp. 255-268 (2003). Host cells include cultured cells, e.g., mammalian cultured cells, yeast cells, insect cells, bacterial cells and plant cells, to name only a few, but also cells comprised within a transgenic animal, transgenic plant or cultured plant or animal tissue. In one embodiment, the host cell is a eukaryotic cell, preferably a mammalian cell, such as a Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell, a human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell or a lymphoid cell (e.g., Y0, NS0, Sp20 cell). Standard technologies are known in the art to express foreign genes in these systems. Cells expressing a polypeptide comprising either the heavy or the light chain of an immunoglobulin, may be engineered so as to also express the other of the immunoglobulin chains such that the expressed product is an immunoglobulin that has both a heavy and a light chain.

In one aspect, a method of producing a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention or polypeptide fragments thereof is provided, wherein the method comprises culturing a host cell comprising polynucleotides encoding the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention or polypeptide fragments thereof, as provided herein, under conditions suitable for expression of the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention or polypeptide fragments thereof, and recovering the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention or polypeptide fragments thereof from the host cell (or host cell culture medium).

In the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention, the components (at least one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, one polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof and a Fc domain) are not all genetically fused to each other. The polypeptides are designed such that its components (three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof and other components such as CH2 and CH3 of the Fc domain) are fused to each other directly or through a linker sequence. The composition and length of the linker may be determined in accordance with methods well known in the art and may be tested for efficacy. Examples of linker sequences between different components of the antigen binding molecules of the invention are found in the sequences provided herein. Additional sequences may also be included to incorporate a cleavage site to separate the individual components of the fusion protein if desired, for example an endopeptidase recognition sequence.

In certain embodiments the moieties capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen (e.g. Fab fragments) forming part of the antigen binding molecule comprise at least an immunoglobulin variable region capable of binding to an antigen. Variable regions can form part of and be derived from naturally or non-naturally occurring antibodies and fragments thereof. Methods to produce polyclonal antibodies and monoclonal antibodies are well known in the art (see e.g. Harlow and Lane, “Antibodies, a laboratory manual”, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1988). Non-naturally occurring antibodies can be constructed using solid phase-peptide synthesis, can be produced recombinantly (e.g. as described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,186,567) or can be obtained, for example, by screening combinatorial libraries comprising variable heavy chains and variable light chains (see e.g. U.S. Pat. No. 5,969,108 to McCafferty).

Any animal species of immunoglobulin can be used in the invention. Non-limiting immunoglobulins useful in the present invention can be of murine, primate, or human origin. If the fusion protein is intended for human use, a chimeric form of immunoglobulin may be used wherein the constant regions of the immunoglobulin are from a human. A humanized or fully human form of the immunoglobulin can also be prepared in accordance with methods well known in the art (see e. g. U.S. Pat. No. 5,565,332 to Winter). Humanization may be achieved by various methods including, but not limited to (a) grafting the non-human (e.g., donor antibody) CDRs onto human (e.g. recipient antibody) framework and constant regions with or without retention of critical framework residues (e.g. those that are important for retaining good antigen binding affinity or antibody functions), (b) grafting only the non-human specificity-determining regions (SDRs or a-CDRs; the residues critical for the antibody-antigen interaction) onto human framework and constant regions, or (c) transplanting the entire non-human variable domains, but “cloaking” them with a human-like section by replacement of surface residues. Humanized antibodies and methods of making them are reviewed, e.g., in Almagro and Fransson, Front Biosci 13, 1619-1633 (2008), and are further described, e.g., in Riechmann et al., Nature 332, 323-329 (1988); Queen et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86, 10029-10033 (1989); U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,821,337, 7,527,791, 6,982,321, and 7,087,409; Jones et al., Nature 321, 522-525 (1986); Morrison et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci 81, 6851-6855 (1984); Morrison and 0i, Adv Immunol 44, 65-92 (1988); Verhoeyen et al., Science 239, 1534-1536 (1988); Padlan, Molec Immun 31(3), 169-217 (1994); Kashmiri et al., Methods 36, 25-34 (2005) (describing SDR (a-CDR) grafting); Padlan, Mol Immunol 28, 489-498 (1991) (describing “resurfacing”); Dall'Acqua et al., Methods 36, 43-60 (2005) (describing “FR shuffling”); and Osbourn et al., Methods 36, 61-68 (2005) and Klimka et al., Br J Cancer 83, 252-260 (2000) (describing the “guided selection” approach to FR shuffling). Particular immunoglobulins according to the invention are human immunoglobulins.

Human antibodies and human variable regions can be produced using various techniques known in the art. Human antibodies are described generally in van Dijk and van de Winkel, Curr Opin Pharmacol 5, 368-74 (2001) and Lonberg, Curr Opin Immuno! 20, 450-459 (2008). Human variable regions can form part of and be derived from human monoclonal antibodies made by the hybridoma method (see e.g. Monoclonal Antibody Production Techniques and Applications, pp. 51-63 (Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1987)). Human antibodies and human variable regions may also be prepared by administering an immunogen to a transgenic animal that has been modified to produce intact human antibodies or intact antibodies with human variable regions in response to antigenic challenge (see e.g. Lonberg, Nat Biotech 23, 1117-1125 (2005). Human antibodies and human variable regions may also be generated by isolating Fv clone variable region sequences selected from human-derived phage display libraries (see e.g., Hoogenboom et al. in Methods in Molecular Biology 178, 1-37 (O′Brien et al., ed., Human Press, Totowa, NJ, 2001); and McCafferty et al., Nature 348, 552-554; Clackson et al., Nature 352, 624-628 (1991)). Phage typically display antibody fragments, either as single-chain Fv (scFv) fragments or as Fab fragments.

In certain aspects, the moieties capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen (e.g. Fab fragments) comprised in the antigen binding molecules of the present invention are engineered to have enhanced binding affinity according to, for example, the methods disclosed in PCT publication WO 2012/020006 (see Examples relating to affinity maturation) or U.S. Pat. Appl. Publ. No. 2004/0132066. The ability of the antigen binding molecules of the invention to bind to a specific antigenic determinant can be measured either through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or other techniques familiar to one of skill in the art, e.g. surface plasmon resonance technique (Liljeblad, et al., Glyco J 17, 323-329 (2000)), and traditional binding assays (Heeley, Endocr Res 28, 217-229 (2002)). Competition assays may be used to identify an antigen binding molecule that competes with a reference antibody for binding to a particular antigen. In certain embodiments, such a competing antigen binding molecule binds to the same epitope (e.g. a linear or a conformational epitope) that is bound by the reference antigen binding molecule. Detailed exemplary methods for mapping an epitope to which an antigen binding molecule binds are provided in Morris (1996) “Epitope Mapping Protocols”, in Methods in Molecular Biology vol. 66 (Humana Press, Totowa, N.J.). In an exemplary competition assay, immobilized antigen is incubated in a solution comprising a first labeled antigen binding molecule that binds to the antigen and a second unlabeled antigen binding molecule that is being tested for its ability to compete with the first antigen binding molecule for binding to the antigen. The second antigen binding molecule may be present in a hybridoma supernatant. As a control, immobilized antigen is incubated in a solution comprising the first labeled antigen binding molecule but not the second unlabeled antigen binding molecule. After incubation under conditions permissive for binding of the first antibody to the antigen, excess unbound antibody is removed, and the amount of label associated with immobilized antigen is measured. If the amount of label associated with immobilized antigen is substantially reduced in the test sample relative to the control sample, then that indicates that the second antigen binding molecule is competing with the first antigen binding molecule for binding to the antigen. See Harlow and Lane (1988) Antibodies: A Laboratory Manual ch.14 (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.).

TNF ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules of the invention prepared as described herein may be purified by art-known techniques such as high performance liquid chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, gel electrophoresis, affinity chromatography, size exclusion chromatography, and the like. The actual conditions used to purify a particular protein will depend, in part, on factors such as net charge, hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity etc., and will be apparent to those having skill in the art. For affinity chromatography purification an antibody, ligand, receptor or antigen can be used to which the TNF ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule binds. For example, for affinity chromatography purification of fusion proteins of the invention, a matrix with protein A or protein G may be used. Sequential Protein A or G affinity chromatography and size exclusion chromatography can be used to isolate an antigen binding molecule essentially as described in the Examples. The purity of the TNF ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule or fragments thereof can be determined by any of a variety of well-known analytical methods including gel electrophoresis, high pressure liquid chromatography, and the like. For example, the TNF ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules expressed as described in the Examples were shown to be intact and properly assembled as demonstrated by reducing and non-reducing SDS-PAGE.

Assays

The antigen binding molecules provided herein may be identified, screened for, or characterized for their physical/chemical properties and/or biological activities by various assays known in the art.

1. Affinity Assays

The affinity of the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule provided herein for the corresponding TNF receptor can be determined in accordance with the methods set forth in the Examples by surface plasmon resonance (SPR), using standard instrumentation such as a BIAcore instrument (GE Healthcare), and receptors or target proteins such as may be obtained by recombinant expression. The affinity of the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule for the target cell antigen can also be determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR), using standard instrumentation such as a BIAcore instrument (GE Healthcare), and receptors or target proteins such as may be obtained by recombinant expression. A specific illustrative and exemplary embodiment for measuring binding affinity is described in Example 4. According to one aspect, KD is measured by surface plasmon resonance using a BIACORE® T100 machine (GE Healthcare) at 25° C.

2. Binding Assays and Other Assays

Binding of the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule provided herein to the corresponding receptor expressing cells may be evaluated using cell lines expressing the particular receptor or target antigen, for example by flow cytometry (FACS). In one aspect, fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) expressing the TNF receptor are used in the binding assay. These cells are used directly after isolation (naive PMBCs) or after stimulation (activated PMBCs). In another aspect, activated mouse splenocytes (expressing the TNF receptor molecule) were used to demonstrate the binding of the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention to the corresponding TNF receptor expressing cells.

In a further aspect, cancer cell lines expressing the target cell antigen, for example FAP, were used to demonstrate the binding of the antigen binding molecules to the target cell antigen.

In another aspect, competition assays may be used to identify an antigen binding molecule that competes with a specific antibody or antigen binding molecule for binding to the target or TNF receptor, respectively. In certain embodiments, such a competing antigen binding molecule binds to the same epitope (e.g., a linear or a conformational epitope) that is bound by a specific anti-target antibody or a specific anti-TNF receptor antibody. Detailed exemplary methods for mapping an epitope to which an antibody binds are provided in Morris (1996) “Epitope Mapping Protocols,” in Methods in Molecular Biology vol. 66 (Humana Press, Totowa, N.J.).

3. Activity Assays

In one aspect, assays are provided for identifying TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules that bind to a specific target cell antigen and to a specific TNF receptor having biological activity. Biological activity may include, e.g., agonistic signalling through the TNF receptor on cells expressing the target cell antigen. TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules identified by the assays as having such biological activity in vitro are also provided.

In certain aspects, a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention is tested for such biological activity. Assays for detecting the biological activity of the molecules of the invention are those described in Example 6. Furthermore, assays for detecting cell lysis (e.g. by measurement of LDH release), induced apoptosis kinetics (e.g. by measurement of Caspase 3/7 activity) or apoptosis (e.g. using the TUNEL assay) are well known in the art. In addition the biological activity of such complexes can be assessed by evaluating their effects on survival, proliferation and lymphokine secretion of various lymphocyte subsets such as NK cells, NKT-cells or γδ T-cells or assessing their capacity to modulate phenotype and function of antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages or B-cells.

Pharmaceutical Compositions, Formulations and Routes of Administation

In a further aspect, the invention provides pharmaceutical compositions comprising any of the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules provided herein, e.g., for use in any of the below therapeutic methods. In one embodiment, a pharmaceutical composition comprises any of the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules provided herein and at least one pharmaceutically acceptable excipient. In another embodiment, a pharmaceutical composition comprises any of the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules provided herein and at least one additional therapeutic agent, e.g., as described below.

Pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention comprise a therapeutically effective amount of one or more TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules dissolved or dispersed in a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient. The phrases “pharmaceutical or pharmacologically acceptable” refers to molecular entities and compositions that are generally non-toxic to recipients at the dosages and concentrations employed, i.e. do not produce an adverse, allergic or other untoward reaction when administered to an animal, such as, for example, a human, as appropriate. The preparation of a pharmaceutical composition that contains at least one TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule and optionally an additional active ingredient will be known to those of skill in the art in light of the present disclosure, as exemplified by Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 18th Ed. Mack Printing Company, 1990, incorporated herein by reference. In particular, the compositions are lyophilized formulations or aqueous solutions. As used herein, “pharmaceutically acceptable excipient” includes any and all solvents, buffers, dispersion media, coatings, surfactants, antioxidants, preservatives (e.g. antibacterial agents, antifungal agents), isotonic agents, salts, stabilizers and combinations thereof, as would be known to one of ordinary skill in the art.

Parenteral compositions include those designed for administration by injection, e.g. subcutaneous, intradermal, intralesional, intravenous, intraarterial intramuscular, intrathecal or intraperitoneal injection. For injection, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules of the invention may be formulated in aqueous solutions, preferably in physiologically compatible buffers such as Hanks' solution, Ringer's solution, or physiological saline buffer. The solution may contain formulatory agents such as suspending, stabilizing and/or dispersing agents. Alternatively, the fusion proteins may be in powder form for constitution with a suitable vehicle, e.g., sterile pyrogen-free water, before use. Sterile injectable solutions are prepared by incorporating the fusion proteins of the invention in the required amount in the appropriate solvent with various of the other ingredients enumerated below, as required. Sterility may be readily accomplished, e.g., by filtration through sterile filtration membranes. Generally, dispersions are prepared by incorporating the various sterilized active ingredients into a sterile vehicle which contains the basic dispersion medium and/or the other ingredients. In the case of sterile powders for the preparation of sterile injectable solutions, suspensions or emulsion, the preferred methods of preparation are vacuum-drying or freeze-drying techniques which yield a powder of the active ingredient plus any additional desired ingredient from a previously sterile-filtered liquid medium thereof. The liquid medium should be suitably buffered if necessary and the liquid diluent first rendered isotonic prior to injection with sufficient saline or glucose. The composition must be stable under the conditions of manufacture and storage, and preserved against the contaminating action of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi. It will be appreciated that endotoxin contamination should be kept minimally at a safe level, for example, less that 0.5 ng/mg protein. Suitable pharmaceutically acceptable excipients include, but are not limited to: buffers such as phosphate, citrate, and other organic acids; antioxidants including ascorbic acid and methionine; preservatives (such as octadecyldimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride; hexamethonium chloride; benzalkonium chloride; benzethonium chloride; phenol, butyl or benzyl alcohol; alkyl parabens such as methyl or propyl paraben; catechol; resorcinol; cyclohexanol; 3-pentanol; and m-cresol); low molecular weight (less than about 10 residues) polypeptides; proteins, such as serum albumin, gelatin, or immunoglobulins; hydrophilic polymers such as polyvinylpyrrolidone; amino acids such as glycine, glutamine, asparagine, histidine, arginine, or lysine; monosaccharides, disaccharides, and other carbohydrates including glucose, mannose, or dextrins; chelating agents such as EDTA; sugars such as sucrose, mannitol, trehalose or sorbitol; salt-forming counter-ions such as sodium; metal complexes (e.g. Zn-protein complexes); and/or non-ionic surfactants such as polyethylene glycol (PEG). Aqueous injection suspensions may contain compounds which increase the viscosity of the suspension, such as sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, sorbitol, dextran, or the like. Optionally, the suspension may also contain suitable stabilizers or agents which increase the solubility of the compounds to allow for the preparation of highly concentrated solutions. Additionally, suspensions of the active compounds may be prepared as appropriate oily injection suspensions. Suitable lipophilic solvents or vehicles include fatty oils such as sesame oil, or synthetic fatty acid esters, such as ethyl cleats or triglycerides, or liposomes.

Active ingredients may be entrapped in microcapsules prepared, for example, by coacervation techniques or by interfacial polymerization, for example, hydroxymethylcellulose or gelatin-microcapsules and poly-(methylmethacylate) microcapsules, respectively, in colloidal drug delivery systems (for example, liposomes, albumin microspheres, microemulsions, nano-particles and nanocapsules) or in macroemulsions. Such techniques are disclosed in Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences (18th Ed. Mack Printing Company, 1990). Sustained-release preparations may be prepared. Suitable examples of sustained-release preparations include semipermeable matrices of solid hydrophobic polymers containing the polypeptide, which matrices are in the form of shaped articles, e.g. films, or microcapsules. In particular embodiments, prolonged absorption of an injectable composition can be brought about by the use in the compositions of agents delaying absorption, such as, for example, aluminum monostearate, gelatin or combinations thereof.

Exemplary pharmaceutically acceptable excipients herein further include insterstitial drug dispersion agents such as soluble neutral-active hyaluronidase glycoproteins (sHASEGP), for example, human soluble PH-20 hyaluronidase glycoproteins, such as rHuPH20 (HYLENEX®, Baxter International, Inc.). Certain exemplary sHASEGPs and methods of use, including rHuPH20, are described in US Patent Publication Nos. 2005/0260186 and 2006/0104968. In one aspect, a sHASEGP is combined with one or more additional glycosaminoglycanases such as chondroitinases.

Exemplary lyophilized antibody formulations are described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,267,958. Aqueous antibody formulations include those described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,171,586 and WO2006/044908, the latter formulations including a histidine-acetate buffer.

In addition to the compositions described previously, the fusion proteins may also be formulated as a depot preparation. Such long acting formulations may be administered by implantation (for example subcutaneously or intramuscularly) or by intramuscular injection. Thus, for example, the fusion proteins may be formulated with suitable polymeric or hydrophobic materials (for example as emulsion in an acceptable oil) or ion exchange resins, or as sparingly soluble derivatives, for example, as a sparingly soluble salt.

Pharmaceutical compositions comprising the fusion proteins of the invention may be manufactured by means of conventional mixing, dissolving, emulsifying, encapsulating, entrapping or lyophilizing processes. Pharmaceutical compositions may be formulated in conventional manner using one or more physiologically acceptable carriers, diluents, excipients or auxiliaries which facilitate processing of the proteins into preparations that can be used pharmaceutically. Proper formulation is dependent upon the route of administration chosen.

The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules may be formulated into a composition in a free acid or base, neutral or salt form. Pharmaceutically acceptable salts are salts that substantially retain the biological activity of the free acid or base. These include the acid addition salts, e.g. those formed with the free amino groups of a proteinaceous composition, or which are formed with inorganic acids such as for example, hydrochloric or phosphoric acids, or such organic acids as acetic, oxalic, tartaric or mandelic acid. Salts formed with the free carboxyl groups can also be derived from inorganic bases such as for example, sodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium or ferric hydroxides; or such organic bases as isopropylamine, trimethylamine, histidine or procaine. Pharmaceutical salts tend to be more soluble in aqueous and other protic solvents than are the corresponding free base forms.

The composition herein may also contain more than one active ingredients as necessary for the particular indication being treated, preferably those with complementary activities that do not adversely affect each other. Such active ingredients are suitably present in combination in amounts that are effective for the purpose intended.

The formulations to be used for in vivo administration are generally sterile. Sterility may be readily accomplished, e.g., by filtration through sterile filtration membranes.

Therapeutic Methods and Compositions

Any of the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules provided herein may be used in therapeutic methods.

For use in therapeutic methods, TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules of the invention can be formulated, dosed, and administered in a fashion consistent with good medical practice. Factors for consideration in this context include the particular disorder being treated, the particular mammal being treated, the clinical condition of the individual patient, the cause of the disorder, the site of delivery of the agent, the method of administration, the scheduling of administration, and other factors known to medical practitioners.

In one aspect, TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules of the invention for use as a medicament are provided. In further aspects, TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules of the invention for use in treating a disease, in particular for use in the treatment of cancer, are provided. In certain aspects, TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules of the invention for use in a method of treatment are provided. In one aspect, the invention provides a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein for use in the treatment of a disease in an individual in need thereof. In certain aspects, the invention provides a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule for use in a method of treating an individual having a disease comprising administering to the individual a therapeutically effective amount of the fusion protein. In certain aspects, the disease to be treated is cancer. Examples of cancers include solid tumors, bladder cancer, renal cell carcinoma, brain cancer, head and neck cancer, pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, uterine cancer, cervical cancer, endometrial cancer, esophageal cancer, colon cancer, colorectal cancer, rectal cancer, gastric cancer, prostate cancer, blood cancer, skin cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, bone cancer, and kidney cancer, melanoma, B-cell lymphoma, B-cell leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Thus, a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein for use in the treatment of cancer is provided. The subject, patient, or “individual” in need of treatment is typically a mammal, more specifically a human.

In another aspect, provided is a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein for use in the treatment of infectious diseases, in particular for the treatment of viral infections. In a further aspect, provided is a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein for use in the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as for example Lupus disease.

In one aspect, provided is a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule according to the invention for use in treating head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), breast cancer, colorectal cancer (CRC), pancreatic cancer (PAC), gastric cancer, non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and Mesothelioma, wherein the target cell antigen is FAP.

In a further aspect, the invention relates to the use of a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule in the manufacture or preparation of a medicament for the treatment of a disease in an individual in need thereof. In one aspect, the medicament is for use in a method of treating a disease comprising administering to an individual having the disease a therapeutically effective amount of the medicament. In certain embodiments the disease to be treated is a proliferative disorder, particularly cancer. Thus, in one aspect, the invention relates to the use of a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention in the manufacture or preparation of a medicament for the treatment of cancer. Examples of cancers include solid tumors, bladder cancer, renal cell carcinoma, brain cancer, head and neck cancer, pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, uterine cancer, cervical cancer, endometrial cancer, esophageal cancer, colon cancer, colorectal cancer, rectal cancer, gastric cancer, prostate cancer, blood cancer, skin cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, bone cancer, and kidney cancer, melanoma, B-cell lymphoma, B-cell leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Other cell proliferation disorders that can be treated using a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the present invention include, but are not limited to neoplasms located in the: abdomen, bone, breast, digestive system, liver, pancreas, peritoneum, endocrine glands (adrenal, parathyroid, pituitary, testicles, ovary, thymus, thyroid), eye, head and neck, nervous system (central and peripheral), lymphatic system, pelvic, skin, soft tissue, spleen, thoracic region, and urogenital system. Also included are pre-cancerous conditions or lesions and cancer metastases. In certain embodiments the cancer is chosen from the group consisting of renal cell cancer, skin cancer, lung cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, brain cancer, head and neck cancer. A skilled artisan may recognize that in some cases the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule may not provide a cure but may only provide partial benefit. In some aspects, a physiological change having some benefit is also considered therapeutically beneficial. Thus, in some aspects, an amount of TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule that provides a physiological change is considered an “effective amount” or a “therapeutically effective amount”.

In a further aspect, the invention relates to the use of a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein in the manufacture or preparation of a medicament for the treatment of infectious diseases, in particular for the treatment of viral infections or for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, for example Lupus disease.

In a further aspect, the invention provides a method for treating a disease in an individual, comprising administering to said individual a therapeutically effective amount of a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention. In one aspect a composition is administered to said individual, comprising a fusion protein of the invention in a pharmaceutically acceptable form. In certain aspects, the disease to be treated is a proliferative disorder. In a particular aspect, the disease is cancer. In another aspect, the disease is an infectious disease or an autoimmune disease. In certain aspects, the method further comprises administering to the individual a therapeutically effective amount of at least one additional therapeutic agent, e.g. an anti-cancer agent if the disease to be treated is cancer. An “individual” according to any of the above embodiments may be a mammal, preferably a human.

For the prevention or treatment of disease, the appropriate dosage of a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention (when used alone or in combination with one or more other additional therapeutic agents) will depend on the type of disease to be treated, the route of administration, the body weight of the patient, the type of fusion protein, the severity and course of the disease, whether the fusion protein is administered for preventive or therapeutic purposes, previous or concurrent therapeutic interventions, the patient's clinical history and response to the fusion protein, and the discretion of the attending physician. The practitioner responsible for administration will, in any event, determine the concentration of active ingredient(s) in a composition and appropriate dose(s) for the individual subject. Various dosing schedules including but not limited to single or multiple administrations over various time-points, bolus administration, and pulse infusion are contemplated herein.

The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule is suitably administered to the patient at one time or over a series of treatments. Depending on the type and severity of the disease, about 1 μg/kg to 15 mg/kg (e.g. 0.1 mg/kg-10 mg/kg) of TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule can be an initial candidate dosage for administration to the patient, whether, for example, by one or more separate administrations, or by continuous infusion. One typical daily dosage might range from about 1 μg/kg to 100 mg/kg or more, depending on the factors mentioned above. For repeated administrations over several days or longer, depending on the condition, the treatment would generally be sustained until a desired suppression of disease symptoms occurs. One exemplary dosage of the fusion protein would be in the range from about 0.005 mg/kg to about 10 mg/kg. In other examples, a dose may also comprise from about 1 μg/kg body weight, about 5 μg/kg body weight, about 10 μg/kg body weight, about 50 μg/kg body weight, about 100 μg/kg body weight, about 200 μg/kg body weight, about 350 μg/kg body weight, about 500 μg/kg body weight, about 1 mg/kg body weight, about 5 mg/kg body weight, about 10 mg/kg body weight, about 50 mg/kg body weight, about 100 mg/kg body weight, about 200 mg/kg body weight, about 350 mg/kg body weight, about 500 mg/kg body weight, to about 1000 mg/kg body weight or more per administration, and any range derivable therein. In examples of a derivable range from the numbers listed herein, a range of about 5 mg/kg body weight to about 100 mg/kg body weight, about 5 μg/kg body weight to about 500 mg/kg body weight etc., can be administered, based on the numbers described above. Thus, one or more doses of about 0.5 mg/kg, 2.0 mg/kg, 5.0 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg (or any combination thereof) may be administered to the patient. Such doses may be administered intermittently, e.g. every week or every three weeks (e.g. such that the patient receives from about two to about twenty, or e.g. about six doses of the fusion protein). An initial higher loading dose, followed by one or more lower doses may be administered. However, other dosage regimens may be useful. The progress of this therapy is easily monitored by conventional techniques and assays.

The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules of the invention will generally be used in an amount effective to achieve the intended purpose. For use to treat or prevent a disease condition, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules of the invention, or pharmaceutical compositions thereof, are administered or applied in a therapeutically effective amount. Determination of a therapeutically effective amount is well within the capabilities of those skilled in the art, especially in light of the detailed disclosure provided herein.

For systemic administration, a therapeutically effective dose can be estimated initially from in vitro assays, such as cell culture assays. A dose can then be formulated in animal models to achieve a circulating concentration range that includes the IC50 as determined in cell culture. Such information can be used to more accurately determine useful doses in humans.

Initial dosages can also be estimated from in vivo data, e.g., animal models, using techniques that are well known in the art. One having ordinary skill in the art could readily optimize administration to humans based on animal data.

Dosage amount and interval may be adjusted individually to provide plasma levels of the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules which are sufficient to maintain therapeutic effect. Usual patient dosages for administration by injection range from about 0.1 to 50 mg/kg/day, typically from about 0.5 to 1 mg/kg/day. Therapeutically effective plasma levels may be achieved by administering multiple doses each day. Levels in plasma may be measured, for example, by HPLC.

In cases of local administration or selective uptake, the effective local concentration of the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule may not be related to plasma concentration. One skilled in the art will be able to optimize therapeutically effective local dosages without undue experimentation.

A therapeutically effective dose of the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules described herein will generally provide therapeutic benefit without causing substantial toxicity. Toxicity and therapeutic efficacy of a fusion protein can be determined by standard pharmaceutical procedures in cell culture or experimental animals. Cell culture assays and animal studies can be used to determine the LD50 (the dose lethal to 50% of a population) and the ED50 (the dose therapeutically effective in 50% of a population). The dose ratio between toxic and therapeutic effects is the therapeutic index, which can be expressed as the ratio LD50/ED50. TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules that exhibit large therapeutic indices are preferred. In one embodiment, the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule according to the present invention exhibits a high therapeutic index. The data obtained from cell culture assays and animal studies can be used in formulating a range of dosages suitable for use in humans. The dosage lies preferably within a range of circulating concentrations that include the ED50 with little or no toxicity. The dosage may vary within this range depending upon a variety of factors, e.g., the dosage form employed, the route of administration utilized, the condition of the subject, and the like. The exact formulation, route of administration and dosage can be chosen by the individual physician in view of the patient's condition (see, e.g., Fingl et al., 1975, in: The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, Ch. 1, p. 1, incorporated herein by reference in its entirety).

The attending physician for patients treated with fusion proteins of the invention would know how and when to terminate, interrupt, or adjust administration due to toxicity, organ dysfunction, and the like. Conversely, the attending physician would also know to adjust treatment to higher levels if the clinical response were not adequate (precluding toxicity). The magnitude of an administered dose in the management of the disorder of interest will vary with the severity of the condition to be treated, with the route of administration, and the like. The severity of the condition may, for example, be evaluated, in part, by standard prognostic evaluation methods. Further, the dose and perhaps dose frequency will also vary according to the age, body weight, and response of the individual patient.

Other Agents and Treatments

The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules of the invention may be administered in combination with one or more other agents in therapy. For instance, a fusion protein of the invention may be co-administered with at least one additional therapeutic agent. The term “therapeutic agent” encompasses any agent that can be administered for treating a symptom or disease in an individual in need of such treatment. Such additional therapeutic agent may comprise any active ingredients suitable for the particular indication being treated, preferably those with complementary activities that do not adversely affect each other. In certain embodiments, an additional therapeutic agent is another anti-cancer agent.

Such other agents are suitably present in combination in amounts that are effective for the purpose intended. The effective amount of such other agents depends on the amount of fusion protein used, the type of disorder or treatment, and other factors discussed above. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecules are generally used in the same dosages and with administration routes as described herein, or about from 1 to 99% of the dosages described herein, or in any dosage and by any route that is empirically/clinically determined to be appropriate.

Such combination therapies noted above encompass combined administration (where two or more therapeutic agents are included in the same or separate compositions), and separate administration, in which case, administration of the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention can occur prior to, simultaneously, and/or following, administration of the additional therapeutic agent and/or adjuvant.

Articles of Manufacture

In another aspect of the invention, an article of manufacture containing materials useful for the treatment, prevention and/or diagnosis of the disorders described above is provided. The article of manufacture comprises a container and a label or package insert on or associated with the container. Suitable containers include, for example, bottles, vials, syringes, IV solution bags, etc. The containers may be formed from a variety of materials such as glass or plastic. The container holds a composition which is by itself or combined with another composition effective for treating, preventing and/or diagnosing the condition and may have a sterile access port (for example the container may be an intravenous solution bag or a vial having a stopper that is pierceable by a hypodermic injection needle). At least one active agent in the composition is a TNF ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention.

The label or package insert indicates that the composition is used for treating the condition of choice. Moreover, the article of manufacture may comprise (a) a first container with a composition contained therein, wherein the composition comprises a TNF ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of the invention; and (b) a second container with a composition contained therein, wherein the composition comprises a further cytotoxic or otherwise therapeutic agent. The article of manufacture in this embodiment of the invention may further comprise a package insert indicating that the compositions can be used to treat a particular condition.

Alternatively, or additionally, the article of manufacture may further comprise a second (or third) container comprising a pharmaceutically-acceptable buffer, such as bacteriostatic water for injection (BWFI), phosphate-buffered saline, Ringer's solution and dextrose solution. It may further include other materials desirable from a commercial and user standpoint, including other buffers, diluents, filters, needles, and syringes.

TABLE C (Sequences): SEQ ID NO: Name Sequence   1 Human (hu) 4-1BBL (71- REGPELSPDDPAGLLDLRQGMFAQLVAQNVLLIDGP 254) LSWYSDPGLAGVSLTGGLSYKEDTKELVVAKAGVY YVFFQLELRRVVAGEGSGSVSLALHLQPLRSAAGAA ALALTVDLPPASSEARNSAFGFQGRLLHLSAGQRLG VHLHTEARARHAWQLTQGATVLGLFRVTPEIPAGLP SPRSE   2 hu 4-1BBL (85-254) LDLRQGMFAQLVAQNVLLIDGPLSWYSDPGLAGVSL TGGLSYKEDTKELVVAKAGVYYVFFQLELRRVVAG EGSGSVSLALHLQPLRSAAGAAALALTVDLPPASSEA RNSAFGFQGRLLHLSAGQRLGVHLHTEARARHAWQ LTQGATVLGLFRVTPEIPAGLPSPRSE   3 hu 4-1BBL (80-254) DPAGLLDLRQGMFAQLVAQNVLLIDGPLSWYSDPGL AGVSLTGGLSYKEDTKELVVAKAGVYYVFFQLELRR VVAGEGSGSVSLALHLQPLRSAAGAAALALTVDLPP ASSEARNSAFGFQGRLLHLSAGQRLGVHLHTEARAR HAWQLTQGATVLGLFRVTPEIPAGLPSPRSE   4 hu 4-1BBL (52-254) PWAVSGARASPGSAASPRLREGPELSPDDPAGLLDLR QGMFAQLVAQNVLLIDGPLSWYSDPGLAGVSLTGGL SYKEDTKELVVAKAGVYYVFFQLELRRVVAGEGSG SVSLALHLQPLRSAAGAAALALTVDLPPASSEARNSA FGFQGRLLHLSAGQRLGVHLHTEARARHAWQLTQG ATVLGLFRVTPEIPAGLPSPRSE   5 trimeric hu 4-1BBL (71- REGPELSPDDPAGLLDLRQGMFAQLVAQNVLLIDGP 254) connected by (G4S)2 LSWYSDPGLAGVSLTGGLSYKEDTKELVVAKAGVY linker YVFFQLELRRVVAGEGSGSVSLALHLQPLRSAAGAA ALALTVDLPPASSEARNSAFGFQGRLLHLSAGQRLG VHLHTEARARHAWQLTQGATVLGLFRVTPEIPAGLP SPRSEGGGGSGGGGSREGPELSPDDPAGLLDLRQGM FAQLVAQNVLLIDGPLSWYSDPGLAGVSLTGGLSYK EDTKELVVAKAGVYYVFFQLELRRVVAGEGSGSVSL ALHLQPLRSAAGAAALALTVDLPPASSEARNSAFGF QGRLLHLSAGQRLGVHLHTEARARHAWQLTQGATV LGLFRVTPEIPAGLPSPRSEGGGGSGGGGSREGPELSP DDPAGLLDLRQGMFAQLVAQNVLLIDGPLSWYSDP GLAGVSLTGGLSYKEDTKELVVAKAGVYYVFFQLEL RRVVAGEGSGSVSLALHLQPLRSAAGAAALALTVDL PPASSEARNSAFGFQGRLLHLSAGQRLGVHLHTEAR ARHAWQLTQGATVLGLFRVTPEIPAGLPSPRSE   6 hu OX40L (51-183) QVSHRYPRIQSIKVQFTEYKKEKGFILTSQKEDEIMK VQNNSVIINCDGFYLISLKGYFSQEVNISLHYQKDEEP LFQLKKVRSVNSLMVASLTYKDKVYLNVTTDNTSL DDFHVNGGELILIHQNPGEFCVL   7 hu OX40L (52-183) VSHRYPRIQSIKVQFTEYKKEKGFILTSQKEDEIMKV QNNSVIINCDGFYLISLKGYFSQEVNISLHYQKDEEPL FQLKKVRSVNSLMVASLTYKDKVYLNVTTDNTSLD DFHVNGGELILIHQNPGEFCVL   8 trimeric hu OX40L (51-183) QVSHRYPRIQSIKVQFTEYKKEKGFILTSQKEDEIMK connected by (G4S)2 linker VQNNSVIINCDGFYLISLKGYFSQEVNISLHYQKDEEP LFQLKKVRSVNSLMVASLTYKDKVYLNVTTDNTSL DDFHVNGGELILIHQNPGEFCVLGGGGSGGGGSQVS HRYPRIQSIKVQFTEYKKEKGFILTSQKEDEIMKVQN NSVIINCDGFYLISLKGYFSQEVNISLHYQKDEEPLFQ LKKVRSVNSLMVASLTYKDKVYLNVTTDNTSLDDF HVNGGELILIHQNPGEFCVLGGGGSGGGGSQVSHRY PRIQSIKVQFTEYKKEKGFILTSQKEDEIMKVQNNSVI INCDGFYLISLKGYFSQEVNISLHYQKDEEPLFQLKK VRSVNSLMVASLTYKDKVYLNVTTDNTSLDDFHVN GGELILIHQNPGEFCVL   9 FAP(28H1) CDR-H1 SHAMS  10 FAP(28H1) CDR-H2 AIWASGEQYYADSVKG  11 FAP(28H1) CDR-H3 GWLGNFDY  12 FAP(28H1) CDR-L1 RASQSVSRSYLA  13 FAP(28H1) CDR-L2 GASTRAT  14 FAP(28H1) CDR-L3 QQGQVIPPT  15 trimeric hu 4-1BBL (71- See Table 1 254) Fc knob chain  16 FAP(28H1) VH EVQLLESGGGLVQPGGSLRLSCAASGFTFSSHA MSWVRQAPGKGLEWVSAIWASGEQYYADSVK GRFTISRDNSKNTLYLQMNSLRAEDTAVYYCAK GWLGNFDYWGQGTLVTVSS  17 FAP(28H1) VL EIVLTQSPGTLSLSPGERATLSCRASQSVSRSYLA WYQQKPGQAPRLLIIGASTRATGIPDRFSGSGSG TDFTLTISRLEPEDFAVYYCQQGQVIPPTFGQGT KVEIK  18 FAP(28H1) Fc hole chain See Table 1  19 FAP(28H1) light chain See Table 1  20 trimeric hu OX40L (51- See Table 27 183)-Fc knob chain  21 Human (hu) FAP UniProt no. Q12884  22 hu FAP ectodomain + poly RPSRVHNSEENTMRALTLKDILNGTFSYKTFFPNWIS lys-tag + his6-tag GQEYLHQSADNNIVLYNIETGQSYTILSNRTMKSVNA SNYGLSPDRQFVYLESDYSKLWRYSYTATYYIYDLS NGEFVRGNELPRPIQYLCWSPVGSKLAYVYQNNIYL KQRPGDPPFQITFNGRENKIFNGIPDWVYEEEMLATK YALWWSPNGKFLAYAEFNDTDIPVIAYSYYGDEQYP RTINIPYPKAGAKNPVVRIFIIDTTYPAYVGPQEVPVP AMIASSDYYFSWLTWVTDERVCLQWLKRVQNVSVL SICDFREDWQTWDCPKTQEHIEESRTGWAGGFFVST PVFSYDAISYYKIFSDKDGYKHIHYIKDTVENAIQITS GKWEAINIFRVTQDSLFYSSNEFEEYPGRRNIYRISIGS YPPSKKCVTCHLRKERCQYYTASFSDYAKYYALVCY GPGIPISTLHDGRTDQEIKILEENKELENALKNIQLPKE EIKKLEVDEITLWYKMILPPQFDRSKKYPLLIQVYGG PCSQSVRSVFAVNWISYLASKEGMVIALVDGRGTAF QGDKLLYAVYRKLGVYEVEDQITAVRKFIEMGFIDE KRIAIWGWSYGGYVSSLALASGTGLFKCGIAVAPVSS WEYYASVYTERFMGLPTKDDNLEHYKNSTVMARAE YFRNVDYLLIHGTADDNVHFQNSAQIAKALVNAQV DFQAMWYSDQNHGLSGLSTNHLYTHMTHFLKQCFS LSDGKKKKKKGHHHHHH  23 nucleotide sequence CGCCCTTCAAGAGTTCATAACTCTGAAGAAAATAC hu FAP ectodomain + poly- AATGAGAGCACTCACACTGAAGGATATTTTAAATG lys-tag+ his6-tag GAACATTTTCTTATAAAACATTTTTTCCAAACTGGA TTTCAGGACAAGAATATCTTCATCAATCTGCAGAT AACAATATAGTACTTTATAATATTGAAACAGGACA ATCATATACCATTTTGAGTAATAGAACCATGAAAA GTGTGAATGCTTCAAATTACGGCTTATCACCTGAT CGGCAATTTGTATATCTAGAAAGTGATTATTCAAA GCTTTGGAGATACTCTTACACAGCAACATATTACA TCTATGACCTTAGCAATGGAGAATTTGTAAGAGGA AATGAGCTTCCTCGTCCAATTCAGTATTTATGCTGG TCGCCTGTTGGGAGTAAATTAGCATATGTCTATCA AAACAATATCTATTTGAAACAAAGACCAGGAGAT CCACCTTTTCAAATAACATTTAATGGAAGAGAAAA TAAAATATTTAATGGAATCCCAGACTGGGTTTATG AAGAGGAAATGCTTGCTACAAAATATGCTCTCTGG TGGTCTCCTAATGGAAAATTTTTGGCATATGCGGA ATTTAATGATACGGATATACCAGTTATTGCCTATTC CTATTATGGCGATGAACAATATCCTAGAACAATAA ATATTCCATACCCAAAGGCTGGAGCTAAGAATCCC GTTGTTCGGATATTTATTATCGATACCACTTACCCT GCGTATGTAGGTCCCCAGGAAGTGCCTGTTCCAGC AATGATAGCCTCAAGTGATTATTATTTCAGTTGGC TCACGTGGGTTACTGATGAACGAGTATGTTTGCAG TGGCTAAAAAGAGTCCAGAATGTTTCGGTCCTGTC TATATGTGACTTCAGGGAAGACTGGCAGACATGGG ATTGTCCAAAGACCCAGGAGCATATAGAAGAAAG CAGAACTGGATGGGCTGGTGGATTCTTTGTTTCAA CACCAGTTTTCAGCTATGATGCCATTTCGTACTACA AAATATTTAGTGACAAGGATGGCTACAAACATATT CACTATATCAAAGACACTGTGGAAAATGCTATTCA AATTACAAGTGGCAAGTGGGAGGCCATAAATATA TTCAGAGTAACACAGGATTCACTGTTTTATTCTAG CAATGAATTTGAAGAATACCCTGGAAGAAGAAAC ATCTACAGAATTAGCATTGGAAGCTATCCTCCAAG CAAGAAGTGTGTTACTTGCCATCTAAGGAAAGAAA GGTGCCAATATTACACAGCAAGTTTCAGCGACTAC GCCAAGTACTATGCACTTGTCTGCTACGGCCCAGG CATCCCCATTTCCACCCTTCATGATGGACGCACTG ATCAAGAAATTAAAATCCTGGAAGAAAACAAGGA ATTGGAAAATGCTTTGAAAAATATCCAGCTGCCTA AAGAGGAAATTAAGAAACTTGAAGTAGATGAAAT TACTTTATGGTACAAGATGATTCTTCCTCCTCAATT TGACAGATCAAAGAAGTATCCCTTGCTAATTCAAG TGTATGGTGGTCCCTGCAGTCAGAGTGTAAGGTCT GTATTTGCTGTTAATTGGATATCTTATCTTGCAAGT AAGGAAGGGATGGTCATTGCCTTGGTGGATGGTCG AGGAACAGCTTTCCAAGGTGACAAACTCCTCTATG CAGTGTATCGAAAGCTGGGTGTTTATGAAGTTGAA GACCAGATTACAGCTGTCAGAAAATTCATAGAAAT GGGTTTCATTGATGAAAAAAGAATAGCCATATGGG GCTGGTCCTATGGAGGATACGTTTCATCACTGGCC CTTGCATCTGGAACTGGTCTTTTCAAATGTGGTATA GCAGTGGCTCCAGTCTCCAGCTGGGAATATTACGC GTCTGTCTACACAGAGAGATTCATGGGTCTCCCAA CAAAGGATGATAATCTTGAGCACTATAAGAATTCA ACTGTGATGGCAAGAGCAGAATATTTCAGAAATGT AGACTATCTTCTCATCCACGGAACAGCAGATGATA ATGTGCACTTTCAAAACTCAGCACAGATTGCTAAA GCTCTGGTTAATGCACAAGTGGATTTCCAGGCAAT GTGGTACTCTGACCAGAACCACGGCTTATCCGGCC TGTCCACGAACCACTTATACACCCACATGACCCAC TTCCTAAAGCAGTGTTTCTCTTTGTCAGACGGCAA AAAGAAAAAGAAAAAGGGCCACCACCATCACCAT CAC  24 mouse FAP UniProt no. P97321  25 Murine FAP RPSRVYKPEGNTKRALTLKDILNGTFSYKTYFPNWIS ectodomain + poly-lys- EQEYLHQSEDDNIVFYNIETRESYIILSNSTMKSVNAT tag + his6-tag DYGLSPDRQFVYLESDYSKLWRYSYTATYYIYDLQN GEFVRGYELPRPIQYLCWSPVGSKLAYVYQNNIYLK QRPGDPPFQITYTGRENRIFNGIPDWVYEEEMLATKY ALWWSPDGKFLAYVEFNDSDIPIIAYSYYGDGQYPR TINIPYPKAGAKNPVVRVFIVDTTYPHHVGPMEVPVP EMIASSDYYFSWLTWVSSERVCLQWLKRVQNVSVL SICDFREDWHAWECPKNQEHVEESRTGWAGGFFVST PAFSQDATSYYKIFSDKDGYKHIHYIKDTVENAIQITS GKWEAIYIFRVTQDSLFYSSNEFEGYPGRRNIYRISIG NSPPSKKCVTCHLRKERCQYYTASFSYKAKYYALVC YGPGLPISTLHDGRTDQEIQVLEENKELENSLRNIQLP KVEIKKLKDGGLTFWYKMILPPQFDRSKKYPLLIQVY GGPCSQSVKSVFAVNWITYLASKEGIVIALVDGRGTA FQGDKFLHAVYRKLGVYEVEDQLTAVRKFIEMGFID EERIAIWGWSYGGYVSSLALASGTGLFKCGIAVAPVS SWEYYASIYSERFMGLPTKDDNLEHYKNSTVMARA EYFRNVDYLLIHGTADDNVHFQNSAQIAKALVNAQV DFQAMWYSDQNHGILSGRSQNHLYTHMTHFLKQCF SLSDGKKKKKKGHHHHHH  26 nucleotide sequence CGTCCCTCAAGAGTTTACAAACCTGAAGGAAACAC Murine FAP AAAGAGAGCTCTTACCTTGAAGGATATTTTAAATG ectodomain + poly-lys- GAACATTCTCATATAAAACATATTTTCCCAACTGG tag + his6-tag ATTTCAGAACAAGAATATCTTCATCAATCTGAGGA TGATAACATAGTATTTTATAATATTGAAACAAGAG AATCATATATCATTTTGAGTAATAGCACCATGAAA AGTGTGAATGCTACAGATTATGGTTTGTCACCTGA TCGGCAATTTGTGTATCTAGAAAGTGATTATTCAA AGCTCTGGCGATATTCATACACAGCGACATACTAC ATCTACGACCTTCAGAATGGGGAATTTGTAAGAGG ATACGAGCTCCCTCGTCCAATTCAGTATCTATGCT GGTCGCCTGTTGGGAGTAAATTAGCATATGTATAT CAAAACAATATTTATTTGAAACAAAGACCAGGAG ATCCACCTTTTCAAATAACTTATACTGGAAGAGAA AATAGAATATTTAATGGAATACCAGACTGGGTTTA TGAAGAGGAAATGCTTGCCACAAAATATGCTCTTT GGTGGTCTCCAGATGGAAAATTTTTGGCATATGTA GAATTTAATGATTCAGATATACCAATTATTGCCTA TTCTTATTATGGTGATGGACAGTATCCTAGAACTA TAAATATTCCATATCCAAAGGCTGGGGCTAAGAAT CCGGTTGTTCGTGTTTTTATTGTTGACACCACCTAC CCTCACCACGTGGGCCCAATGGAAGTGCCAGTTCC AGAAATGATAGCCTCAAGTGACTATTATTTCAGCT GGCTCACATGGGTGTCCAGTGAACGAGTATGCTTG CAGTGGCTAAAAAGAGTGCAGAATGTCTCAGTCCT GTCTATATGTGATTTCAGGGAAGACTGGCATGCAT GGGAATGTCCAAAGAACCAGGAGCATGTAGAAGA AAGCAGAACAGGATGGGCTGGTGGATTCTTTGTTT CGACACCAGCTTTTAGCCAGGATGCCACTTCTTAC TACAAAATATTTAGCGACAAGGATGGTTACAAACA TATTCACTACATCAAAGACACTGTGGAAAATGCTA TTCAAATTACAAGTGGCAAGTGGGAGGCCATATAT ATATTCCGCGTAACACAGGATTCACTGTTTTATTCT AGCAATGAATTTGAAGGTTACCCTGGAAGAAGAA ACATCTACAGAATTAGCATTGGAAACTCTCCTCCG AGCAAGAAGTGTGTTACTTGCCATCTAAGGAAAGA AAGGTGCCAATATTACACAGCAAGTTTCAGCTACA AAGCCAAGTACTATGCACTCGTCTGCTATGGCCCT GGCCTCCCCATTTCCACCCTCCATGATGGCCGCAC AGACCAAGAAATACAAGTATTAGAAGAAAACAAA GAACTGGAAAATTCTCTGAGAAATATCCAGCTGCC TAAAGTGGAGATTAAGAAGCTCAAAGACGGGGGA CTGACTTTCTGGTACAAGATGATTCTGCCTCCTCAG TTTGACAGATCAAAGAAGTACCCTTTGCTAATTCA AGTGTATGGTGGTCCTTGTAGCCAGAGTGTTAAGT CTGTGTTTGCTGTTAATTGGATAACTTATCTCGCAA GTAAGGAGGGGATAGTCATTGCCCTGGTAGATGGT CGGGGCACTGCTTTCCAAGGTGACAAATTCCTGCA TGCCGTGTATCGAAAACTGGGTGTATATGAAGTTG AGGACCAGCTCACAGCTGTCAGAAAATTCATAGA AATGGGTTTCATTGATGAAGAAAGAATAGCCATAT GGGGCTGGTCCTACGGAGGTTATGTTTCATCCCTG GCCCTTGCATCTGGAACTGGTCTTTTCAAATGTGG CATAGCAGTGGCTCCAGTCTCCAGCTGGGAATATT ACGCATCTATCTACTCAGAGAGATTCATGGGCCTC CCAACAAAGGACGACAATCTCGAACACTATAAAA ATTCAACTGTGATGGCAAGAGCAGAATATTTCAGA AATGTAGACTATCTTCTCATCCACGGAACAGCAGA TGATAATGTGCACTTTCAGAACTCAGCACAGATTG CTAAAGCTTTGGTTAATGCACAAGTGGATTTCCAG GCGATGTGGTACTCTGACCAGAACCATGGTATATT ATCTGGGCGCTCCCAGAATCATTTATATACCCACA TGACGCACTTCCTCAAGCAATGCTTTTCTTTATCAG ACGGCAAAAAGAAAAAGAAAAAGGGCCACCACCA TCACCATCAC  27 Cynomolgus FAP RPPRVHNSEENTMRALTLKDILNGTFSYKTFFPNWIS ectodomain + poly-lys- GQEYLHQSADNNIVLYNIETGQSYTILSNRTMKSVNA tag + his6-tag SNYGLSPDRQFVYLESDYSKLWRYSYTATYYIYDLS NGEFVRGNELPRPIQYLCWSPVGSKLAYVYQNNIYL KQRPGDPPFQITFNGRENKIFNGIPDWVYEEEMLATK YALWWSPNGKFLAYAEFNDTDIPVIAYSYYGDEQYP RTINIPYPKAGAKNPFVRIFIIDTTYPAYVGPQEVPVP AMIASSDYYFSWLTWVTDERVCLQWLKRVQNVSVL SICDFREDWQTWDCPKTQEHIEESRTGWAGGFFVST PVFSYDAISYYKIFSDKDGYKHIHYIKDTVENAIQITS GKWEAINIFRVTQDSLFYSSNEFEDYPGRRNIYRISIG SYPPSKKCVTCHLRKERCQYYTASFSDYAKYYALVC YGPGIPISTLHDGRTDQEIKILEENKELENALKNIQLP KEEIKKLEVDEITLWYKMILPPQFDRSKKYPLLIQVY GGPCSQSVRSVFAVNWISYLASKEGMVIALVDGRGT AFQGDKLLYAVYRKLGVYEVEDQITAVRKFIEMGFI DEKRIAIWGWSYGGYVSSLALASGTGLFKCGIAVAP VSSWEYYASVYTERFMGLPTKDDNLEHYKNSTVMA RAEYFRNVDYLLIHGTADDNVHFQNSAQIAKALVNA QVDFQAMWYSDQNHGLSGLSTNHLYTHMTHFLKQ CFSLSDGKKKKKKGHHHHHH  28 nucleotide sequence CGCCCTCCAAGAGTTCATAACTCTGAAGAAAATAC Cynomolgus FAP AATGAGAGCACTCACACTGAAGGATATTTTAAATG ectodomain + poly-lys- GGACATTTTCTTATAAAACATTTTTTCCAAACTGGA tag + his6-tag TTTCAGGACAAGAATATCTTCATCAATCTGCAGAT AACAATATAGTACTTTATAATATTGAAACAGGACA ATCATATACCATTTTGAGTAACAGAACCATGAAAA GTGTGAATGCTTCAAATTATGGCTTATCACCTGAT CGGCAATTTGTATATCTAGAAAGTGATTATTCAAA GCTTTGGAGATACTCTTACACAGCAACATATTACA TCTATGACCTTAGCAATGGAGAATTTGTAAGAGGA AATGAGCTTCCTCGTCCAATTCAGTATTTATGCTGG TCGCCTGTTGGGAGTAAATTAGCATATGTCTATCA AAACAATATCTATTTGAAACAAAGACCAGGAGAT CCACCTTTTCAAATAACATTTAATGGAAGAGAAAA TAAAATATTTAATGGAATCCCAGACTGGGTTTATG AAGAGGAAATGCTTGCTACAAAATATGCTCTCTGG TGGTCTCCTAATGGAAAATTTTTGGCATATGCGGA ATTTAATGATACAGATATACCAGTTATTGCCTATTC CTATTATGGCGATGAACAATATCCCAGAACAATAA ATATTCCATACCCAAAGGCCGGAGCTAAGAATCCT TTTGTTCGGATATTTATTATCGATACCACTTACCCT GCGTATGTAGGTCCCCAGGAAGTGCCTGTTCCAGC AATGATAGCCTCAAGTGATTATTATTTCAGTTGGC TCACGTGGGTTACTGATGAACGAGTATGTTTGCAG TGGCTAAAAAGAGTCCAGAATGTTTCGGTCTTGTC TATATGTGATTTCAGGGAAGACTGGCAGACATGGG ATTGTCCAAAGACCCAGGAGCATATAGAAGAAAG CAGAACTGGATGGGCTGGTGGATTCTTTGTTTCAA CACCAGTTTTCAGCTATGATGCCATTTCATACTACA AAATATTTAGTGACAAGGATGGCTACAAACATATT CACTATATCAAAGACACTGTGGAAAATGCTATTCA AATTACAAGTGGCAAGTGGGAGGCCATAAATATA TTCAGAGTAACACAGGATTCACTGTTTTATTCTAG CAATGAATTTGAAGATTACCCTGGAAGAAGAAAC ATCTACAGAATTAGCATTGGAAGCTATCCTCCAAG CAAGAAGTGTGTTACTTGCCATCTAAGGAAAGAAA GGTGCCAATATTACACAGCAAGTTTCAGCGACTAC GCCAAGTACTATGCACTTGTCTGCTATGGCCCAGG CATCCCCATTTCCACCCTTCATGACGGACGCACTG ATCAAGAAATTAAAATCCTGGAAGAAAACAAGGA ATTGGAAAATGCTTTGAAAAATATCCAGCTGCCTA AAGAGGAAATTAAGAAACTTGAAGTAGATGAAAT TACTTTATGGTACAAGATGATTCTTCCTCCTCAATT TGACAGATCAAAGAAGTATCCCTTGCTAATTCAAG TGTATGGTGGTCCCTGCAGTCAGAGTGTAAGGTCT GTATTTGCTGTTAATTGGATATCTTATCTTGCAAGT AAGGAAGGGATGGTCATTGCCTTGGTGGATGGTCG GGGAACAGCTTTCCAAGGTGACAAACTCCTGTATG CAGTGTATCGAAAGCTGGGTGTTTATGAAGTTGAA GACCAGATTACAGCTGTCAGAAAATTCATAGAAAT GGGTTTCATTGATGAAAAAAGAATAGCCATATGGG GCTGGTCCTATGGAGGATATGTTTCATCACTGGCC CTTGCATCTGGAACTGGTCTTTTCAAATGTGGGAT AGCAGTGGCTCCAGTCTCCAGCTGGGAATATTACG CGTCTGTCTACACAGAGAGATTCATGGGTCTCCCA ACAAAGGATGATAATCTTGAGCACTATAAGAATTC AACTGTGATGGCAAGAGCAGAATATTTCAGAAAT GTAGACTATCTTCTCATCCACGGAACAGCAGATGA TAATGTGCACTTTCAAAACTCAGCACAGATTGCTA AAGCTCTGGTTAATGCACAAGTGGATTTCCAGGCA ATGTGGTACTCTGACCAGAACCACGGCTTATCCGG CCTGTCCACGAACCACTTATACACCCACATGACCC ACTTCCTAAAGCAGTGTTTCTCTTTGTCAGACGGC AAAAAGAAAAAGAAAAAGGGCCACCACCATCACC ATCAC  29 human CEA UniProt no. P06731  30 human MCSP UniProt no. Q6UVK1  31 human EGFR UniProt no. P00533  32 human CD19 UniProt no. P15391  33 human CD20 Uniprot no. P11836  34 human CD33 UniProt no. P20138  35 human Lymphotoxin α UniProt no. P01374  36 human TNF UniProt no. P01375  37 human Lymphotoxin β UniProt no. Q06643  38 human OX40L UniProt no. P23510  39 human CD40L UniProt no. P29965  40 human FasL UniProt no. P48023  41 human CD27L UniProt no. P32970  42 human CD30L UniProt no. P32971  43 human 4-1BBL UniProt no. P41273  44 human TRAIL UniProt no. P50591  45 human RANKL UniProt no. O14788  46 human TWEAK UniProt no. O43508  47 human APRIL UniProt no. O75888  48 human BAFF UniProt no. Q9Y275  49 human LIGHT UniProt no. O43557  50 human TL1A UniProt no. O95150  51 human GITRL UniProt no. Q9UNG2  52 human ectodysplasin A UniProt no. Q92838  53 hu 4-1BBL (50-254) ACPWAVSGARASPGSAASPRLREGPELSPDDPAGLL DLRQGMFAQLVAQNVLLIDGPLSWYSDPGLAGVSLT GGLSYKEDTKELVVAKAGVYYVFFQLELRRVVAGE GSGSVSLALHLQPLRSAAGAAALALTVDLPPASSEAR NSAFGFQGRLLHLSAGQRLGVHLHTEARARHAWQL TQGATVLGLFRVTPEIPAGLPSPRSE  54 Peptide linker (G4S)2 GGGGSGGGGS  55 Peptide linker (SG4)2 SGGGGSGGGG  56 Peptide linker G4(SG4)2 GGGGSGGGGSGGGG  57 Peptide linker GSPGSSSSGS  58 Peptide linker (G4S)4 GGGGSGGGGSGGGGSGGGGS  59 Peptide linker GSGSGNGS  60 Peptide linker GGSGSGSG  61 Peptide linker GGSGSG  62 Peptide linker GGSG  63 Peptide linker GGSGNGSG  64 Peptide linker GGNGSGSG  65 Peptide linker GGNGSG  66 nucleotide sequence trimeric See Table 1 hu 4-1BBL (71-254) Fc knob chain  67 nucleotide sequence See Table 1 FAP(28H1) Fc hole chain  68 nucleotide sequence See Table 1 FAP(28H1) light chain  69 nucleotide sequence DP47 See Table 19 Fc hole chain  70 Nucleotide sequence See Table 19 DP47 light chain  71 DP47 Fc hole chain See Table 19  72 DP47 light chain See Table 19  73 Human 4-1BB ECD Uniprot No. Q07011, aa 24-186  74 Cynomolgus 4-1BB ECD aa 24-186  75 Murine 4-1BB ECD Uniprot No. P20334, aa 24-187  76 nucleotide sequence Fc hole See Table 24 chain  77 nucleotide sequence human See Table 24 4-1BB Fc knob chain  78 nucleotide sequence See Table 24 cynomolgus 4-1BB Fc knob chain  79 nucleotide sequence murine See Table 24 4-1BB Fc knob chain  80 Fc hole chain See Table 24  81 human 4-1BB Fc knob chain See Table 24  82 cynomolgus 4-1BB Fc knob See Table 24 chain  83 murine 4-1BB Fc knob See Table 24 chain  84 Avi tag GLNDI FEAQK IEWHE  85 nucleotide sequence Human See Table 25 4-1BB His  86 Human 4-1BB His See Table 25  87 nucleotide sequence trimeric See Table 27 hu OX40L (51-183) Fc knob chain  88 Human OX40 ECD Uniprot No. P43489, aa 29-214  89 Cynomolgus OX40 ECD aa 29-214  90 Murine OX40 ECD Uniprot No. P47741, aa 10-211  91 nucleotide sequence human See Table 30 OX40 Fc knob chain  92 nucleotide sequence See Table 30 cynomolgus OX40 Fc knob chain  93 nucleotide sequence See Table 30 murine OX40 Fc knob chain  94 human OX40 Fc knob chain See Table 30  95 cynomolgus OX40 Fe knob See Table 30 chain  96 murine OX40 Fc knob chain See Table 30  97 nucleotide sequence See Table 31 human OX40 His  98 human OX40 His See Table 31  99 Human (hu) 4-1BBL (71- REGPELSPDDPAGLLDLRQGMFAQLVAQNVLLIDGP 248) LSWYSDPGLAGVSLTGGLSYKEDTKELVVAKAGVY YVFFQLELRRVVAGEGSGSVSLALHLQPLRSAAGAA ALALTVDLPPASSEARNSAFGFQGRLLHLSAGQRLG VHLHTEARARHAWQLTQGATVLGLFRVTPEIPAGL 100 hu 4-1BBL (85-248) LDLRQGMFAQLVAQNVLLIDGPLSWYSDPGLAGVSL TGGLSYKEDTKELVVAKAGVYYVFFQLELRRVVAG EGSGSVSLALHLQPLRSAAGAAALALTVDLPPASSEA RNSAFGFQGRLLHLSAGQRLGVHLHTEARARHAWQ LTQGATVLGLFRVTPEIPAGL 101 hu 4-1BBL (80-248) DPAGLLDLRQGMFAQLVAQNVLLIDGPLSWYSDPGL AGVSLTGGLSYKEDTKELVVAKAGVYYVFFQLELRR VVAGEGSGSVSLALHLQPLRSAAGAAALALTVDLPP ASSEARNSAFGFQGRLLHLSAGQRLGVHLHTEARAR HAWQLTQGATVLGLFRVTPEIPAGL 102 hu 4-1BBL (52-248) PWAVSGARASPGSAASPRLREGPELSPDDPAGLLDLR QGMFAQLVAQNVLLIDGPLSWYSDPGLAGVSLTGGL SYKEDTKELVVAKAGVYYVFFQLELRRVVAGEGSG SVSLALHLQPLRSAAGAAALALTVDLPPASSEARNSA FGFQGRLLHLSAGQRLGVHLHTEARARHAWQLTQG ATVLGLFRVTPEIPAGL 103 trimeric hu 4-1BBL (71- REGPELSPDDPAGLLDLRQGMFAQLVAQNVLLIDGP 248) connected by (G4S)2 LSWYSDPGLAGVSLTGGLSYKEDTKELVVAKAGVY linker YVFFQLELRRVVAGEGSGSVSLALHLQPLRSAAGAA ALALTVDLPPASSEARNSAFGFQGRLLHLSAGQRLG VHLHTEARARHAWQLTQGATVLGLFRVTPEIPAGLE GGGGSGGGGSREGPELSPDDPAGLLDLRQGMFAQLV AQNVLLIDGPLSWYSDPGLAGVSLTGGLSYKEDTKE LVVAKAGVYYVFFQLELRRVVAGEGSGSVSLALHL QPLRSAAGAAALALTVDLPPASSEARNSAFGFQGRL LHLSAGQRLGVHLHTEARARHAWQLTQGATVLGLF RVTPEIPAGLGGGGSGGGGSREGPELSPDDPAGLLDL RQGMFAQLVAQNVLLIDGPLSWYSDPGLAGVSLTG GLSYKEDTKELVVAKAGVYYVFFQLELRRVVAGEG SGSVSLALHLQPLRSAAGAAALALTVDLPPASSEARN SAFGFQGRLLHLSAGQRLGVHLHTEARARHAWQLT QGATVLGLFRVTPEIPAGL 104 FAP(4B9) CDR-H1 SYAMS 105 FAP(4B9) CDR-H2 AIIGSGASTYYADSVKG 106 FAP(4B9) CDR-H3 GWFGGFNY 107 FAP(4B9) CDR-L1 RASQSVTSSYLA 108 FAP(4B9) CDR-L2 VGSRRAT 109 FAP(4B9) CDR-L3 QQGIMLPPT 110 FAP(4B9) VH EVQLLESGGGLVQPGGSLRLSCAASGFTFSSYAMSW VRQAPGKGLEWVSAIIGSGASTYYADSVKGRFTISRD NSKNTLYLQMNSLRAEDTAVYYCAKGWFGGFNYW GQGTLVTVSS 111 FAP(4B9) VL EIVLTQSPGTLSLSPGERATLSCRASQSVTSSYLAWY QQKPGQAPRLLINVGSRRATGIPDRFSGSGSGTDFTL TISRLEPEDFAVYYCQQGIMLPPTFGQGTKVEIK 112 CEA(sm9b) CDR-H1 DSYMH 113 CEA(sm9b) CDR-H2 WIDPENGDTEYAPKFQG 114 CEA(sm9b) CDR-H3 GTPTGPYYFDY 115 CEA(sm9b) CDR-L1 SASS SVPYMH 116 CEA(sm9b) CDR-L2 STSNLAS 117 CEA(sm9b) CDR-L3 QQRSSYPLT 118 CEA(sm9b) VH QVKLEQSGAEVVKPGASVKLSCKASGFNIKDSYMH WLRQGPGQCLEWIGWIDPENGDTEYAPKFQGKATFT TDTSANTAYLGLSSLRPEDTAVYYCNEGTPTGPYYF DYWGQGTLVTVSS 119 CEA(sm9b) VL ENVLTQSPSSMSVSVGDRVTIACSASSSVPYMHWLQ QKPGKSPKLLIYSTSNLASGVPSRFSGSGSGTDYSLTI SSVQPEDAATYYCQQRSSYPLTFGCGTKLEIK 120 CD19 (8B8-018) CDR-H1 DYIMH 121 CD19 (8B8-018) CDR-H2 YINPYNDGSKYTEKFQG 122 CD19 (8B8-018) CDR-H3 GTYYYGSALFDY 123 CD19 (8B8-018) CDR-L1 KSSQSLENPNGNTYLN 124 CD19 (8B8-018) CDR-L2 RVSKRFS 125 CD19 (8B8-018) CDR-L3 LQLTHVPYT 126 CD19 (8B8-018) VH QVQLVQSGAEVKKPGASVKVSCKASGYTFTDYIMH WVRQAPGQGLEWMGYINPYNDGSKYTEKFQGRVT MTSDTSISTAYMELSRLRSDDTAVYYCARGTYYYGS ALFDYWGQGTTVTVSS 127 CD19 (8B8-018) VL DIVMTQTPLSLSVTPGQPASISCKSSQSLENPNGNTYL NWYLQKPGQSPQLLIYRVSKRFSGVPDRFSGSGSGTD FTLKISRVEAEDVGVYYCLQLTHVPYTFGQGTKLEIK 128 CD19 (8B8-2B11) CDR-H1 DYIMH 129 CD19 (8B8-2B11) CDR-H2 YINPYNDGSKYTEKFQG 130 CD19 (8B8-2B11) CDR-H3 GTYYYGPQLFDY 131 CD19 (8B8-2B11) CDR-L1 KSSQSLETSTGTTYLN 132 CD19 (8B8-2B11) CDR-L2 RVSKRFS 133 CD19 (8B8-2B11) CDR-L3 LQLLEDPYT 134 CD19 (8B8-2B11) VH QVQLVQSGAEVKKPGASVKVSCKASGYTFTDYIMH WVRQAPGQGLEWMGYINPYNDGSKYTEKFQGRVT MTSDTSISTAYMELSRLRSDDTAVYYCARGTYYYGP QLFDYWGQGTTVTVSS 135 CD19 (8B8-2B11) VL DIVMTQTPLSLSVTPGQPASISCKSSQSLETSTGTTYL NWYLQKPGQSPQLLIYRVSKRFSGVPDRFSGSGSGTD FTLKISRVEAEDVGVYYCLQLLEDPYTFGQGTKLEIK 136 G4S GGGGS 137 nucleotide sequence of anti- Table 3 FAP(4B9) Fc hole chain 138 nucleotide sequence of anti- Table 3 FAP(4B9) Fc knob chain fused to trimeric hu 4-1BBL (71-254) 139 nucleotide sequence of anti- Table 3 FAP(4B9) light chain 140 anti-FAP(4B9) Fc hole chain Table 3 141 anti-FAP(4B9) Fc knob Table 3 chain fused to trimeric hu 4- 1BBL (71-254) 142 anti-FAP(4B9) light chain Table 3 143 nucleotide sequence of anti- Table 5 CEA(sm9b) Fc hole chain 144 nucleotide sequence of anti- Table 5 CEA(sm9b) Fc knob chain fused to trimeric hu 4-1BBL (71-254) 145 nucleotide sequence of anti- Table 5 CEA(sm9b) light chain 146 anti-CEA(sm9b) Fc hole Table 5 chain 147 anti-CEA(sm9b) Fc knob Table 5 chain fused to trimeric hu 4- 1BBL (71-254) 148 anti-CEA(sm9b) light chain Table 5 149 nucleotide sequence of anti- Table 7 CD19(8B8-018)Fc hole chain 150 nucleotide sequence of anti- Table 7 CD19(8B8-018) Fc knob chain fused to trimeric hu 4- 1BBL (71-254) 151 nucleotide sequence of anti- Table 7 CD19(8B8-018) light chain 152 anti-CD19(8B8-018) Fc Table 7 hole chain 153 anti-CD19(8B8-018) Fc Table 7 knob chain fused to trimeric hu 4-1BBL (71-254) 154 anti-CD19(8B8-018) light Table 7 chain 155 nucleotide sequence of anti- Table 8 CD19(8B8-2B11) Fc hole chain 156 nucleotide sequence of anti- Table 8 CD19(8B8-2B11) Fc knob chain fused to trimeric hu 4- 1BBL (71-254) 157 nucleotide sequence of anti- Table 8 CD19(8B8-2B11) light chain 158 anti-CD19(8B8-2B11) Fc Table 8 hole chain 159 anti-CD19(8B8-2B11) Fc Table 8 knob chain fused to trimeric hu 4-1BBL (71-254) 160 anti-CD19(8B8-2B11) light Table 8 chain 161 HVR-L1 anti-CD19(8B8) NSNGNT 162 HVR-H2 anti-CD19(8B8) KFNG 163 Nucleotide sequence of Fc Table 13 hole chain with HYRF mutation 164 Nucleotide sequence of Table 13 human CD19 antigen Fc knob chain avi tag 165 Fc hole chain with HYRF Table 13 mutation 166 human CD19 antigen Fc Table 13 knob chain avi tag 167 Nucleotide sequence of Table 13 cynomolgus CD19 antigen Fc knob chain avi tag 168 cynomolgus CD19 antigen Table 13 Fc knob chain avi tag 169 Nucleotide sequence CD 19 GAGGTCCAGCTGCAGCAGTCTGGACCTGAGCTGGT (8B8) VH AAAGCCTGGGGCTTCAGTGAAGATGGCCTGCAAG Parental clone GCTTCTGGATACACATTCACTGACTATATTATGCA CTGGGTGAAGCAGAAGACTGGGCAGGGCCTTGAG TGGATTGGATATATTAATCCTTACAATGATGGTTCT AAGTACACTGAGAAGTTCAACGGCAAGGCCACAC TGACTTCAGACAAATCTTCCATCACAGCCTACATG GAGCTCAGCAGCCTGACCTCTGAGGACTCTGCGGT CTATTACTGTGCAAGAGGGACCTATTATTATGGTA GCGCCCTCTTTGACTACTGGGGCCAAGGCACCACT CTCACAGTCTCCTCG 170 Nucleotide sequence CD 19 GATGCTGTGATGACCCAAACTCCACTCTCCCTGCC (8B8) VL TGTCAGTCTTGGAGATCAAGCCTCCATCTCTTGCA Parental clone GGTCTAGTCAGAGCCTTGAAAACAGTAATGGAAA CACCTATTTGAACTGGTACCTCCAGAAACCAGGCC AGTCTCCACAACTCCTGATCTACAGGGTTTCCAAA CGATTTTCTGGGGTCCTAGACAGGTTCAGTGGTAG TGGATCAGGGACAGATTTCACACTGAAAATCAGCA GAGTGGAGGCTGAGGATTTGGGAGTTTATTTCTGC CTACAACTTACACATGTCCCGTACACGTTCGGAGG GGGGACCAAGCTGGAAATAAAA 171 CD19 L1 reverse random see Table 15 172 CD19 L2 forward random see Table 15 173 CD19 H1 reverse random see Table 15 174 CD19 H2 forward random see Table 15 175 CD19 H3 reverse constant see Table 15 176 LMB3 see Table 15 177 CD19 L1 forward constant see Table 16 178 CD19 L3 reverse random see Table 16 179 CD19 L3 forward constant see Table 16 180 CD19 H3 reverse random see Table 16 181 nucleotide sequence of see Table 21 DP47 Fc knob fused to trimeric hu 4-1BBL (71- 254) 182 DP47 Fc knob fused to see Table 21 trimeric hu 4-1BBL (71- 254) 183 CMV-derived peptide NLVPMVATV

In the following specific embodiments of the invention are listed:

    • A TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule comprising
      • (a) at least one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen,
      • (b) a polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof that are connected to each other, optionally by peptide linkers, and
      • (c) a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule comprising
      • (a) at least one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen,
      • (b) a polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof that are connected to each other by peptide linkers and
      • (c) a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described before, comprising
      • (a) at least one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen,
      • (b) a polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof that are connected to each other by peptide linkers and
      • (c) a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association, wherein the polypeptide comprising the three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof that are connected to each other by peptide linkers is fused to the N- or C-terminal amino acid of one of the two subunits of the Fc domain, optionally through a peptide linker.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described before, wherein the TNF ligand family member costimulates human T-cell activation.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described before, wherein the TNF ligand family member is selected from 4-1BBL and OX40L.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described before, wherein the TNF ligand family member is 4-1BBL.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described before, wherein the ectodomain of a TNF ligand family member comprises the amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO:1, SEQ ID NO: 2, SEQ ID NO:3, SEQ ID NO:4, SEQ ID NO:99, SEQ ID NO: 100, SEQ ID NO:101 and SEQ ID NO:102, particularly the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:1 or SEQ ID NO:99.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described before, wherein the ectodomain of a TNF ligand family member comprises the amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO:1, SEQ ID NO: 2, SEQ ID NO:3 and SEQ ID NO:4, particularly the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:1.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described before, comprising
      • (a) at least one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen and
      • (b) a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103, and
      • (c) a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described before, comprising
      • (a) at least one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen and
      • (b) a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 and
      • (c) a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described before, wherein the TNF ligand family member is OX40L.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described before, wherein the ectodomain of a TNF ligand family member comprises the amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO:6 and SEQ ID NO:7, particularly the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:6.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described before, comprising
      • (a) at least one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen and
      • (b) a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:8, and
      • (c) a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described before, wherein the polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof is fused at the C-terminal amino acid to the N-terminal amino acid of one of the subunits of the Fc domain.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described before, wherein the polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof is fused at the N-terminal amino acid to a C-terminal amino acid of one of the subunits of the Fc domain.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described before, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen is selected from the group consisting of an antibody fragment, a Fab molecule, a crossover Fab molecule, a single chain Fab molecule, a Fv molecule, a scFv molecule, a single domain antibody, an aVH and a scaffold antigen binding protein.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described before, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen is a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described before, wherein the target cell antigen is selected from the group consisting of Fibroblast Activation Protein (FAP), Melanoma-associated Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan (MCSP), Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA), CD19, CD20 and CD33.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described before, wherein the target cell antigen is Fibroblast Activation Protein (FAP).
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described before, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to FAP comprises a VH domain comprising (i) CDR-H1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:9, (ii) CDR-H2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:10 and (iii) CDR-H3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:11, and a VL domain comprising (iv) CDR-L1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:12, (v) CDR-L2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:13 and (vi) CDR-L3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:14.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described before, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to FAP comprises a VH domain domain comprising (i) CDR-H1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:104, (ii) CDR-H2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:105 and (iii) CDR-H3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:106, and a VL domain comprising (iv) CDR-L1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:107, (v) CDR-L2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:108 and (vi) CDR-L3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:109.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to FAP comprises a variable heavy chain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:16 and a variable light chain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:17 or wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to FAP comprises a variable heavy chain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:110 and a variable light chain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:111.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claims 1 to 15, wherein the target cell antigen is CEA.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to CEA comprises a VH domain comprising (i) CDR-H1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:112, (ii) CDR-H2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:113 and (iii) CDR-H3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:114, and a VL domain comprising (iv) CDR-L1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:115, (v) CDR-L2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:116 and (vi) CDR-L3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:117.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to CEA comprises a variable heavy chain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:118 and a variable light chain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:119.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the target cell antigen is CD19.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to CD19 comprises
      • (a) a VH domain comprising (i) CDR-H1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:120, (ii) CDR-H2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:121 and (iii) CDR-H3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:122, and a VL domain comprising (iv) CDR-L1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:123, (v) CDR-L2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:124 and (vi) CDR-L3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:125, or
      • (b) a VH domain comprising (i) CDR-H1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:128, (ii) CDR-H2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:129 and (iii) CDR-H3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:130, and a VL domain comprising (iv) CDR-L1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:131, (v) CDR-L2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:132 and (vi) CDR-L3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:133.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to CD19 comprises a variable heavy chain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:126 and a variable light chain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:127 or wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to FAP comprises a variable heavy chain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:134 and a variable light chain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:135.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described before, wherein the Fc domain is an IgG, particularly an IgG1 Fc domain or an IgG4 Fc domain.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described before, wherein the Fc domain is an IgG1 Fc domain and comprises amino acid substitutions at positions 234 and 235 (EU numbering) and/or 329 (EU numbering) of the IgG heavy chains.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, comprising one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises
      • (i) a first heavy chain comprising the VH domain of a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen,
      • (ii) a light chain comprising the VL domain of a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, and
      • (iii) a second heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103 or SEQ ID NO:8.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises
      • (i) a first heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:16 or a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:110,
      • (ii) a light chain comprising a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:17 or a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:111, and
      • (iii) a second heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103 or SEQ ID NO:8.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises
      • (i) a first heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:118,
      • (ii) a light chain comprising a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:119, and
      • (iii) a second heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103 or SEQ ID NO:8.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises
      • (i) a first heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:126 or a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:134,
      • (ii) a light chain comprising a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:127 or a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:135, and
      • (iii) a second heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103 or SEQ ID NO:8.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, comprising two moieties capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises
      • (i) a first heavy chain comprising a VH domain of a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen,
      • (ii) two light chains comprising each the VL domain of a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, and
      • (iii) a second heavy chain comprising a VH domain of a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen and the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103 or SEQ ID NO:8.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises
      • (i) a first heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:16 or a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:110,
      • (ii) two light chains comprising each a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:17 or a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:111, and
      • (iii) a second heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:16 or a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:110 and the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103 or SEQ ID NO:8.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises
      • (i) a first heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:118,
      • (ii) two light chains comprising each a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:119, and
      • (iii) a second heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:118 and the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103 or SEQ ID NO:8.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described herein before, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises
      • (i) a first heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:126 or a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:134,
      • (ii) two light chains comprising a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:127 or a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:135, and
      • (iii) a second heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:126 or a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:134 and the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103 or SEQ ID NO:8.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described before, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises
      • (a) a heavy chain and a light chain, both comprising a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, and
      • (b) a fusion protein comprising a Fc domain and a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described before, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises
      • (a) a heavy chain and a light chain, both comprising a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, and
      • (b) the fusion protein comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:15.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described before, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises
      • (i) a variable heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:16,
      • (ii) a variable light chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:17, and
      • (iii) a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described before, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises
      • (a) a heavy chain and a light chain, both comprising a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, and
      • (b) a fusion protein comprising a Fc domain and a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:8.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described before, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises
      • (a) a heavy chain and a light chain, both comprising a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, and
      • (b) the fusion protein comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:20.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described before, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises
      • (i) a variable heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:16,
      • (ii) a variable light chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:17, and
      • (iii) a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:8.
    • An isolated polynucleotide encoding the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described before.
    • A vector, particularly an expression vector, comprising the isolated polynucleotide as described before.
    • A host cell comprising the isolated polynucleotide as described before or the vector as described before.
    • A method for producing the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described before, comprising the steps of
      • (i) culturing the host cell of as described before under conditions suitable for expression of the antigen binding molecule, and
      • (ii) recovering the antigen binding molecule.
    • A pharmaceutical composition comprising the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described before and at least one pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described before, or the pharmaceutical composition as described before, for use as a medicament.
    • The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described before, or the pharmaceutical composition as described before, for use in the treatment of cancer.
    • Use of the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described before for the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of cancer.
    • A method of treating a disease in an individual, comprising administering to said individual a therapeutically effective amount of a composition comprising TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule as described before in a pharmaceutically acceptable form.
    • The method of treating a disease as described before, wherein said disease is cancer.

EXAMPLE S

The following are examples of methods and compositions of the invention. It is understood that various other embodiments may be practiced, given the general description provided above.

Recombinant DNA Techniques

Standard methods were used to manipulate DNA as described in Sambrook et al., Molecular cloning: A laboratory manual; Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, 1989. The molecular biological reagents were used according to the manufacturer's instructions. General information regarding the nucleotide sequences of human immunoglobulin light and heavy chains is given in: Kabat, E. A. et al., (1991) Sequences of Proteins of Immunological Interest, Fifth Ed., NIH Publication No 91-3242.

DNA Sequencing

DNA sequences were determined by double strand sequencing.

Gene Synthesis

Desired gene segments were either generated by PCR using appropriate templates or were synthesized by Geneart AG (Regensburg, Germany) from synthetic oligonucleotides and PCR products by automated gene synthesis. In cases where no exact gene sequence was available, oligonucleotide primers were designed based on sequences from closest homologues and the genes were isolated by RT-PCR from RNA originating from the appropriate tissue. The gene segments flanked by singular restriction endonuclease cleavage sites were cloned into standard cloning / sequencing vectors. The plasmid DNA was purified from transformed bacteria and concentration determined by UV spectroscopy. The DNA sequence of the subcloned gene fragments was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Gene segments were designed with suitable restriction sites to allow sub-cloning into the respective expression vectors. All constructs were designed with a 5′-end DNA sequence coding for a leader peptide which targets proteins for secretion in eukaryotic cells.

Cell Culture Techniques

Standard cell culture techniques were used as described in Current Protocols in Cell Biology (2000), Bonifacino, J. S., Dasso, M., Harford, J. B., Lippincott-Schwartz, J. and Yamada, K. M. (eds.), John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Protein Purification

Proteins were purified from filtered cell culture supernatants referring to standard protocols. In brief, antibodies were applied to a Protein A Sepharose column (GE healthcare) and washed with PBS. Elution of antibodies was achieved at pH 2.8 followed by immediate neutralization of the sample. Aggregated protein was separated from monomeric antibodies by size exclusion chromatography (Superdex 200, GE Healthcare) in PBS or in 20 mM Histidine, 150 mM NaCl pH 6.0. Monomeric antibody fractions were pooled, concentrated (if required) using e.g., a MILLIPORE Amicon Ultra (30 MWCO) centrifugal concentrator, frozen and stored at −20° C. or −80° C. Part of the samples were provided for subsequent protein analytics and analytical characterization e.g. by SDS-PAGE, size exclusion chromatography (SEC) or mass spectrometry.

SDS-PAGE

The NuPAGE® Pre-Cast gel system (Invitrogen) was used according to the manufacturer's instruction. In particular, 10% or 4-12% NuPAGE® Novex® Bis-TRIS Pre-Cast gels (pH 6.4) and a NuPAGE® MES (reduced gels, with NuPAGE® Antioxidant running buffer additive) or MOPS (non-reduced gels) running buffer was used.

Analytical Size Exclusion Chromatography

Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) for the determination of the aggregation and oligomeric state of antibodies was performed by HPLC chromatography. Briefly, Protein A purified antibodies were applied to a Tosoh TSKgel G3000SW column in 300 mM NaCl, 50 mM KH2PO4/K2HPO4, pH 7.5 on an Agilent HPLC 1100 system or to a Superdex 200 column (GE Healthcare) in 2× PBS on a Dionex HPLC-System. The eluted protein was quantified by UV absorbance and integration of peak areas. BioRad Gel Filtration Standard 151-1901 served as a standard.

Mass Spectrometry

This section describes the characterization of the multispecific antibodies with VH/VL exchange (VH/VL CrossMabs) with emphasis on their correct assembly. The expected primary structures were analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) of the deglycosylated intact CrossMabs and deglycosylated/plasmin digested or alternatively deglycosylated/limited LysC digested CrossMabs.

The VH/VL CrossMabs were deglycosylated with N-Glycosidase F in a phosphate or Tris buffer at 37° C. for up to 17 h at a protein concentration of 1 mg/ml. The plasmin or limited LysC (Roche) digestions were performed with 100 μg deglycosylated VH/VL CrossMabs in a Tris buffer pH 8 at room temperature for 120 hours and at 37° C. for 40 min, respectively. Prior to mass spectrometry the samples were desalted via HPLC on a Sephadex G25 column (GE Healthcare). The total mass was determined via ESI-MS on a maXis 4G UHR-QTOF MS system (Bruker Daltonik) equipped with a TriVersa NanoMate source (Advion).

Example 1 Preparation and Purification of Targeted Single Chain 4-1BB Ligand Trimer-Containing Fc Fusion Antigen Binding Molecules

1.1. Monovalent FAP(28H1)-Targeted Single Chain 4-1BB Ligand Trimer-Containing Fc (kih) Fusion Antigen Binding Molecule (Compound S1)

The DNA sequence encoding part of the ectodomain (amino acids 71-254 or 71-248) of human 4-1BB ligand was synthetized according to UniProt Accession No. P41273 (SEQ ID NO:43).

A polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of 4-1BB ligand, each separated by a (G45)2 linker (SEQ ID NO:54), was cloned as described in FIG. 1A: human 4-1BB ligand, (G45)2 connector, human 4-1BB ligand, (G45)2 connector, human 4-1BB ligand.

The polypeptide encoding the single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand was subcloned in frame with the human IgG1 heavy chain CH2 and CH3 domains on the knob (Merchant, Zhu et al., 1998), using a linker (GSPGSSSSGS) of SEQ ID NO:57.

The variable region of heavy and light chain DNA sequences encoding a binder specific for fibroblast activation protein (FAP), clone 28H1, were subcloned in frame with either the constant heavy chain of the hole (Carter, 2001) or the constant light chain of human IgG1. The generation and preparation of the FAP binders is described in WO 2012/020006 A2, which is incorporated herein by reference.

The Pro329Gly, Leu234Ala and Leu235Ala mutations were introduced in the constant region of the knob and hole heavy chains to abrogate binding to Fc gamma receptors according to the method described in International Patent Appl. Publ. No. WO 2012/130831 A1.

Combination of the single chain ligand-Fc knob chain containing the S354C/T366W mutations, with the targeted anti-FAP-Fc hole chain containing the Y349C/T366S/L368A/Y407V mutations and the anti-FAP light chain, allows generation of a heterodimer, which includes a single chain 4-1BB ligand trimer and a FAP binding Fab (FIGS. 3A-C).

Table 1 shows, respectively, the cDNA and amino acid sequences of the FAP(28H1)-targeted single chain 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule.

TABLE 1 Sequences of FAP(28H1)-targeted human 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion molecule (FAP single chain 4-1BBL trimer) (compound S1) SEQ ID NO: Description Sequence 66 nucleotide AGAGAGGGCCCTGAGCTGAGCCCCGATGATCCTGCTGG sequence of ACTGCTGGACCTGCGGCAGGGCATGTTTGCTCAGCTGGT trimeric hu 4-1BBL GGCCCAGAACGTGCTGCTGATCGATGGCCCCCTGTCCTG (71-254)-Fc knob GTACAGCGATCCTGGACTGGCTGGCGTGTCACTGACAGG chain CGGCCTGAGCTACAAAGAGGACACCAAAGAACTGGTGG TGGCCAAGGCCGGCGTGTACTACGTGTTCTTTCAGCTGG AACTGCGGAGAGTGGTGGCCGGCGAAGGATCTGGCTCT GTGTCTCTGGCCCTGCATCTGCAGCCTCTGAGAAGCGCT GCTGGCGCTGCAGCTCTGGCACTGACAGTGGATCTGCCT CCTGCCAGCTCCGAGGCCCGGAATAGCGCATTTGGGTTT CAAGGCAGGCTGCTGCACCTGTCTGCCGGCCAGAGGCT GGGAGTGCATCTGCACACAGAGGCCAGGGCTAGACACG CCTGGCAGCTGACACAGGGCGCTACAGTGCTGGGCCTG TTCAGAGTGACCCCCGAGATTCCAGCCGGCCTGCCTTCT CCAAGAAGCGAAGGCGGAGGCGGATCTGGCGGCGGAG GATCTAGAGAGGGACCCGAACTGTCCCCTGACGATCCA GCCGGGCTGCTGGATCTGAGACAGGGAATGTTCGCCCA GCTGGTGGCTCAGAATGTGCTGCTGATTGACGGACCTCT GAGCTGGTACTCCGACCCAGGGCTGGCAGGGGTGTCCC TGACTGGGGGACTGTCCTACAAAGAAGATACAAAAGAA CTGGTGGTGGCTAAAGCTGGGGTGTACTATGTGTTTTTT CAGCTGGAACTGAGGCGGGTGGTGGCTGGGGAGGGCTC AGGATCTGTGTCCCTGGCTCTGCATCTGCAGCCACTGCG CTCTGCTGCTGGCGCAGCTGCACTGGCTCTGACTGTGGA CCTGCCACCAGCCTCTAGCGAGGCCAGAAACAGCGCCT TCGGGTTCCAAGGACGCCTGCTGCATCTGAGCGCCGGAC AGCGCCTGGGAGTGCATCTGCATACTGAAGCCAGAGCC CGGCATGCTTGGCAGCTGACTCAGGGGGCAACTGTGCTG GGACTGTTTCGCGTGACACCTGAGATCCCTGCCGGACTG CCAAGCCCTAGATCAGAAGGGGGCGGAGGAAGCGGAG GGGGAGGAAGTAGAGAAGGACCAGAGCTGTCTCCAGAT GACCCCGCAGGACTGCTGGACCTGAGACAGGGCATGTT CGCACAGCTGGTGGCCCAGAATGTGCTGCTGATCGACG GGCCACTGTCTTGGTATTCCGATCCCGGCCTGGCCGGCG TGTCCCTGACCGGCGGACTGAGTTACAAAGAGGATACA AAAGAACTGGTGGTGGCAAAGGCAGGGGTGTACTATGT GTTCTTTCAGCTGGAACTGAGAAGGGTGGTGGCCGGCG AGGGAAGCGGATCAGTGTCACTGGCACTGCATCTGCAG CCCCTGAGATCCGCTGCAGGGGCCGCTGCTCTGGCCCTG ACCGTGGACCTGCCCCCTGCTTCTTCCGAGGCTAGAAAC TCTGCATTTGGGTTTCAAGGACGCCTGCTGCATCTGTCA GCCGGGCAGAGACTGGGAGTGCATCTGCATACCGAGGC TCGCGCCAGACATGCATGGCAGCTGACCCAGGGCGCCA CCGTGCTGGGACTGTTTAGAGTGACTCCAGAAATCCCCG CTGGCCTGCCCAGCCCAAGATCCGAGGGATCTCCTGGCA GCAGCTCTAGCGGATCCGACAAAACTCACACATGCCCA CCGTGCCCAGCACCTGAAGCTGCAGGGGGACCGTCAGT CTTCCTCTTCCCCCCAAAACCCAAGGACACCCTCATGAT CTCCCGGACCCCTGAGGTCACATGCGTGGTGGTGGACGT GAGCCACGAAGACCCTGAGGTCAAGTTCAACTGGTACG TGGACGGCGTGGAGGTGCATAATGCCAAGACAAAGCCG CGGGAGGAGCAGTACAACAGCACGTACCGTGTGGTCAG CGTCCTCACCGTCCTGCACCAGGACTGGCTGAATGGCAA GGAGTACAAGTGCAAGGTCTCCAACAAAGCCCTCGGCG CCCCCATCGAGAAAACCATCTCCAAAGCCAAAGGGCAG CCCCGAGAACCACAGGTGTACACCCTGCCCCCATGCCG GGATGAGCTGACCAAGAACCAGGTCAGCCTGTGGTGCC TGGTCAAAGGCTTCTATCCCAGCGACATCGCCGTGGAGT GGGAGAGCAATGGGCAGCCGGAGAACAACTACAAGAC CACGCCTCCCGTGCTGGACTCCGACGGCTCCTTCTTCCT CTACAGCAAGCTCACCGTGGACAAGAGCAGGTGGCAGC AGGGGAACGTCTTCTCATGCTCCGTGATGCATGAGGCTC TGCACAACCACTACACGCAGAAGAGCCTCTCCCTGTCTC CGGGTAAA 67 anti-FAP (28H1) GAAGTGCAGCTGCTGGAATCCGGCGGAGGCCTGGTGCA Fc hole chain GCCTGGCGGATCTCTGAGACTGTCCTGCGCCGCCTCCGG CTTCACCTTCTCCTCCCACGCCATGTCCTGGGTCCGACA GGCTCCTGGCAAAGGCCTGGAATGGGTGTCCGCCATCTG GGCCTCCGGCGAGCAGTACTACGCCGACTCTGTGAAGG GCCGGTTCACCATCTCCCGGGACAACTCCAAGAACACCC TGTACCTGCAGATGAACTCCCTGCGGGCCGAGGACACC GCCGTGTACTACTGTGCCAAGGGCTGGCTGGGCAACTTC GACTACTGGGGACAGGGCACCCTGGTCACCGTGTCCAG CGCTAGCACCAAGGGCCCCTCCGTGTTCCCCCTGGCCCC CAGCAGCAAGAGCACCAGCGGCGGCACAGCCGCTCTGG GCTGCCTGGTCAAGGACTACTTCCCCGAGCCCGTGACCG TGTCCTGGAACAGCGGAGCCCTGACCTCCGGCGTGCAC ACCTTCCCCGCCGTGCTGCAGAGTTCTGGCCTGTATAGC CTGAGCAGCGTGGTCACCGTGCCTTCTAGCAGCCTGGGC ACCCAGACCTACATCTGCAACGTGAACCACAAGCCCAG CAACACCAAGGTGGACAAGAAGGTGGAGCCCAAGAGCT GCGACAAAACTCACACATGCCCACCGTGCCCAGCACCT GAAGCTGCAGGGGGACCGTCAGTCTTCCTCTTCCCCCCA AAACCCAAGGACACCCTCATGATCTCCCGGACCCCTGA GGTCACATGCGTGGTGGTGGACGTGAGCCACGAAGACC CTGAGGTCAAGTTCAACTGGTACGTGGACGGCGTGGAG GTGCATAATGCCAAGACAAAGCCGCGGGAGGAGCAGTA CAACAGCACGTACCGTGTGGTCAGCGTCCTCACCGTCCT GCACCAGGACTGGCTGAATGGCAAGGAGTACAAGTGCA AGGTCTCCAACAAAGCCCTCGGCGCCCCCATCGAGAAA ACCATCTCCAAAGCCAAAGGGCAGCCCCGAGAACCACA GGTGTGCACCCTGCCCCCATCCCGGGATGAGCTGACCAA GAACCAGGTCAGCCTCTCGTGCGCAGTCAAAGGCTTCTA TCCCAGCGACATCGCCGTGGAGTGGGAGAGCAATGGGC AGCCGGAGAACAACTACAAGACCACGCCTCCCGTGCTG GACTCCGACGGCTCCTTCTTCCTCGTGAGCAAGCTCACC GTGGACAAGAGCAGGTGGCAGCAGGGGAACGTCTTCTC ATGCTCCGTGATGCATGAGGCTCTGCACAACCACTACAC GCAGAAGAGCCTCTCCCTGTCTCCGGGTAAA 68 anti-FAP(28H1) GAGATCGTGCTGACCCAGTCCCCCGGCACCCTGTCTCTG light chain AGCCCTGGCGAGAGAGCCACCCTGTCCTGCAGAGCCTC CCAGTCCGTGTCCCGGTCCTACCTCGCCTGGTATCAGCA GAAGCCCGGCCAGGCCCCTCGGCTGCTGATCATCGGCG CCTCTACCAGAGCCACCGGCATCCCTGACCGGTTCTCCG GCTCTGGCTCCGGCACCGACTTCACCCTGACCATCTCCC GGCTGGAACCCGAGGACTTCGCCGTGTACTACTGCCAGC AGGGCCAGGTCATCCCTCCCACCTTTGGCCAGGGCACCA AGGTGGAAATCAAGCGTACGGTGGCTGCACCATCTGTCT TCATCTTCCCGCCATCTGATGAGCAGTTGAAATCTGGAA CTGCCTCTGTTGTGTGCCTGCTGAATAACTTCTATCCCAG AGAGGCCAAAGTACAGTGGAAGGTGGATAACGCCCTCC AATCGGGTAACTCCCAGGAGAGTGTCACAGAGCAGGAC AGCAAGGACAGCACCTACAGCCTCAGCAGCACCCTGAC GCTGAGCAAAGCAGACTACGAGAAACACAAAGTCTACG CCTGCGAAGTCACCCATCAGGGCCTGAGCTCGCCCGTCA CAAAGAGCTTCAACAGGGGAGAGTGT 15 trimeric hu 4- REGPELSPDDPAGLLDLRQGMFAQLVAQNVLLIDGPLSWY 1BBL (71-254)- SDPGLAGVSLTGGLSYKEDTKELVVAKAGVYYVFFQLELR Fc knob chain RVVAGEGSGSVSLALHLQPLRSAAGAAALALTVDLPPASS EARNSAFGFQGRLLHLSAGQRLGVHLHTEARARHAWQLT QGATVLGLFRVTPEIPAGLPSPRSEGGGGSGGGGSREGPEL SPDDPAGLLDLRQGMFAQLVAQNVLLIDGPLSWYSDPGLA GVSLTGGLSYKEDTKELVVAKAGVYYVFFQLELRRVVAG EGSGSVSLALHLQPLRSAAGAAALALTVDLPPASSEARNS AFGFQGRLLHLSAGQRLGVHLHTEARARHAWQLTQGATV LGLFRVTPEIPAGLPSPRSEGGGGSGGGGSREGPELSPDDPA GLLDLRQGMFAQLVAQNVLLIDGPLSWYSDPGLAGVSLTG GLSYKEDTKELVVAKAGVYYVFFQLELRRVVAGEGSGSV SLALHLQPLRSAAGAAALALTVDLPPASSEARNSAFGFQG RLLHLSAGQRLGVHLHTEARARHAWQLTQGATVLGLFRV TPEIPAGLPSPRSEGSPGSSSSGSDKTHTCPPCPAPEAAGGPS VFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYV DGVEVHNAKTKPREEQYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKE YKCKVSNKALGAPIEKTISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPCRDELT KNQVSLWCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLD SDGSFFLYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQ KSLSLSPGK 18 anti-FAP(28H1) EVQLLESGGGLVQPGGSLRLSCAASGFTFSSHAMSWVRQA Fc hole chain PGKGLEWVSAIWASGEQYYADSVKGRFTISRDNSKNTLYL QMNSLRAEDTAVYYCAKGWLGNFDYWGQGTLVTVSSAS TKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWNS GALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVTVPSSSLGTQTYICN VNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPEAAGGPSVF LFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDG VEVHNAKTKPREEQYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYK CKVSNKALGAPIEKTISKAKGQPREPQVCTLPPSRDELTKN QVSLSCAVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSD GSFFLVSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQKS LSLSPGK 19 anti-FAP (28H1) EIVLTQSPGTLSLSPGERATLSCRASQSVSRSYLAWYQQKP light chain GQAPRLLIIGASTRATGIPDRFSGSGSGTDFTLTISRLEPEDF AVYYCQQGQVIPPTFGQGTKVEIKRTVAAPSVFIFPPSDEQ LKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPREAKVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESV TEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTLSKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSS PVTKSFNRGEC

The targeted single chain TNF ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule encoding sequences were cloned into a plasmid vector driving expression of the insert from an MPSV promoter and containing a synthetic polyA sequence located at the 3′ end of the CDS. In addition, the vector contained an EBV OriP sequence for episomal maintenance of the plasmid.

The targeted single chain 4-1BBL-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule was produced by co-transfecting HEK293-EBNA cells with the mammalian expression vectors using polyethylenimine. The cells were transfected with the corresponding expression vectors at a 1:1:1 ratio (“vector knob chain”: “vector hole chain”: “vector light chain”).

For production in 500 mL shake flasks, 400 million HEK293 EBNA cells were seeded 24 hours before transfection. For transfection cells were centrifuged for 5 minutes at 210×g, and the supernatant was replaced by pre-warmed CD CHO medium. Expression vectors were mixed in 20 mL CD CHO medium to a final amount of 200 μg DNA. After addition of 540 μL PEI, the solution was vortexed for 15 seconds and incubated for 10 minutes at room temperature.

Afterwards, cells were mixed with the DNA/PEI solution, transferred to a 500 mL shake flask and incubated for 3 hours at 37° C. in an incubator with a 5% CO2 atmosphere. After the incubation, 160 mL of F17 medium was added and cells were cultured for 24 hours. One day after transfection 1 mM valproic acid and 7% Feed with supplements were added. After culturing for 7 days, the supernatant was collected by centrifugation for 15 minutes at 210×g. The solution was sterile filtered (0.22 μm filter), supplemented with sodium azide to a final concentration of 0.01% (w/v), and kept at 4° C.

The targeted 4-1BBL trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule was purified from cell culture supernatants by affinity chromatography using Protein A, followed by size exclusion chromatography. For affinity chromatography, the supernatant was loaded on a

HiTrap ProteinA HP column (CV=5 mL, GE Healthcare) and equilibrated with 20 mM sodium phosphate, 20 mM sodium citrate, 0.5 M sodium chloride, 0.01% (v/v) Tween-20 containing buffer (pH 7.5). Unbound protein was removed by washing with at least 10 column volumes of the same buffer. The bound protein was eluted using a linear pH gradient over 20 column volumes to 100% of 20 mM sodium citrate, 0.5 M sodium chloride, 0.01% (v/v) Tween-20 containing buffer (pH 2.5). The column was then washed with 10 column volumes of 20 mM sodium citrate, 0.5 M sodium chloride, 0.01% Tween-20 buffer (pH 2.5).

The pH of the collected fractions was adjusted by adding 1/40 (v/v) of 2M Tris, pH8.0. The protein was concentrated prior to loading on a HiLoad Superdex 200 column (GE Healthcare) equilibrated with 20 mM Histidine, 150 mM sodium chloride, 0.01% (v/v) Tween/20 solution of pH 6.0.

The protein concentration was determined by measuring the optical density (OD) at 280 nm, using a molar extinction coefficient calculated on the basis of the amino acid sequence. Purity and molecular weight of the targeted TNF ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule was analyzed by SDS-PAGE in the presence and absence of a reducing agent (5 mM 1,4-dithiotreitol) and staining with Coomassie SimpleBlueTM SafeStain (Invitrogen USA). The aggregate content of samples was analyzed using a TSKgel G3000 SW XL analytical size-exclusion column (Tosoh) equilibrated in 25 mM K2HPO4, 125 mM NaCl, 200 mM L-Arginine Monohydrocloride, 0.02% (w/v) NaN3, pH 6.7 running buffer at 25° C.

Table 2 summarizes the yield and final monomer content of the FAP-targeted 4-1BBL trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule.

TABLE 2 Summary of the production of the FAP-targeted 4-1BBL trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule Monomer Yield [%] LC/MS Construct [mg/l] (SEC) (non red) FAP-targeted 4-1BBL trimer- 14 100 Theoretical*: containing Fc (kih) fusion 157358.6 Da antigen binding molecule Experimental: (FAP-targeted single chain 157384 Da 4-1BBL trimer) *without Compound S1 terminal lysines

1.2. Bivalent FAP(4B9)-Targeted Single Chain 4-1BB Ligand Trimer-Containing Fc (kih) Fusion Antigen Binding Molecule (Compound S2)

A polypeptide containing three ectodomains of 4-1BB ligand (71-254 or 71-248, synthetized according to P41273), separated by (G45)2 linkers was subcloned in frame at the C-terminus of human IgG1 Fc knob chain (Merchant, Zhu et al., 1998), as depicted in FIG. 28A: human IgG1 Fc knob, (G45)2 connector, human 4-1BB ligand, (G4S)2 connector, human 4-1BB ligand, (G4S)2 connector, human 4-1BB ligand.

The variable region of heavy and light chain DNA sequences encoding a binder specific for fibroblast activation protein (FAP), clone 4B9, were subcloned in frame with either the constant heavy chain of the hole, the knob or the constant light chain of human IgG1. The generation and preparation of the FAP binders is described in WO 2012/020006 A2, which is incorporated herein by reference.

The Pro329Gly, Leu234Ala and Leu235Ala mutations have been introduced in the constant region of the knob and hole heavy chains to abrogate binding to Fc gamma receptors as described in WO 2012/130831 A1.

Combination of the anti-FAP huIgG1 hole chain containing the Y349C/T366S/L368A/Y407Vmutations, the anti-FAP huIgG1 knob trimeric ligand chain containing the

S354C/T366W mutations and the anti-FAP light chain allows generation of a heterodimer, which includes an assembled trimeric 4-1BB ligand and two FAP binding Fabs (FIG. 28B).

Table 3 shows, respectively, the cDNA and amino acid sequences of the bivalent FAP-targeted single chain 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule.

TABLE 3 Sequences of bivalent FAP(4B9)-targeted single chain 4-1BBL(71-254) trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule (Compound S2) SEQ ID NO: Description Sequence 137 nucleotide GAGGTGCAGCTGCTCGAAAGCGGCGGAGGACTGGTGCA sequence of anti- GCCTGGCGGCAGCCTGAGACTGTCTTGCGCCGCCAGCG FAP(4B9) Fc GCTTCACCTTCAGCAGCTACGCCATGAGCTGGGTCCGCC hole chain AGGCCCCTGGCAAGGGACTGGAATGGGTGTCCGCCATC ATCGGCTCTGGCGCCAGCACCTACTACGCCGACAGCGTG AAGGGCCGGTTCACCATCAGCCGGGACAACAGCAAGAA CACCCTGTACCTGCAGATGAACAGCCTGCGGGCCGAGG ACACCGCCGTGTACTACTGCGCCAAGGGATGGTTCGGC GGCTTCAACTACTGGGGACAGGGCACCCTGGTCACAGT GTCCAGCGCTAGCACCAAGGGCCCCTCCGTGTTCCCCCT GGCCCCCAGCAGCAAGAGCACCAGCGGCGGCACAGCCG CTCTGGGCTGCCTGGTCAAGGACTACTTCCCCGAGCCCG TGACCGTGTCCTGGAACAGCGGAGCCCTGACCTCCGGC GTGCACACCTTCCCCGCCGTGCTGCAGAGTTCTGGCCTG TATAGCCTGAGCAGCGTGGTCACCGTGCCTTCTAGCAGC CTGGGCACCCAGACCTACATCTGCAACGTGAACCACAA GCCCAGCAACACCAAGGTGGACAAGAAGGTGGAGCCCA AGAGCTGCGACAAAACTCACACATGCCCACCGTGCCCA GCACCTGAAGCTGCAGGGGGACCGTCAGTCTTCCTCTTC CCCCCAAAACCCAAGGACACCCTCATGATCTCCCGGACC CCTGAGGTCACATGCGTGGTGGTGGACGTGAGCCACGA AGACCCTGAGGTCAAGTTCAACTGGTACGTGGACGGCG TGGAGGTGCATAATGCCAAGACAAAGCCGCGGGAGGAG CAGTACAACAGCACGTACCGTGTGGTCAGCGTCCTCACC GTCCTGCACCAGGACTGGCTGAATGGCAAGGAGTACAA GTGCAAGGTCTCCAACAAAGCCCTCGGCGCCCCCATCG AGAAAACCATCTCCAAAGCCAAAGGGCAGCCCCGAGAA CCACAGGTGTGCACCCTGCCCCCATCCCGGGATGAGCTG ACCAAGAACCAGGTCAGCCTCTCGTGCGCAGTCAAAGG CTTCTATCCCAGCGACATCGCCGTGGAGTGGGAGAGCA ATGGGCAGCCGGAGAACAACTACAAGACCACGCCTCCC GTGCTGGACTCCGACGGCTCCTTCTTCCTCGTGAGCAAG CTCACCGTGGACAAGAGCAGGTGGCAGCAGGGGAACGT CTTCTCATGCTCCGTGATGCATGAGGCTCTGCACAACCA CTACACGCAGAAGAGCCTCTCCCTGTCTCCGGGTAAA 138 nucleotide GAGGTGCAGCTGCTCGAAAGCGGCGGAGGACTGGTGCA sequence of anti- GCCTGGCGGCAGCCTGAGACTGTCTTGCGCCGCCAGCG FAP(4B9) Fc GCTTCACCTTCAGCAGCTACGCCATGAGCTGGGTCCGCC knob chain fused AGGCCCCTGGCAAGGGACTGGAATGGGTGTCCGCCATC to trimeric hu 4- ATCGGCTCTGGCGCCAGCACCTACTACGCCGACAGCGTG 1BBL (71-254) AAGGGCCGGTTCACCATCAGCCGGGACAACAGCAAGAA CACCCTGTACCTGCAGATGAACAGCCTGCGGGCCGAGG ACACCGCCGTGTACTACTGCGCCAAGGGATGGTTCGGC GGCTTCAACTACTGGGGACAGGGCACCCTGGTCACAGT GTCCAGCGCTAGCACCAAGGGCCCATCGGTCTTCCCCCT GGCACCCTCCTCCAAGAGCACCTCTGGGGGCACAGCGG CCCTGGGCTGCCTGGTCAAGGACTACTTCCCCGAACCGG TGACGGTGTCGTGGAACTCAGGCGCCCTGACCAGCGGC GTGCACACCTTCCCGGCTGTCCTACAGTCCTCAGGACTC TACTCCCTCAGCAGCGTGGTGACCGTGCCCTCCAGCAGC TTGGGCACCCAGACCTACATCTGCAACGTGAATCACAA GCCCAGCAACACCAAGGTGGACAAGAAAGTTGAGCCCA AATCTTGTGACAAAACTCACACATGCCCACCGTGCCCAG CACCTGAAGCTGCAGGGGGACCGTCAGTCTTCCTCTTCC CCCCAAAACCCAAGGACACCCTCATGATCTCCCGGACCC CTGAGGTCACATGCGTGGTGGTGGACGTGAGCCACGAA GACCCTGAGGTCAAGTTCAACTGGTACGTGGACGGCGT GGAGGTGCATAATGCCAAGACAAAGCCGCGGGAGGAGC AGTACAACAGCACGTACCGTGTGGTCAGCGTCCTCACCG TCCTGCACCAGGACTGGCTGAATGGCAAGGAGTACAAG TGCAAGGTCTCCAACAAAGCCCTCGGCGCCCCCATCGA GAAAACCATCTCCAAAGCCAAAGGGCAGCCCCGAGAAC CACAGGTGTACACCCTGCCCCCCTGCAGAGATGAGCTG ACCAAGAACCAGGTGTCCCTGTGGTGCCTCGTGAAGGG CTTCTACCCCTCCGATATCGCCGTGGAATGGGAGAGCAA CGGCCAGCCCGAGAACAACTACAAGACCACCCCCCCTG TGCTGGACAGCGACGGCTCATTCTTCCTGTACTCCAAGC TGACCGTGGACAAGAGCCGGTGGCAGCAGGGCAACGTG TTCAGCTGCAGCGTGATGCACGAGGCCCTGCACAACCA CTACACCCAGAAGTCCCTGAGCCTGAGCCCTGGCGGAG GCGGAGGATCTGGCGGGGGAGGATCTAGAGAGGGCCCT GAGCTGTCCCCCGATGATCCTGCTGGACTGCTGGACCTG CGGCAGGGCATGTTTGCTCAGCTGGTGGCCCAGAACGTG CTGCTGATCGACGGCCCTCTGAGCTGGTACAGCGATCCT GGACTGGCTGGCGTGTCACTGACAGGCGGCCTGAGCTA CAAAGAGGACACCAAAGAACTGGTGGTGGCCAAGGCCG GCGTGTACTACGTGTTCTTTCAGCTGGAACTGCGGAGAG TGGTGGCCGGCGAGGGATCTGGATCTGTGTCTCTGGCCC TGCATCTGCAGCCCCTGAGATCAGCTGCTGGCGCTGCTG CTCTGGCTCTGACAGTGGATCTGCCTCCTGCCAGCAGCG AGGCCCGGAATAGCGCATTTGGGTTTCAAGGCAGGCTG CTGCACCTGTCTGCCGGCCAGAGGCTGGGAGTGCATCTG CACACAGAAGCCAGAGCCAGGCACGCTTGGCAGCTGAC ACAGGGCGCTACAGTGCTGGGCCTGTTCAGAGTGACCC CCGAGATTCCAGCCGGCCTGCCTTCTCCAAGAAGCGAA GGCGGCGGAGGCTCCGGAGGAGGCGGCTCTAGAGAAGG ACCTGAACTGAGCCCAGACGACCCCGCAGGGCTGCTGG ATCTGAGACAGGGAATGTTCGCCCAGCTGGTGGCTCAG AATGTGCTGCTGATTGATGGACCCCTGTCCTGGTACTCC GACCCAGGGCTGGCAGGGGTGTCCCTGACTGGCGGACT GTCTTACAAAGAAGATACAAAAGAACTGGTGGTGGCTA AAGCTGGGGTGTACTATGTGTTTTTTCAGCTGGAACTGA GGCGGGTGGTGGCTGGGGAAGGCAGTGGCTCTGTGTCC CTGGCACTGCATCTGCAGCCTCTGCGCAGTGCTGCAGGC GCAGCCGCACTGGCACTGACTGTGGACCTGCCCCCAGCT TCCAGCGAGGCTAGAAACAGCGCCTTCGGGTTTCAAGG ACGCCTGCTGCATCTGAGCGCCGGACAGCGCCTGGGAG TGCATCTGCATACTGAGGCTAGGGCCAGACATGCCTGGC AGCTGACCCAGGGGGCAACTGTGCTGGGACTGTTTCGCG TGACACCTGAGATCCCCGCTGGCCTGCCAAGCCCTAGAT CAGAAGGCGGAGGGGGATCAGGGGGAGGCGGATCCAG AGAGGGCCCTGAGCTGAGCCCCGATGATCCTGCTGGAC TGCTGGACCTGCGGCAGGGCATGTTTGCTCAGCTGGTGG CCCAGAACGTGCTGCTGATCGATGGCCCCCTGTCCTGGT ACAGCGATCCTGGACTGGCTGGCGTGTCACTGACAGGC GGCCTGAGCTACAAAGAGGACACCAAAGAACTGGTGGT GGCCAAGGCCGGCGTGTACTACGTGTTCTTTCAGCTGGA ACTGCGGAGAGTGGTGGCCGGCGAAGGATCTGGCTCTG TGTCTCTGGCCCTGCATCTGCAGCCTCTGAGAAGCGCTG CTGGCGCTGCAGCTCTGGCACTGACAGTGGATCTGCCTC CTGCCAGCTCCGAGGCCCGGAATAGCGCATTTGGGTTTC AAGGCAGGCTGCTGCACCTGTCTGCCGGCCAGAGGCTG GGAGTGCATCTGCACACAGAGGCCAGGGCTAGACACGC CTGGCAGCTGACACAGGGCGCTACAGTGCTGGGCCTGTT CAGAGTGACCCCCGAGATTCCAGCCGGCCTGCCTTCTCC AAGAAGCGAA 139 nucleotide GAGATCGTGCTGACCCAGTCCCCCGGCACCCTGTCTCTG sequence of anti- AGCCCTGGCGAGAGAGCCACCCTGTCCTGCAGAGCCTC FAP(4B9) light CCAGTCCGTGACCTCCTCCTACCTCGCCTGGTATCAGCA chain GAAGCCCGGCCAGGCCCCTCGGCTGCTGATCAACGTGG GCAGTCGGAGAGCCACCGGCATCCCTGACCGGTTCTCCG GCTCTGGCTCCGGCACCGACTTCACCCTGACCATCTCCC GGCTGGAACCCGAGGACTTCGCCGTGTACTACTGCCAGC AGGGCATCATGCTGCCCCCCACCTTTGGCCAGGGCACCA AGGTGGAAATCAAGCGTACGGTGGCTGCACCATCTGTCT TCATCTTCCCGCCATCTGATGAGCAGTTGAAATCTGGAA CTGCCTCTGTTGTGTGCCTGCTGAATAACTTCTATCCCAG AGAGGCCAAAGTACAGTGGAAGGTGGATAACGCCCTCC AATCGGGTAACTCCCAGGAGAGTGTCACAGAGCAGGAC AGCAAGGACAGCACCTACAGCCTCAGCAGCACCCTGAC GCTGAGCAAAGCAGACTACGAGAAACACAAAGTCTACG CCTGCGAAGTCACCCATCAGGGCCTGAGCTCGCCCGTCA CAAAGAGCTTCAACAGGGGAGAGTGT 140 anti-FAP(4B9) Fe EVQLLESGGGLVQPGGSLRLSCAASGFTFSSYAMSWVRQA hole chain PGKGLEWVSAIIGSGASTYYADSVKGRFTISRDNSKNTLYL QMNSLRAEDTAVYYCAKGWFGGFNYWGQGTLVTVSSAS TKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWNS GALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVTVPSSSLGTQTYICN VNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPEAAGGPSVF LFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDG VEVHNAKTKPREEQYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYK CKVSNKALGAPIEKTISKAKGQPREPQVCTLPPSRDELTKN QVSLSCAVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSD GSFFLVSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQKS LSLSPGK 141 anti-FAP(4B9) Fc EVQLLESGGGLVQPGGSLRLSCAASGFTFSSYAMSWVRQA knob chain fused PGKGLEWVSAIIGSGASTYYADSVKGRFTISRDNSKNTLYL to trimeric 4 hu QMNSLRAEDTAVYYCAKGWFGGFNYWGQGTLVTVSSAS 4-1BBL (71-254) TKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWNS GALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVTVPSSSLGTQTYICN VNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPEAAGGPSVF LFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDG VEVHNAKTKPREEQYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYK CKVSNKALGAPIEKTISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPCRDELTKN QVSLWCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSD GSFFLYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQKS LSLSPGGGGGSGGGGSREGPELSPDDPAGLLDLRQGMFAQ LVAQNVLLIDGPLSWYSDPGLAGVSLTGGLSYKEDTKELV VAKAGVYYVFFQLELRRVVAGEGSGSVSLALHLQPLRSAA GAAALALTVDLPPASSEARNSAFGFQGRLLHLSAGQRLGV HLHTEARARHAWQLTQGATVLGLFRVTPEIPAGLPSPRSEG GGGSGGGGSREGPELSPDDPAGLLDLRQGMFAQLVAQNV LLIDGPLSWYSDPGLAGVSLTGGLSYKEDTKELVVAKAGV YYVFFQLELRRVVAGEGSGSVSLALHLQPLRSAAGAAALA LTVDLPPASSEARNSAFGFQGRLLHLSAGQRLGVHLHTEA RARHAWQLTQGATVLGLFRVTPEIPAGLPSPRSEGGGGSG GGGSREGPELSPDDPAGLLDLRQGMFAQLVAQNVLLIDGP LSWYSDPGLAGVSLTGGLSYKEDTKELVVAKAGVYYVFF QLELRRVVAGEGSGSVSLALHLQPLRSAAGAAALALTVDL PPASSEARNSAFGFQGRLLHLSAGQRLGVHLHTEARARHA WQLTQGATVLGLFRVTPEIPAGLPSPRSE 142 anti-FAP(4B9) EIVLTQSPGTLSLSPGERATLSCRASQSVTSSYLAWYQQKP light chain GQAPRLLINVGSRRATGIPDRFSGSGSGTDFTLTISRLEPEDF AVYYCQQGIMLPPTFGQGTKVEIKRTVAAPSVFIFPPSDEQ LKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPREAKVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESV TEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTLSKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSS PVTKSFNRGEC

1.3. Monovalent FAP(4B9)-Targeted Single Chain 4-1BB Ligand Trimer-Containing Fc (kih) Fusion Antigen Binding Molecule (Compound S3)

A polypeptide containing three ectodomains of 4-1BB ligand (71-254 or 71-248, synthetized according to P41273), separated by (G4S)2 linkers was subcloned as depicted in FIG. 1A: human 4-1BB ligand, (G4S)2 connector, human 4-1BB ligand, (G4S)2 connector, human 4-1BB ligand.

The polypeptide encoding the single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand was subcloned in frame with the human IgG1 heavy chain CH2 and CH3 domains on the knob (Merchant, Zhu et al, 1998), using a linker (GSPGSSSSGS) of SEQ ID NO:57.

The variable region of heavy and light chain DNA sequences encoding a binder specific for fibroblast activation protein (FAP), clone 4B9, were subcloned in frame with either the constant heavy chain of the hole, the knob or the constant light chain of human IgG1. The generation and preparation of the FAP binder is described in WO 2012/020006 A2, which is incorporated herein by reference.

The Pro329Gly, Leu234Ala and Leu235Ala mutations have been introduced in the constant region of the knob and hole heavy chains to abrogate binding to Fc gamma receptors as described in WO 2012/130831 A1.

Combination of the single chain ligand-Fc knob chain containing the S354C/T366W mutations, with the targeted anti-FAP-Fc hole chain containing the Y349C/T366S/L368A/Y407V mutations and the anti-FAP light chain, allows generation of a heterodimer, which includes a single chain 4-1BB ligand trimer and a FAP binding Fab (FIG. 3A).

Table 4 shows, respectively, the cDNA and amino acid sequences of the monovalent FAP(4B9)-targeted single chain 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule.

TABLE 4 Sequences of monovalent FAP(4B9)-targeted single chain 4-1BBL(71-254) trimer containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule (Compound S3) SEQ ID NO: Description Sequence 137 nucleotide sequence of anti- see Table 3 FAP(4B9) Fc hole chain 66 nucleotide sequence of trimeric see Table 1 hu 4-1BBL (71-254) Fc knob chain 139 nucleotide sequence of anti- see Table 3 FAP(4B9) light chain 140 anti-FAP(4B9) Fc hole chain see Table 3 15 trimeric hu 4-1BBL (71-254) see Table 1 Fc knob chain 142 anti-FAP(4B9) light chain see Table 3

1.4. Bivalent CEA-Targeted Single Chain 4-1BB Ligand Trimer-Containing Fc (kih) Fusion Antigen Binding Molecule (Compound S4)

The molecule was prepared as described in 1.2 for the bivalent FAP(4B9)-targeted construct, with the only difference that the anti-FAP binder was replaced by an anti-CEA binder.

The variable region of heavy and light chain DNA sequences encoding a binder specific for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), clone sm9b, were subcloned in frame with either the constant heavy chain of the hole, the knob or the constant light chain of human IgG1. The clone sm9b is further described in US 2005/0147614, Graff et al. 2004 and WO 2014/004694 A1 which are incorporated herein by reference.

The Pro329Gly, Leu234Ala and Leu235Ala mutations have been introduced in the constant region of the knob and hole heavy chains to abrogate binding to Fc gamma receptors as described in WO 2012/130831 A1.

Combination of the anti-CEA huIgG1 hole chain containing the Y349C/T366S/L368A/Y407Vmutations, the anti-CEA huIgG1 knob trimeric ligand chain containing the S354C/T366W mutations and the anti-CEA light chain allows generation of a heterodimer, which includes an assembled trimeric 4-1BB ligand and two CEA binding Fabs (FIG. 28B).

Table 5 shows, respectively, the cDNA and amino acid sequences of the bivalent CEA(sm9b)-targeted single chain 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule.

TABLE 5 Sequences of bivalent CEA(sm9b)-targeted single chain 4- 1BBL(71-254) trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule (Compound S4) SEQ ID NO: Description Sequence 143 nucleotide CAAGTGAAGCTGGAGCAGAGCGGCGCCGAAGTCGTGAA sequence of anti- ACCCGGGGCTTCCGTCAAGCTCTCTTGCAAGGCATCAGG CEA(sm9b) Fc ATTCAACATCAAAGACAGCTACATGCACTGGCTGAGGC hole chain AGGGCCCTGGTCAGTGCCTTGAGTGGATTGGCTGGATCG ATCCAGAGAATGGCGACACCGAATATGCCCCCAAGTTT CAAGGAAAGGCTACATTCACCACTGATACATCCGCAAA CACCGCCTACCTGGGTCTCTCAAGTCTGCGCCCTGAGGA CACTGCTGTGTATTACTGTAATGAGGGCACCCCAACAGG GCCCTACTATTTTGACTACTGGGGACAGGGCACCTTGGT TACAGTGAGCTCCGCTAGCACCAAGGGCCCATCGGTCTT CCCCCTGGCACCCTCCTCCAAGAGCACCTCTGGGGGCAC AGCGGCCCTGGGCTGCCTGGTCAAGGACTACTTCCCCGA ACCGGTGACGGTGTCGTGGAACTCAGGCGCCCTGACCA GCGGCGTGCACACCTTCCCGGCTGTCCTACAGTCCTCAG GACTCTACTCCCTCAGCAGCGTGGTGACCGTGCCCTCCA GCAGCTTGGGCACCCAGACCTACATCTGCAACGTGAATC ACAAGCCCAGCAACACCAAGGTGGACAAGAAAGTTGAG CCCAAATCTTGTGACAAAACTCACACATGCCCACCGTGC CCAGCACCTGAAGCTGCAGGGGGACCGTCAGTCTTCCTC TTCCCCCCAAAACCCAAGGACACCCTCATGATCTCCCGG ACCCCTGAGGTCACATGCGTGGTGGTGGACGTGAGCCA CGAAGACCCTGAGGTCAAGTTCAACTGGTACGTGGACG GCGTGGAGGTGCATAATGCCAAGACAAAGCCGCGGGAG GAGCAGTACAACAGCACGTACCGTGTGGTCAGCGTCCT CACCGTCCTGCACCAGGACTGGCTGAATGGCAAGGAGT ACAAGTGCAAGGTCTCCAACAAAGCCCTCGGCGCCCCC ATCGAGAAAACCATCTCCAAAGCCAAAGGGCAGCCCCG AGAACCACAGGTGTGCACCCTGCCCCCATCCCGGGATG AGCTGACCAAGAACCAGGTCAGCCTCTCGTGCGCAGTC AAAGGCTTCTATCCCAGCGACATCGCCGTGGAGTGGGA GAGCAATGGGCAGCCGGAGAACAACTACAAGACCACGC CTCCCGTGCTGGACTCCGACGGCTCCTTCTTCCTCGTGA GCAAGCTCACCGTGGACAAGAGCAGGTGGCAGCAGGGG AACGTCTTCTCATGCTCCGTGATGCATGAGGCTCTGCAC AACCACTACACGCAGAAGAGCCTCTCCCTGTCTCCGGGT AAA 144 nucleotide CAAGTGAAGCTGGAGCAGAGCGGCGCCGAAGTCGTGAA sequence of anti- ACCCGGGGCTTCCGTCAAGCTCTCTTGCAAGGCATCAGG CEA(sm9b) Fc ATTCAACATCAAAGACAGCTACATGCACTGGCTGAGGC knob chain fused AGGGCCCTGGTCAGTGCCTTGAGTGGATTGGCTGGATCG to trimeric hu 4- ATCCAGAGAATGGCGACACCGAATATGCCCCCAAGTTT 1BBL (71-254) CAAGGAAAGGCTACATTCACCACTGATACATCCGCAAA CACCGCCTACCTGGGTCTCTCAAGTCTGCGCCCTGAGGA CACTGCTGTGTATTACTGTAATGAGGGCACCCCAACAGG GCCCTACTATTTTGACTACTGGGGACAGGGCACCTTGGT TACAGTGAGCTCCGCTAGCACCAAGGGCCCATCGGTCTT CCCCCTGGCACCCTCCTCCAAGAGCACCTCTGGGGGCAC AGCGGCCCTGGGCTGCCTGGTCAAGGACTACTTCCCCGA ACCGGTGACGGTGTCGTGGAACTCAGGCGCCCTGACCA GCGGCGTGCACACCTTCCCGGCTGTCCTACAGTCCTCAG GACTCTACTCCCTCAGCAGCGTGGTGACCGTGCCCTCCA GCAGCTTGGGCACCCAGACCTACATCTGCAACGTGAATC ACAAGCCCAGCAACACCAAGGTGGACAAGAAAGTTGAG CCCAAATCTTGTGACAAAACTCACACATGCCCACCGTGC CCAGCACCTGAAGCTGCAGGGGGACCGTCAGTCTTCCTC TTCCCCCCAAAACCCAAGGACACCCTCATGATCTCCCGG ACCCCTGAGGTCACATGCGTGGTGGTGGACGTGAGCCA CGAAGACCCTGAGGTCAAGTTCAACTGGTACGTGGACG GCGTGGAGGTGCATAATGCCAAGACAAAGCCGCGGGAG GAGCAGTACAACAGCACGTACCGTGTGGTCAGCGTCCT CACCGTCCTGCACCAGGACTGGCTGAATGGCAAGGAGT ACAAGTGCAAGGTCTCCAACAAAGCCCTCGGCGCCCCC ATCGAGAAAACCATCTCCAAAGCCAAAGGGCAGCCCCG AGAACCACAGGTGTACACCCTGCCCCCCTGCAGAGATG AGCTGACCAAGAACCAGGTGTCCCTGTGGTGCCTCGTGA AGGGCTTCTACCCCTCCGATATCGCCGTGGAATGGGAGA GCAACGGCCAGCCCGAGAACAACTACAAGACCACCCCC CCTGTGCTGGACAGCGACGGCTCATTCTTCCTGTACTCC AAGCTGACCGTGGACAAGAGCCGGTGGCAGCAGGGCAA CGTGTTCAGCTGCAGCGTGATGCACGAGGCCCTGCACA ACCACTACACCCAGAAGTCCCTGAGCCTGAGCCCTGGC GGAGGCGGAGGATCTGGCGGGGGAGGATCTAGAGAGG GCCCTGAGCTGTCCCCCGATGATCCTGCTGGACTGCTGG ACCTGCGGCAGGGCATGTTTGCTCAGCTGGTGGCCCAGA ACGTGCTGCTGATCGACGGCCCTCTGAGCTGGTACAGCG ATCCTGGACTGGCTGGCGTGTCACTGACAGGCGGCCTGA GCTACAAAGAGGACACCAAAGAACTGGTGGTGGCCAAG GCCGGCGTGTACTACGTGTTCTTTCAGCTGGAACTGCGG AGAGTGGTGGCCGGCGAGGGATCTGGATCTGTGTCTCTG GCCCTGCATCTGCAGCCCCTGAGATCAGCTGCTGGCGCT GCTGCTCTGGCTCTGACAGTGGATCTGCCTCCTGCCAGC AGCGAGGCCCGGAATAGCGCATTTGGGTTTCAAGGCAG GCTGCTGCACCTGTCTGCCGGCCAGAGGCTGGGAGTGC ATCTGCACACAGAAGCCAGAGCCAGGCACGCTTGGCAG CTGACACAGGGCGCTACAGTGCTGGGCCTGTTCAGAGTG ACCCCCGAGATTCCAGCCGGCCTGCCTTCTCCAAGAAGC GAAGGCGGCGGAGGCTCCGGAGGAGGCGGCTCTAGAGA AGGACCTGAACTGAGCCCAGACGACCCCGCAGGGCTGC TGGATCTGAGACAGGGAATGTTCGCCCAGCTGGTGGCTC AGAATGTGCTGCTGATTGATGGACCCCTGTCCTGGTACT CCGACCCAGGGCTGGCAGGGGTGTCCCTGACTGGCGGA CTGTCTTACAAAGAAGATACAAAAGAACTGGTGGTGGC TAAAGCTGGGGTGTACTATGTGTTTTTTCAGCTGGAACT GAGGCGGGTGGTGGCTGGGGAAGGCAGTGGCTCTGTGT CCCTGGCACTGCATCTGCAGCCTCTGCGCAGTGCTGCAG GCGCAGCCGCACTGGCACTGACTGTGGACCTGCCCCCA GCTTCCAGCGAGGCTAGAAACAGCGCCTTCGGGTTTCAA GGACGCCTGCTGCATCTGAGCGCCGGACAGCGCCTGGG AGTGCATCTGCATACTGAGGCTAGGGCCAGACATGCCTG GCAGCTGACCCAGGGGGCAACTGTGCTGGGACTGTTTCG CGTGACACCTGAGATCCCCGCTGGCCTGCCAAGCCCTAG ATCAGAAGGCGGAGGGGGATCAGGGGGAGGCGGATCC AGAGAGGGCCCTGAGCTGAGCCCCGATGATCCTGCTGG ACTGCTGGACCTGCGGCAGGGCATGTTTGCTCAGCTGGT GGCCCAGAACGTGCTGCTGATCGATGGCCCCCTGTCCTG GTACAGCGATCCTGGACTGGCTGGCGTGTCACTGACAGG CGGCCTGAGCTACAAAGAGGACACCAAAGAACTGGTGG TGGCCAAGGCCGGCGTGTACTACGTGTTCTTTCAGCTGG AACTGCGGAGAGTGGTGGCCGGCGAAGGATCTGGCTCT GTGTCTCTGGCCCTGCATCTGCAGCCTCTGAGAAGCGCT GCTGGCGCTGCAGCTCTGGCACTGACAGTGGATCTGCCT CCTGCCAGCTCCGAGGCCCGGAATAGCGCATTTGGGTTT CAAGGCAGGCTGCTGCACCTGTCTGCCGGCCAGAGGCT GGGAGTGCATCTGCACACAGAGGCCAGGGCTAGACACG CCTGGCAGCTGACACAGGGCGCTACAGTGCTGGGCCTG TTCAGAGTGACCCCCGAGATTCCAGCCGGCCTGCCTTCT CCAAGAAGCGAA 145 nucleotide GAGAACGTGCTGACCCAGAGCCCCTCCTCTATGTCAGTC sequence of anti- AGCGTGGGCGACAGGGTCACAATCGCCTGCTCCGCTTCT CEA(sm9b) light AGTAGCGTGCCTTACATGCACTGGCTCCAGCAGAAGCC chain AGGGAAATCCCCCAAGCTGCTTATTTATTCTACCTCAAA TCTGGCAAGCGGAGTTCCTAGCAGATTCTCTGGCAGTGG TAGCGGGACTGATTACTCCCTCACAATCTCAAGTGTGCA GCCAGAAGACGCCGCTACCTATTACTGTCAACAGCGCA GCTCCTACCCCCTGACTTTTGGCTGTGGCACCAAGTTGG AGATTAAACGTACGGTGGCTGCACCATCTGTCTTCATCT TCCCGCCATCTGATGAGCAGTTGAAATCTGGAACTGCCT CTGTTGTGTGCCTGCTGAATAACTTCTATCCCAGAGAGG CCAAAGTACAGTGGAAGGTGGATAACGCCCTCCAATCG GGTAACTCCCAGGAGAGTGTCACAGAGCAGGACAGCAA GGACAGCACCTACAGCCTCAGCAGCACCCTGACGCTGA GCAAAGCAGACTACGAGAAACACAAAGTCTACGCCTGC GAAGTCACCCATCAGGGCCTGAGCTCGCCCGTCACAAA GAGCTTCAACAGGGGAGAGTGT 146 anti-CEA(sm9b) QVKLEQSGAEVVKPGASVKLSCKASGFNIKDSYMHWLRQ Fc hole chain GPGQCLEWIGWIDPENGDTEYAPKFQGKATFTTDTSANTA YLGLSSLRPEDTAVYYCNEGTPTGPYYFDYWGQGTLVTVS SASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPVTVS WNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVTVPSSSLGTQTY ICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPEAAGGP SVFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNWY VDGVEVHNAKTKPREEQYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNG KEYKCKVSNKALGAPIEKTISKAKGQPREPQVCTLPPSRDE LTKNQVSLSCAVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPV LDSDGSFFLVSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHY TQKSLSLSPGK 147 anti-CEA(sm9b) QVKLEQSGAEVVKPGASVKLSCKASGFNIKDSYMHWLRQ Fc knob chain GPGQCLEWIGWIDPENGDTEYAPKFQGKATFTTDTSANTA fused to trimeric YLGLSSLRPEDTAVYYCNEGTPTGPYYFDYWGQGTLVTVS hu 4-1BBL (71- SASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPVTVS 254) WNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVTVPSSSLGTQTY ICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPEAAGGP SVFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNWY VDGVEVHNAKTKPREEQYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNG KEYKCKVSNKALGAPIEKTISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPCRDE LTKNQVSLWCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPV LDSDGSFFLYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHY TQKSLSLSPGGGGGSGGGGSREGPELSPDDPAGLLDLRQG MFAQLVAQNVLLIDGPLSWYSDPGLAGVSLTGGLSYKEDT KELVVAKAGVYYVFFQLELRRVVAGEGSGSVSLALHLQPL RSAAGAAALALTVDLPPASSEARNSAFGFQGRLLHLSAGQ RLGVHLHTEARARHAWQLTQGATVLGLFRVTPEIPAGLPS PRSEGGGGSGGGGSREGPELSPDDPAGLLDLRQGMFAQLV AQNVLLIDGPLSWYSDPGLAGVSLTGGLSYKEDTKELVVA KAGVYYVFFQLELRRVVAGEGSGSVSLALHLQPLRSAAGA AALALTVDLPPASSEARNSAFGFQGRLLHLSAGQRLGVHL HTEARARHAWQLTQGATVLGLFRVTPEIPAGLPSPRSEGG GGSGGGGSREGPELSPDDPAGLLDLRQGMFAQLVAQNVL LIDGPLSWYSDPGLAGVSLTGGLSYKEDTKELVVAKAGVY YVFFQLELRRVVAGEGSGSVSLALHLQPLRSAAGAAALAL TVDLPPASSEARNSAFGFQGRLLHLSAGQRLGVHLHTEAR ARHAWQLTQGATVLGLFRVTPEIPAGLPSPRSE 148 anti-CEA(sm9b) ENVLTQSPSSMSVSVGDRVTIACSASSSVPYMHWLQQKPG light chain KSPKLLIYSTSNLASGVPSRFSGSGSGTDYSLTISSVQPEDA ATYYCQQRSSYPLTFGCGTKLEIKRTVAAPSVFIFPPSDEQL KSGTASVVCLLNNFYPREAKVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVT EQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTLSKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSP VTKSFNRGEC

1.5. Monovalent CEA(sm9b)-Targeted Single Chain 4-1BB Ligand Trimer-C5ontaining Fc (kih) Fusion Antigen Binding Molecule (Compound S5)

The molecule was prepared as described in 1.3 for the monovalent FAP-targeted construct, with the only difference that the anti-FAP binder was replaced by an anti-CEA binder.

The variable region of heavy and light chain DNA sequences encoding a binder specific for fibroblast activation protein (CEA), clone sm9b, were subcloned in frame with either the constant heavy chain of the hole (Carter, 2001) or the constant light chain of human IgG1.

Combination of the anti-CEA huIgG1 hole chain containing the Y349C/T366S/L368A/Y407Vmutations, the single chain ligand huIgG1 knob chain containing the S354C/T366W mutations and the anti-CEA light chain allows generation of a heterodimer, which includes an assembled trimeric 4-1BB ligand and one CEA binding Fab (FIG. 2A).

Table 6 shows, respectively, the cDNA and amino acid sequences of the monovalent CEA(sm9b)-targeted single chain 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule.

TABLE 6 Sequences of monovalent CEA(sm9b)- targeted single chain 4-1BBL(71-254) trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule (Compound S5) SEQ ID NO: Description Sequence 143 nucleotide sequence of anti- see Table 5 CEA(sm9b) Fc hole chain 66 nucleotide sequence of trimeric see Table 1 hu 4-1BBL (71-254) Fc knob chain 145 nucleotide sequence of anti- see Table 5 CEA(sm9b) light chain 146 anti-CEA(sm9b) Fc hole chain see Table 5 15 trimeric hu 4-1BBL (71-254) Fc see Table 1 knob chain 148 anti-CEA(sm9b) light chain see Table 5

1.6. Bivalent CD19-targeted single chain 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecules (Compound S6 and S7)The molecules are prepared as described in 1.2 for the bivalent FAP(4B9)-targeted construct, with the only difference that the anti-FAP binder is replaced by anti-CD19 binders. The generation of the CD19 clones is described in Example 1.8.

The variable region of heavy and light chain DNA sequences encoding a binder specific for CD19, i.e. clones 8B8-018 and 8B8-2B11, are subcloned in frame with either the constant heavy chain of the hole, the knob or the constant light chain of human IgG1.

Combination of the anti-CD19 hu IgG1 hole chain containing the Y349C/T366S/L368A/Y407Vmutations, the anti-CD19 hu IgG1 knob trimeric ligand chain containing the S354C/T366W mutations and the anti-CD19 light chain allows generation of a heterodimer, which includes an assembled trimeric 4-1BB ligand and two CD19 binding Fabs (FIG. 28B). The Pro329Gly, Leu234Ala and Leu235Ala mutations are introduced in the constant region of the knob and hole heavy chains to abrogate binding to Fc gamma receptors as described in WO 2012/130831 A1.

Table 7 shows, respectively, the cDNA and amino acid sequences of the bivalent CD19(8B8-018)-targeted single chain 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule.

TABLE 7 Sequences of bivalent CD19(8B8-018)-targeted single chain 4- 1BBL(71-254) trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule (Compound S6) SEQ ID NO: Description Sequence 149 nucleotide CAGGTCCAGCTGGTGCAGTCCGGCGCCGAGGTCAAGAA sequence of anti- ACCCGGGGCTTCTGTGAAGGTTTCATGCAAGGCAAGCG CD19(8B8-018) GATACACCTTCACCGACTATATCATGCATTGGGTCAGGC Fc hole chain AGGCCCCTGGCCAAGGTCTCGAATGGATGGGCTACATTA ACCCATATAATGATGGCTCCAAATACACCGAGAAGTTTC AGGGAAGAGTCACTATGACATCTGACACCAGTATCAGC ACTGCTTACATGGAGCTGTCCCGCCTTCGGTCTGATGAC ACCGCAGTGTATTACTGTGCCAGGGGCACATATTACTAC GGCTCAGCTCTGTTCGACTATTGGGGGCAGGGAACCACA GTAACCGTGAGCTCCGCTAGCACCAAGGGCCCCTCCGTG TTCCCCCTGGCCCCCAGCAGCAAGAGCACCAGCGGCGG CACAGCCGCTCTGGGCTGCCTGGTCAAGGACTACTTCCC CGAGCCCGTGACCGTGTCCTGGAACAGCGGAGCCCTGA CCTCCGGCGTGCACACCTTCCCCGCCGTGCTGCAGAGTT CTGGCCTGTATAGCCTGAGCAGCGTGGTCACCGTGCCTT CTAGCAGCCTGGGCACCCAGACCTACATCTGCAACGTG AACCACAAGCCCAGCAACACCAAGGTGGACAAGAAGGT GGAGCCCAAGAGCTGCGACAAAACTCACACATGCCCAC CGTGCCCAGCACCTGAAGCTGCAGGGGGACCGTCAGTC TTCCTCTTCCCCCCAAAACCCAAGGACACCCTCATGATC TCCCGGACCCCTGAGGTCACATGCGTGGTGGTGGACGTG AGCCACGAAGACCCTGAGGTCAAGTTCAACTGGTACGT GGACGGCGTGGAGGTGCATAATGCCAAGACAAAGCCGC GGGAGGAGCAGTACAACAGCACGTACCGTGTGGTCAGC GTCCTCACCGTCCTGCACCAGGACTGGCTGAATGGCAAG GAGTACAAGTGCAAGGTCTCCAACAAAGCCCTCGGCGC CCCCATCGAGAAAACCATCTCCAAAGCCAAAGGGCAGC CCCGAGAACCACAGGTGTGCACCCTGCCCCCATCCCGG GATGAGCTGACCAAGAACCAGGTCAGCCTCTCGTGCGC AGTCAAAGGCTTCTATCCCAGCGACATCGCCGTGGAGTG GGAGAGCAATGGGCAGCCGGAGAACAACTACAAGACC ACGCCTCCCGTGCTGGACTCCGACGGCTCCTTCTTCCTC GTGAGCAAGCTCACCGTGGACAAGAGCAGGTGGCAGCA GGGGAACGTCTTCTCATGCTCCGTGATGCATGAGGCTCT GCACAACCACTACACGCAGAAGAGCCTCTCCCTGTCTCC GGGTAAA 150 nucleotide CAGGTCCAGCTGGTGCAGTCCGGCGCCGAGGTCAAGAA sequence of anti- ACCCGGGGCTTCTGTGAAGGTTTCATGCAAGGCAAGCG CD19(8B8-018) GATACACCTTCACCGACTATATCATGCATTGGGTCAGGC Fc knob chain AGGCCCCTGGCCAAGGTCTCGAATGGATGGGCTACATTA fused to trimeric ACCCATATAATGATGGCTCCAAATACACCGAGAAGTTTC hu 4-1BBL (71- AGGGAAGAGTCACTATGACATCTGACACCAGTATCAGC 254) ACTGCTTACATGGAGCTGTCCCGCCTTCGGTCTGATGAC ACCGCAGTGTATTACTGTGCCAGGGGCACATATTACTAC GGCTCAGCTCTGTTCGACTATTGGGGGCAGGGAACCACA GTAACCGTGAGCTCCGCTAGCACCAAGGGCCCATCGGT CTTCCCCCTGGCACCCTCCTCCAAGAGCACCTCTGGGGG CACAGCGGCCCTGGGCTGCCTGGTCAAGGACTACTTCCC CGAACCGGTGACGGTGTCGTGGAACTCAGGCGCCCTGA CCAGCGGCGTGCACACCTTCCCGGCTGTCCTACAGTCCT CAGGACTCTACTCCCTCAGCAGCGTGGTGACCGTGCCCT CCAGCAGCTTGGGCACCCAGACCTACATCTGCAACGTG AATCACAAGCCCAGCAACACCAAGGTGGACAAGAAAGT TGAGCCCAAATCTTGTGACAAAACTCACACATGCCCACC GTGCCCAGCACCTGAAGCTGCAGGGGGACCGTCAGTCT TCCTCTTCCCCCCAAAACCCAAGGACACCCTCATGATCT CCCGGACCCCTGAGGTCACATGCGTGGTGGTGGACGTG AGCCACGAAGACCCTGAGGTCAAGTTCAACTGGTACGT GGACGGCGTGGAGGTGCATAATGCCAAGACAAAGCCGC GGGAGGAGCAGTACAACAGCACGTACCGTGTGGTCAGC GTCCTCACCGTCCTGCACCAGGACTGGCTGAATGGCAAG GAGTACAAGTGCAAGGTCTCCAACAAAGCCCTCGGCGC CCCCATCGAGAAAACCATCTCCAAAGCCAAAGGGCAGC CCCGAGAACCACAGGTGTACACCCTGCCCCCCTGCAGA GATGAGCTGACCAAGAACCAGGTGTCCCTGTGGTGCCTC GTGAAGGGCTTCTACCCCTCCGATATCGCCGTGGAATGG GAGAGCAACGGCCAGCCCGAGAACAACTACAAGACCAC CCCCCCTGTGCTGGACAGCGACGGCTCATTCTTCCTGTA CTCCAAGCTGACCGTGGACAAGAGCCGGTGGCAGCAGG GCAACGTGTTCAGCTGCAGCGTGATGCACGAGGCCCTG CACAACCACTACACCCAGAAGTCCCTGAGCCTGAGCCCT GGCGGAGGCGGAGGATCTGGCGGGGGAGGATCTAGAGA GGGCCCTGAGCTGTCCCCCGATGATCCTGCTGGACTGCT GGACCTGCGGCAGGGCATGTTTGCTCAGCTGGTGGCCCA GAACGTGCTGCTGATCGACGGCCCTCTGAGCTGGTACAG CGATCCTGGACTGGCTGGCGTGTCACTGACAGGCGGCCT GAGCTACAAAGAGGACACCAAAGAACTGGTGGTGGCCA AGGCCGGCGTGTACTACGTGTTCTTTCAGCTGGAACTGC GGAGAGTGGTGGCCGGCGAGGGATCTGGATCTGTGTCT CTGGCCCTGCATCTGCAGCCCCTGAGATCAGCTGCTGGC GCTGCTGCTCTGGCTCTGACAGTGGATCTGCCTCCTGCC AGCAGCGAGGCCCGGAATAGCGCATTTGGGTTTCAAGG CAGGCTGCTGCACCTGTCTGCCGGCCAGAGGCTGGGAG TGCATCTGCACACAGAAGCCAGAGCCAGGCACGCTTGG CAGCTGACACAGGGCGCTACAGTGCTGGGCCTGTTCAG AGTGACCCCCGAGATTCCAGCCGGCCTGCCTTCTCCAAG AAGCGAAGGCGGCGGAGGCTCCGGAGGAGGCGGCTCTA GAGAAGGACCTGAACTGAGCCCAGACGACCCCGCAGGG CTGCTGGATCTGAGACAGGGAATGTTCGCCCAGCTGGTG GCTCAGAATGTGCTGCTGATTGATGGACCCCTGTCCTGG TACTCCGACCCAGGGCTGGCAGGGGTGTCCCTGACTGGC GGACTGTCTTACAAAGAAGATACAAAAGAACTGGTGGT GGCTAAAGCTGGGGTGTACTATGTGTTTTTTCAGCTGGA ACTGAGGCGGGTGGTGGCTGGGGAAGGCAGTGGCTCTG TGTCCCTGGCACTGCATCTGCAGCCTCTGCGCAGTGCTG CAGGCGCAGCCGCACTGGCACTGACTGTGGACCTGCCC CCAGCTTCCAGCGAGGCTAGAAACAGCGCCTTCGGGTTT CAAGGACGCCTGCTGCATCTGAGCGCCGGACAGCGCCT GGGAGTGCATCTGCATACTGAGGCTAGGGCCAGACATG CCTGGCAGCTGACCCAGGGGGCAACTGTGCTGGGACTG TTTCGCGTGACACCTGAGATCCCCGCTGGCCTGCCAAGC CCTAGATCAGAAGGCGGAGGGGGATCAGGGGGAGGCG GATCCAGAGAGGGCCCTGAGCTGAGCCCCGATGATCCT GCTGGACTGCTGGACCTGCGGCAGGGCATGTTTGCTCAG CTGGTGGCCCAGAACGTGCTGCTGATCGATGGCCCCCTG TCCTGGTACAGCGATCCTGGACTGGCTGGCGTGTCACTG ACAGGCGGCCTGAGCTACAAAGAGGACACCAAAGAACT GGTGGTGGCCAAGGCCGGCGTGTACTACGTGTTCTTTCA GCTGGAACTGCGGAGAGTGGTGGCCGGCGAAGGATCTG GCTCTGTGTCTCTGGCCCTGCATCTGCAGCCTCTGAGAA GCGCTGCTGGCGCTGCAGCTCTGGCACTGACAGTGGATC TGCCTCCTGCCAGCTCCGAGGCCCGGAATAGCGCATTTG GGTTTCAAGGCAGGCTGCTGCACCTGTCTGCCGGCCAGA GGCTGGGAGTGCATCTGCACACAGAGGCCAGGGCTAGA CACGCCTGGCAGCTGACACAGGGCGCTACAGTGCTGGG CCTGTTCAGAGTGACCCCCGAGATTCCAGCCGGCCTGCC TTCTCCAAGAAGCGAA 151 nucleotide GACATCGTCATGACCCAGACACCCCTGTCCCTCTCTGTG sequence of anti- ACCCCTGGCCAGCCAGCCTCAATTAGCTGCAAGTCCTCT CD19(8B8-018) CAAAGTCTGGAGAACCCCAATGGGAACACTTACCTTAAT light chain TGGTATCTGCAGAAACCCGGACAATCCCCTCAACTCCTG ATCTACAGGGTCTCTAAGAGATTCTCAGGCGTGCCAGAT CGCTTTAGCGGTTCCGGGTCTGGCACAGACTTCACCTTG AAGATTAGTCGGGTTGAAGCTGAGGATGTGGGAGTCTA TTACTGTCTGCAGCTCACTCATGTGCCCTACACCTTTGGT CAGGGCACAAAACTGGAGATCAAGCGGACCGTGGCCGC TCCCTCCGTGTTCATCTTCCCACCCTCCGACGAGCAGCT GAAGTCCGGCACCGCCAGCGTGGTGTGCCTGCTGAACA ACTTCTACCCCCGCGAGGCCAAGGTGCAGTGGAAGGTG GACAACGCCCTGCAGTCCGGCAACTCCCAGGAATCCGT GACCGAGCAGGACTCCAAGGACAGCACCTACTCCCTGT CCTCCACCCTGACCCTGTCCAAGGCCGACTACGAGAAGC ACAAGGTGTACGCCTGCGAAGTGACCCACCAGGGCCTG TCCAGCCCCGTGACCAAGTCCTTCAACCGGGGCGAGTGC 152 anti- CD19(8B8- QVQLVQSGAEVKKPGASVKVSCKASGYTFTDYIMHWVRQ 018) Fc hole APGQGLEWMGYINPYNDGSKYTEKFQGRVTMTSDTSISTA chain YMELSRLRSDDTAVYYCARGTYYYGSALFDYWGQGTTVT VSSASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPVT VSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVTVPSSSLGTQ TYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPEAAG GPSVFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNW YVDGVEVHNAKTKPREEQYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLN GKEYKCKVSNKALGAPIEKTISKAKGQPREPQVCTLPPSRD ELTKNQVSLSCAVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPP VLDSDGSFFLVSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNH YTQKSLSLSPGK 153 anti- CD19(8B8- QVQLVQSGAEVKKPGASVKVSCKASGYTFTDYIMHWVRQ 018) Fc knob APGQGLEWMGYINPYNDGSKYTEKFQGRVTMTSDTSISTA chain fused to YMELSRLRSDDTAVYYCARGTYYYGSALFDYWGQGTTVT trimeric hu 4- VSSASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPVT 1BBL (71-254) VSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVTVPSSSLGTQ TYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPEAAG GPSVFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNW YVDGVEVHNAKTKPREEQYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLN GKEYKCKVSNKALGAPIEKTISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPCRD ELTKNQVSLWCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPP VLDSDGSFFLYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNH YTQKSLSLSPGGGGGSGGGGSREGPELSPDDPAGLLDLRQ GMFAQLVAQNVLLIDGPLSWYSDPGLAGVSLTGGLSYKED TKELVVAKAGVYYVFFQLELRRVVAGEGSGSVSLALHLQP LRSAAGAAALALTVDLPPASSEARNSAFGFQGRLLHLSAG QRLGVHLHTEARARHAWQLTQGATVLGLFRVTPEIPAGLP SPRSEGGGGSGGGGSREGPELSPDDPAGLLDLRQGMFAQL VAQNVLLIDGPLSWYSDPGLAGVSLTGGLSYKEDTKELVV AKAGVYYVFFQLELRRVVAGEGSGSVSLALHLQPLRSAAG AAALALTVDLPPASSEARNSAFGFQGRLLHLSAGQRLGVH LHTEARARHAWQLTQGATVLGLFRVTPEIPAGLPSPRSEGG GGSGGGGSREGPELSPDDPAGLLDLRQGMFAQLVAQNVL LIDGPLSWYSDPGLAGVSLTGGLSYKEDTKELVVAKAGVY YVFFQLELRRVVAGEGSGSVSLALHLQPLRSAAGAAALAL TVDLPPASSEARNSAFGFQGRLLHLSAGQRLGVHLHTEAR ARHAWQLTQGATVLGLFRVTPEIPAGLPSPRSE 154 anti- CD19(8B8- DIVMTQTPLSLSVTPGQPASISCKSSQSLENPNGNTYLNWY 018) light chain LQKPGQSPQLLIYRVSKRFSGVPDRFSGSGSGTDFTLKISRV EAEDVGVYYCLQLTHVPYTFGQGTKLEIKRTVAAPSVFIFP PSDEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPREAKVQWKVDNALQSGN SQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTLSKADYEKHKVYACEVTH QGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC

Table 8 shows, respectively, the cDNA and amino acid sequences of the bivalent CD19(8B8-2B11)-targeted single chain 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule.

TABLE 8 Sequences of bivalent CD19(8B8-2B11)-targeted single chain 4-) 1BBL(71-254 trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule (Compound S7) SEQ ID NO: Description Sequence 155 nucleotide CAGGTGCAATTGGTTCAATCTGGTGCTGAAGTAAAAAA sequence of anti- ACCGGGCGCTTCCGTTAAAGTGAGCTGCAAAGCATCTGG CD19(8B8-2B11) TTACACCTTCACTGACTATATCATGCACTGGGTTCGTCA Fc hole chain GGCCCCGGGCCAGGGTCTGGAGTGGATGGGCTACATTA ACCCATACAACGACGGTTCCAAATATACCGAGAAATTC CAGGGCCGCGTCACGATGACCAGCGACACTTCTATCTCC ACCGCGTACATGGAACTGTCTAGACTGCGTTCTGACGAC ACCGCTGTTTACTATTGTGCACGCGGTACCTACTACTAC GGTCCACAGCTGTTTGATTACTGGGGCCAAGGTACCACG GTGACCGTAAGCTCTGCTAGCACCAAGGGCCCCTCCGTG TTCCCCCTGGCCCCCAGCAGCAAGAGCACCAGCGGCGG CACAGCCGCTCTGGGCTGCCTGGTCAAGGACTACTTCCC CGAGCCCGTGACCGTGTCCTGGAACAGCGGAGCCCTGA CCTCCGGCGTGCACACCTTCCCCGCCGTGCTGCAGAGTT CTGGCCTGTATAGCCTGAGCAGCGTGGTCACCGTGCCTT CTAGCAGCCTGGGCACCCAGACCTACATCTGCAACGTG AACCACAAGCCCAGCAACACCAAGGTGGACAAGAAGGT GGAGCCCAAGAGCTGCGACAAAACTCACACATGCCCAC CGTGCCCAGCACCTGAAGCTGCAGGGGGACCGTCAGTC TTCCTCTTCCCCCCAAAACCCAAGGACACCCTCATGATC TCCCGGACCCCTGAGGTCACATGCGTGGTGGTGGACGTG AGCCACGAAGACCCTGAGGTCAAGTTCAACTGGTACGT GGACGGCGTGGAGGTGCATAATGCCAAGACAAAGCCGC GGGAGGAGCAGTACAACAGCACGTACCGTGTGGTCAGC GTCCTCACCGTCCTGCACCAGGACTGGCTGAATGGCAAG GAGTACAAGTGCAAGGTCTCCAACAAAGCCCTCGGCGC CCCCATCGAGAAAACCATCTCCAAAGCCAAAGGGCAGC CCCGAGAACCACAGGTGTGCACCCTGCCCCCATCCCGG GATGAGCTGACCAAGAACCAGGTCAGCCTCTCGTGCGC AGTCAAAGGCTTCTATCCCAGCGACATCGCCGTGGAGTG GGAGAGCAATGGGCAGCCGGAGAACAACTACAAGACC ACGCCTCCCGTGCTGGACTCCGACGGCTCCTTCTTCCTC GTGAGCAAGCTCACCGTGGACAAGAGCAGGTGGCAGCA GGGGAACGTCTTCTCATGCTCCGTGATGCATGAGGCTCT GCACAACCACTACACGCAGAAGAGCCTCTCCCTGTCTCC GGGTAAA 156 nucleotide CAGGTGCAATTGGTTCAATCTGGTGCTGAAGTAAAAAA sequence of anti- ACCGGGCGCTTCCGTTAAAGTGAGCTGCAAAGCATCTGG CD19(8B8-2B11) TTACACCTTCACTGACTATATCATGCACTGGGTTCGTCA Fc knob chain GGCCCCGGGCCAGGGTCTGGAGTGGATGGGCTACATTA fused to trimeric ACCCATACAACGACGGTTCCAAATATACCGAGAAATTC hu 4-1BBL (71- CAGGGCCGCGTCACGATGACCAGCGACACTTCTATCTCC 254) ACCGCGTACATGGAACTGTCTAGACTGCGTTCTGACGAC ACCGCTGTTTACTATTGTGCACGCGGTACCTACTACTAC GGTCCACAGCTGTTTGATTACTGGGGCCAAGGTACCACG GTGACCGTAAGCTCTGCTAGCACCAAGGGCCCATCGGTC TTCCCCCTGGCACCCTCCTCCAAGAGCACCTCTGGGGGC ACAGCGGCCCTGGGCTGCCTGGTCAAGGACTACTTCCCC GAACCGGTGACGGTGTCGTGGAACTCAGGCGCCCTGAC CAGCGGCGTGCACACCTTCCCGGCTGTCCTACAGTCCTC AGGACTCTACTCCCTCAGCAGCGTGGTGACCGTGCCCTC CAGCAGCTTGGGCACCCAGACCTACATCTGCAACGTGA ATCACAAGCCCAGCAACACCAAGGTGGACAAGAAAGTT GAGCCCAAATCTTGTGACAAAACTCACACATGCCCACC GTGCCCAGCACCTGAAGCTGCAGGGGGACCGTCAGTCT TCCTCTTCCCCCCAAAACCCAAGGACACCCTCATGATCT CCCGGACCCCTGAGGTCACATGCGTGGTGGTGGACGTG AGCCACGAAGACCCTGAGGTCAAGTTCAACTGGTACGT GGACGGCGTGGAGGTGCATAATGCCAAGACAAAGCCGC GGGAGGAGCAGTACAACAGCACGTACCGTGTGGTCAGC GTCCTCACCGTCCTGCACCAGGACTGGCTGAATGGCAAG GAGTACAAGTGCAAGGTCTCCAACAAAGCCCTCGGCGC CCCCATCGAGAAAACCATCTCCAAAGCCAAAGGGCAGC CCCGAGAACCACAGGTGTACACCCTGCCCCCCTGCAGA GATGAGCTGACCAAGAACCAGGTGTCCCTGTGGTGCCTC GTGAAGGGCTTCTACCCCTCCGATATCGCCGTGGAATGG GAGAGCAACGGCCAGCCCGAGAACAACTACAAGACCAC CCCCCCTGTGCTGGACAGCGACGGCTCATTCTTCCTGTA CTCCAAGCTGACCGTGGACAAGAGCCGGTGGCAGCAGG GCAACGTGTTCAGCTGCAGCGTGATGCACGAGGCCCTG CACAACCACTACACCCAGAAGTCCCTGAGCCTGAGCCCT GGCGGAGGCGGAGGATCTGGCGGGGGAGGATCTAGAGA GGGCCCTGAGCTGTCCCCCGATGATCCTGCTGGACTGCT GGACCTGCGGCAGGGCATGTTTGCTCAGCTGGTGGCCCA GAACGTGCTGCTGATCGACGGCCCTCTGAGCTGGTACAG CGATCCTGGACTGGCTGGCGTGTCACTGACAGGCGGCCT GAGCTACAAAGAGGACACCAAAGAACTGGTGGTGGCCA AGGCCGGCGTGTACTACGTGTTCTTTCAGCTGGAACTGC GGAGAGTGGTGGCCGGCGAGGGATCTGGATCTGTGTCT CTGGCCCTGCATCTGCAGCCCCTGAGATCAGCTGCTGGC GCTGCTGCTCTGGCTCTGACAGTGGATCTGCCTCCTGCC AGCAGCGAGGCCCGGAATAGCGCATTTGGGTTTCAAGG CAGGCTGCTGCACCTGTCTGCCGGCCAGAGGCTGGGAG TGCATCTGCACACAGAAGCCAGAGCCAGGCACGCTTGG CAGCTGACACAGGGCGCTACAGTGCTGGGCCTGTTCAG AGTGACCCCCGAGATTCCAGCCGGCCTGCCTTCTCCAAG AAGCGAAGGCGGCGGAGGCTCCGGAGGAGGCGGCTCTA GAGAAGGACCTGAACTGAGCCCAGACGACCCCGCAGGG CTGCTGGATCTGAGACAGGGAATGTTCGCCCAGCTGGTG GCTCAGAATGTGCTGCTGATTGATGGACCCCTGTCCTGG TACTCCGACCCAGGGCTGGCAGGGGTGTCCCTGACTGGC GGACTGTCTTACAAAGAAGATACAAAAGAACTGGTGGT GGCTAAAGCTGGGGTGTACTATGTGTTTTTTCAGCTGGA ACTGAGGCGGGTGGTGGCTGGGGAAGGCAGTGGCTCTG TGTCCCTGGCACTGCATCTGCAGCCTCTGCGCAGTGCTG CAGGCGCAGCCGCACTGGCACTGACTGTGGACCTGCCC CCAGCTTCCAGCGAGGCTAGAAACAGCGCCTTCGGGTTT CAAGGACGCCTGCTGCATCTGAGCGCCGGACAGCGCCT GGGAGTGCATCTGCATACTGAGGCTAGGGCCAGACATG CCTGGCAGCTGACCCAGGGGGCAACTGTGCTGGGACTG TTTCGCGTGACACCTGAGATCCCCGCTGGCCTGCCAAGC CCTAGATCAGAAGGCGGAGGGGGATCAGGGGGAGGCG GATCCAGAGAGGGCCCTGAGCTGAGCCCCGATGATCCT GCTGGACTGCTGGACCTGCGGCAGGGCATGTTTGCTCAG CTGGTGGCCCAGAACGTGCTGCTGATCGATGGCCCCCTG TCCTGGTACAGCGATCCTGGACTGGCTGGCGTGTCACTG ACAGGCGGCCTGAGCTACAAAGAGGACACCAAAGAACT GGTGGTGGCCAAGGCCGGCGTGTACTACGTGTTCTTTCA GCTGGAACTGCGGAGAGTGGTGGCCGGCGAAGGATCTG GCTCTGTGTCTCTGGCCCTGCATCTGCAGCCTCTGAGAA GCGCTGCTGGCGCTGCAGCTCTGGCACTGACAGTGGATC TGCCTCCTGCCAGCTCCGAGGCCCGGAATAGCGCATTTG GGTTTCAAGGCAGGCTGCTGCACCTGTCTGCCGGCCAGA GGCTGGGAGTGCATCTGCACACAGAGGCCAGGGCTAGA CACGCCTGGCAGCTGACACAGGGCGCTACAGTGCTGGG CCTGTTCAGAGTGACCCCCGAGATTCCAGCCGGCCTGCC TTCTCCAAGAAGCGAA 157 nucleotide GATATTGTCATGACTCAAACTCCACTGTCTCTGTCCGTG sequence of anti- ACCCCGGGTCAGCCAGCGAGCATTTCTTGCAAATCCAGC CD19(8B8-2B11) CAATCTCTGGAAACCTCCACCGGCACCACGTACCTGAAC light chain TGGTATCTCCAGAAACCGGGTCAGAGCCCGCAGCTGCT GATCTACCGTGTATCTAAGCGCTTCTCCGGCGTTCCTGA TCGTTTCAGCGGTTCTGGATCCGGCACCGACTTTACTCT GAAAATCAGCCGTGTGGAAGCTGAAGACGTTGGCGTCT ACTATTGTCTGCAGCTGCTGGAAGATCCATACACCTTCG GTCAAGGAACGAAACTGGAAATTAAACGTACGGTGGCT GCACCATCTGTCTTCATCTTCCCGCCATCTGATGAGCAG TTGAAATCTGGAACTGCCTCTGTTGTGTGCCTGCTGAAT AACTTCTATCCCAGAGAGGCCAAAGTACAGTGGAAGGT GGATAACGCCCTCCAATCGGGTAACTCCCAGGAGAGTG TCACAGAGCAGGACAGCAAGGACAGCACCTACAGCCTC AGCAGCACCCTGACGCTGAGCAAAGCAGACTACGAGAA ACACAAAGTCTACGCCTGCGAAGTCACCCATCAGGGCC TGAGCTCGCCCGTCACAAAGAGCTTCAACAGGGGAGAG TGT 158 anti -CD19(8B8- QVQLVQSGAEVKKPGASVKVSCKASGYTFTDYIMHWVRQ 2B11) Fc hole APGQGLEWMGYINPYNDGSKYTEKFQGRVTMTSDTSISTA chain YMELSRLRSDDTAVYYCARGTYYYGPQLFDYWGQGTTVT VSSASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPVT VSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVTVPSSSLGTQ TYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPEAAG GPSVFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNW YVDGVEVHNAKTKPREEQYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLN GKEYKCKVSNKALGAPIEKTISKAKGQPREPQVCTLPPSRD ELTKNQVSLSCAVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPP VLDSDGSFFLVSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNH YTQKSLSLSPGK 159 anti- CD19(8B8- QVQLVQSGAEVKKPGASVKVSCKASGYTFTDYIMHWVRQ 2B11) Fc knob APGQGLEWMGYINPYNDGSKYTEKFQGRVTMTSDTSISTA chain fused to YMELSRLRSDDTAVYYCARGTYYYGPQLFDYWGQGTTVT trimeric hu 4- VSSASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPVT 1BBL (71-254) VSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVTVPSSSLGTQ TYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPEAAG GPSVFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNW YVDGVEVHNAKTKPREEQYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLN GKEYKCKVSNKALGAPIEKTISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPCRD ELTKNQVSLWCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPP VLDSDGSFFLYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNH YTQKSLSLSPGGGGGSGGGGSREGPELSPDDPAGLLDLRQ GMFAQLVAQNVLLIDGPLSWYSDPGLAGVSLTGGLSYKED TKELVVAKAGVYYVFFQLELRRVVAGEGSGSVSLALHLQP LRSAAGAAALALTVDLPPASSEARNSAFGFQGRLLHLSAG QRLGVHLHTEARARHAWQLTQGATVLGLFRVTPEIPAGLP SPRSEGGGGSGGGGSREGPELSPDDPAGLLDLRQGMFAQL VAQNVLLIDGPLSWYSDPGLAGVSLTGGLSYKEDTKELVV AKAGVYYVFFQLELRRVVAGEGSGSVSLALHLQPLRSAAG AAALALTVDLPPASSEARNSAFGFQGRLLHLSAGQRLGVH LHTEARARHAWQLTQGATVLGLFRVTPEIPAGLPSPRSEGG GGSGGGGSREGPELSPDDPAGLLDLRQGMFAQLVAQNVL LIDGPLSWYSDPGLAGVSLTGGLSYKEDTKELVVAKAGVY YVFFQLELRRVVAGEGSGSVSLALHLQPLRSAAGAAALAL TVDLPPASSEARNSAFGFQGRLLHLSAGQRLGVHLHTEAR ARHAWQLTQGATVLGLFRVTPEIPAGLPSPRSE 160 anti- CD19(8B8- DIVMTQTPLSLSVTPGQPASISCKSSQSLETSTGTTYLNWYL 2B11) light chain QKPGQSPQLLIYRVSKRFSGVPDRFSGSGSGTDFTLKISRVE AEDVGVYYCLQLLEDPYTFGQGTKLEIKRTVAAPSVFIFPP SDEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPREAKVQWKVDNALQSGNS QESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTLSKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQ GLSSPVTKSFNRGEC

1.7. Monovalent CD19-Targeted Single Chain 4-1BB Ligand Trimer-Containing Fc (kih) Fusion Antigen Binding Molecules (Compound S8 and S9)

The molecules are prepared as described in 1.3 for the monovalent FAP-targeted construct, with the only difference that the anti-FAP binder is replaced by an anti-CD19 binder.

The variable region of heavy and light chain DNA sequences encoding a binder specific for CD19, i.e. clones 8B8-018 or 8B8-2B11, are subcloned in frame with either the constant heavy chain of the hole (Carter, 2001) or the constant light chain of human IgG1.

Combination of the anti-CD19 hu IgG1 hole chain containing the Y349C/T366S/L368A/Y407Vmutations, the single chain ligand hu IgG1 knob chain containing the

S354C/T366W mutations and the anti-CD19 light chain allows generation of a heterodimer, which includes an assembled trimeric 4-1BB ligand and one CD19 binding Fab (FIG. 2A).

Table 9 shows, respectively, the cDNA and amino acid sequences of the monovalent CD19(8B8-018)-targeted single chain 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule.

TABLE 9 Sequences of monovalent CD19(8B8-018)- targeted single chain 4-1BBL(71-254) trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule (Compound S8) SEQ ID NO: Description Sequence 149 nucleotide sequence of anti- see Table 7 CD19(8B8-018) Fc hole chain 66 nucleotide sequence of trimeric see Table 1 hu 4-1BBL (71-254) Fc knob chain 151 nucleotide sequence of anti- see Table 7 CD19(8B8-018) light chain 152 anti-CD19(8B8-018) Fc see Table 7 hole chain 15 trimeric hu 4-1BBL (71-254) see Table 1 Fc knob chain 154 anti-CD19(8B8-018) light chain see Table 7

Table 10 shows, respectively, the cDNA and amino acid sequences of the monovalent CD19(8B8-2B11)-targeted single chain 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule.

TABLE 10 Sequences of monovalent CD19(8B8-2B11)- targeted single chain 4-1BBL(71-254) trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule (Compound S9) SEQ ID NO: Description Sequence 155 nucleotide sequence of anti- see Table 8 CD19(8B8-2B11) Fc hole chain 66 nucleotide sequence of trimeric see Table 1 hu 4-1BBL (71-254) Fc knob chain 157 nucleotide sequence of anti- see Table 8 CD19(8B8-2B11) light chain 158 anti-CD19(8B8-2B11) Fc hole see Table 8 chain 15 trimeric hu 4-1BBL (71-254) Fc see Table 1 knob chain 160 anti-CD19(8B8-2B11) light chain see Table 8

1.8. Generation of Anti-CD19 Binders 8B8-018 and 8B8-2B11

1.8.1 Generation of Anti-CD19 Clone 8B8-018

a) Immunization and Generation of Mouse Anti-Human CD19 Antibodies (Hybridomas)

Balb/c mice were immunized six times and boosted with CD19-transfected HEK293 cells (mean receptor density 35,000 per cell). The immune response was monitored by testing serum samples with a CD19-cell-ELISA on human CD19-transfected NIH-3T3 cells. Spleen cells from mice with sufficient titers of anti-human CD19 antibody were used for immortalization by fusion with mouse myeloma cell line P3X63 Ag8.653. Three fusions were carried out and hybridoma supernatants screened by cell-ELISA on human CD19-transfected NIH-3T3 cells and FACS binding assay using Daudi (CD19+) and CD19- cells for anti-human CD19 specific antibodies (see Example 1 of WO 2011/147834).

b) Hybridoma Screening and Cell Biological Functional Evaluation of Anti-CD19 Antibodies

A cell ELISA was applied for screening of hybridomas, and to identify those hybridomas that secrete antibodies against human-CD19. NIH3T3 cells transfected with human-CD19 were used as positive cells; non-transfected NIH3T3 cells were used as negative control cells. For the assessment of the positive hybridomas the OD ratio between transfected and non-transfected NIH3T3 cells was quantified.

    • Culture Medium: DMEM high glucose (4.5 mg/ml), 10% FCS, Na-Pyruvate, NEAA, Glutamine
    • Antibodies positive control: anti CD19 monoclonal antibody (IgG1) Pharmingen Cat #555409 c=1 mg/ml
    • Detection antibody: Goat anti-Mouse IgG (H+L) HRP Conjugate Bio-Rad Cat #170-06516
    • Dilution 1: 2000 in 1× ELISA Blocking Reagent
    • Other reagents: Fibronectin Roche Cat #838039 c=1 mg/ml
    • Glutardialdehyde: 25% stock solution//Grade Agar Scientific #R102 final concentration: 0.05% in PBS
    • ELISA Blocking Reagent: 10× stock solution//Roche Cat #1112589
    • TMB substrate: Roche Cat #11432559
    • Stop Solution: 1 M H2SO4
    • BioRad Cat #170-6516 Dilution 1:2000 in 1× ELISA Blocking Reagent

Day 1:

    • Fibronectin coating: 5 μg/cm2 in PBS; 96 well plate=32 cm2160 μg/plate in 6 ml
    • PBS, 50 μl/well
    • incubate 45 min at RT, aspirate coating solution
    • Seed 1.25×104 cells/well in 50 μl culture medium in a 96 well plate
    • incubate 40 hours at 37° C.
    • add to upper half of the plate: NIH3T3 cells expressing CD19
    • add to lower half of the plate: non-transfected NIH3T3 cells

Day 3:

    • Addition of positive control antibody or samples (supernatant or mouse serum) in 50 μl culture medium
    • incubate for 2 h at 4° C.
    • Remove medium, fix cells with 100 μl Glutardialdehyde (0.05% in PBS)
    • Wash two times with 200 μl PBS
    • Addition of detection antibody 1:2000, 50 μl/well
    • incubate 2 h at RT
    • wash three times with 200 μl PBS
    • add 50 μl TMB, incubate for 30 min. at RT,
    • stop by addition of 25 μl M H2SO4; read extinction at 450 nm/620 nm
    • Calculation of results: ratio OD NIH3T3 CD19: OD NIH3T3 non-transfected

The selected antibody demonstrated specific binding to CD19 transfected NIH3T3 cells as compared to untransfected NIH3T3 cells (see Example 2 of WO 2011/147834).

c) Humanization of Anti-CD19 Antibody

The CD19 binding specificity of the murine antibody was transferred onto a human acceptor framework to eliminate potential immunogenicity issues arising from sequence stretches that the human body will recognize as foreign. This was done by engrafting the entire complementary determining regions (CDR) of the murine (donor) antibody onto a human (acceptor) antibody framework, and is called CDR-grafting or antibody humanization.

The murine amino acid sequence was aligned with a collection of human germ-line antibody V genes, and sorted according to sequence identity and homology. Before selecting one particular acceptor sequence, the so-called canonical loop structures of the donor antibody have to be determined (Morea, V., et al., Methods, Vol 20, Issue 3 (2000) 267-279). These canonical loop structures are determined by the type of residues present at the so-called canonical positions. These positions lie (partially) outside of the CDR regions, and have to be kept functionally equivalent in the final construct in order to retain the CDR conformation of the parental (donor) antibody. The human germ-line sequence VBASE_VH1_1 was chosen as the acceptor for the heavy chain and sequence VBASE_VK2_5 was chosen for the light chain.

It was found that the wild-type humanized anti-human CD19 antibody 8B8 has three deamidation hotspots in the HVR-L1: NSNGNT (SEQ ID NO: 161). Additionally it was found that in the HVR-H2 a further deamidation hotspot is present: KFNG (SEQ ID NO: 162). To address the deamidation hotspot in the HVR-H2 an N (Asn) to Q (Gln) point mutation at position 64 (numbering according to Kabat) has been introduced. To address the deamidation hotspots in the light chain and to obtain a humanized anti-human CD19 antibody with improved deamidation stability a single mutation at position 27e from S (serine) to P (proline) (numbering according to Kabat) was introduced. Thus, clone 8B8-018 with the CDRs as shown in Table 18 below was generated.

TABLE 11 Comparison of 8B8-018 with humanized wild-type CD19 antibody 8B8 variant→ ↓parameter wt 8B8 8B8-018 KD (BIAcore) [nM] 5 6 t1/2 [min] 43.6 human CD19 binding after 46 95 pH 7.4 incubation [%] human CD19 binding after 90 99 pH 6.0 incubation [%] SEC main peak after >95 >95 incubation [%]

Additionally, 8B8-018 maintains the cross-reactivity to cynomolgus CD19 as shown in the following

TABLE 12 EC50 [μg/ml] wt 8B8 8B8-018 huCD19 ECD 0.087 0.084 cyCD19 ECD 0.313 0.255

1.8.2 Preparation, Purification and Characterization of CD19 Antigen Fc Fusion for Phage Display Campaign

In order to express and purify the human and cynomolgus CD19 ectodomain in a monomeric state (human CD19 see SEQ ID NO:32), the respective DNA fragment was fused to a human IgG1 Fc gene segment containing the “knob” mutations (human: SEQ ID NO: 163; cynomolgus: SEQ ID NO: 165) and was transfected with an “Fc-hole” (SEQ ID NO: 76) counterpart (Merchant et al., 1998). An IgA cleavage site (PTPPTP) was introduced between the antigen ectodomain and the Fc knob chain. An Avi tag for directed biotinylation was introduced at the C-terminus of the antigen-Fc knob chain and mutations H435R and Y436F were introduced in the Fc hole for purification purposes (Jendeberg L. et al, J. Immunological methods, 1997). Combination of the antigen-Fc knob chain containing the S354C/T366W mutations (human: SEQ ID NO: 164; cynomolgus: SEQ ID NO: 166), with a Fc hole chain containing the Y349C/T366S/L368A/ Y407V mutations (SEQ ID NO: 80) allows generation of a heterodimeric Fc fusion fragment which includes a single copy of the CD19 ectodomain (in analogy to the 4-1BB construct in FIG. 3C). Table 13 lists the cDNA and amino acid sequences of the antigen Fc-fusion construct.

TABLE 13 cDNA and Amino acid sequences of monomeric human and cynomolgus CD19 antigen Fc(kih) fusion molecule SEQ ID NO: Antigen Sequence 163 Nucleotide GACAAAACTCACACATGCCCACCGTGCCCAGCACCTGAAG sequence of CTGCAGGGGGACCGTCAGTCTTCCTCTTCCCCCCAAAACCC Fc hole chain AAGGACACCCTCATGATCTCCCGGACCCCTGAGGTCACATG with HYRF CGTGGTGGTGGACGTGAGCCACGAAGACCCTGAGGTCAAG mutation TTCAACTGGTACGTGGACGGCGTGGAGGTGCATAATGCCA AGACAAAGCCGCGGGAGGAGCAGTACAACAGCACGTACC GTGTGGTCAGCGTCCTCACCGTCCTGCACCAGGACTGGCTG AATGGCAAGGAGTACAAGTGCAAGGTCTCCAACAAAGCCC TCGGCGCCCCCATCGAGAAAACCATCTCCAAAGCCAAAGG GCAGCCCCGAGAACCACAGGTGTGCACCCTGCCCCCATCC CGGGATGAGCTGACCAAGAACCAGGTCAGCCTCTCGTGCG CAGTCAAAGGCTTCTATCCCAGCGACATCGCCGTGGAGTG GGAGAGCAATGGGCAGCCGGAGAACAACTACAAGACCAC GCCTCCCGTGCTGGACTCCGACGGCTCCTTCTTCCTCGTGA GCAAGCTCACCGTGGACAAGAGCAGGTGGCAGCAGGGGA ACGTCTTCTCATGCTCCGTGATGCATGAGGCTCTGCACAAC CGCTTCACGCAGAAGAGCCTCTCCCTGTCTCCGGGTAAA 164 Nucleotide CCCGAGGAACCCCTGGTCGTGAAGGTGGAAGAGGGCGACA sequence of ATGCCGTGCTGCAGTGCCTGAAGGGCACCTCCGATGGCCCT human CD19 ACCCAGCAGCTGACCTGGTCCAGAGAGAGCCCCCTGAAGC antigen Fc CCTTCCTGAAGCTGTCTCTGGGCCTGCCTGGCCTGGGCATC knob chain CATATGAGGCCTCTGGCCATCTGGCTGTTCATCTTCAACGT avi tag GTCCCAGCAGATGGGCGGCTTCTACCTGTGTCAGCCTGGCC CCCCATCTGAGAAGGCTTGGCAGCCTGGCTGGACCGTGAA CGTGGAAGGATCCGGCGAGCTGTTCCGGTGGAACGTGTCC GATCTGGGCGGCCTGGGATGCGGCCTGAAGAACAGATCTA GCGAGGGCCCCAGCAGCCCCAGCGGCAAACTGATGAGCCC CAAGCTGTACGTGTGGGCCAAGGACAGACCCGAGATCTGG GAGGGCGAGCCTCCTTGCCTGCCCCCTAGAGACAGCCTGA ACCAGAGCCTGAGCCAGGACCTGACAATGGCCCCTGGCAG CACACTGTGGCTGAGCTGTGGCGTGCCACCCGACTCTGTGT CTAGAGGCCCTCTGAGCTGGACCCACGTGCACCCTAAGGG CCCTAAGAGCCTGCTGAGCCTGGAACTGAAGGACGACAGG CCCGCCAGAGATATGTGGGTCATGGAAACCGGCCTGCTGC TGCCTAGAGCCACAGCCCAGGATGCCGGCAAGTACTACTG CCACAGAGGCAACCTGACCATGAGCTTCCACCTGGAAATC ACCGCCAGACCCGTGCTGTGGCACTGGCTGCTGAGAACAG GCGGCTGGAAGGTCGACGCTAGCGGTGGTAGTCCGACACC TCCGACACCCGGGGGTGGTTCTGCAGACAAAACTCACACA TGCCCACCGTGCCCAGCACCTGAAGCCGCAGGGGGACCGT CAGTCTTCCTCTTCCCCCCAAAACCCAAGGACACCCTCATG ATCTCCCGGACCCCTGAGGTCACATGCGTGGTGGTGGACGT GAGCCACGAAGACCCTGAGGTCAAGTTCAACTGGTACGTG GACGGCGTGGAGGTGCATAATGCCAAGACAAAGCCGCGGG AGGAGCAGTACAACAGCACGTACCGTGTGGTCAGCGTCCT CACCGTCCTGCACCAGGACTGGCTGAATGGCAAGGAGTAC AAGTGCAAGGTCTCCAACAAAGCCCTCGGAGCCCCCATCG AGAAAACCATCTCCAAAGCCAAAGGGCAGCCCCGAGAACC ACAGGTGTACACCCTGCCCCCATGCCGGGATGAGCTGACC AAGAACCAGGTCAGCCTGTGGTGCCTGGTCAAAGGCTTCT ATCCCAGCGACATCGCCGTGGAGTGGGAGAGCAATGGGCA GCCGGAGAACAACTACAAGACCACGCCTCCCGTGCTGGAC TCCGACGGCTCCTTCTTCCTCTACAGCAAGCTCACCGTGGA CAAGAGCAGGTGGCAGCAGGGGAACGTCTTCTCATGCTCC GTGATGCATGAGGCTCTGCACAACCACTACACGCAGAAGA GCCTCTCCCTGTCTCCGGGTAAATCCGGAGGCCTGAACGAC ATCTTCGAGGCCCAGAAGATTGAATGGCACGAG 165 Fc hole chain DKTHTCPPCPAPEAAGGPSVFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVV with HYRF VDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHNAKTKPREEQYNSTYRVVS mutation VLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNKALGAPIEKTISKAKGQPREP QVCTLPPSRDELTKNQVSLSCAVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPE NNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFFLVSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHE ALHNRFTQKSLSLSPGK 166 human CD19 PEEPLVVKVEEGDNAVLQCLKGTSDGPTQQLTWSRESPLKPF antigen Fc LKLSLGLPGLGIHMRPLAIWLFIFNVSQQMGGFYLCQPGPPSE knob chain KAWQPGWTVNVEGSGELFRWNVSDLGGLGCGLKNRSSEGPS avi tag SPSGKLMSPKLYVWAKDRPEIWEGEPPCLPPRDSLNQSLSQDL TMAPGSTLWLSCGVPPDSVSRGPLSWTHVHPKGPKSLLSLEL KDDRPARDMWVMETGLLLPRATAQDAGKYYCHRGNLTMSF HLEITARPVLWHWLLRTGGWKVDASGGSPTPPTPGGGSADK THTCPPCPAPEAAGGPSVFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVD VSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHNAKTKPREEQYNSTYRVVSVL TVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNKALGAPIEKTISKAKGQPREPQV YTLPPCRDELTKNQVSLWCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENN YKTTPPVLDSDGSFFLYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEAL HNHYTQKSLSLSPGKSGGLNDIFEAQKIEWHE 167 Nucleotide CCCCAGGAACCCCTGGTCGTGAAGGTGGAAGAGGGCGACA sequence of ATGCCGTGCTCCAGTGCCTGGAAGGCACCTCCGATGGCCCT cynomolgus ACACAGCAGCTCGTGTGGTGCAGAGACAGCCCCTTCGAGC CD19 antigen CCTTCCTGAACCTGTCTCTGGGCCTGCCTGGCATGGGCATC Fc knob AGAATGGGCCCTCTGGGCATCTGGCTGCTGATCTTCAACGT chain avi tag GTCCAACCAGACCGGCGGCTTCTACCTGTGTCAGCCTGGCC TGCCAAGCGAGAAGGCTTGGCAGCCTGGATGGACCGTGTC CGTGGAAGGATCTGGCGAGCTGTTCCGGTGGAACGTGTCC GATCTGGGCGGCCTGGGATGCGGCCTGAAGAACAGAAGCA GCGAGGGCCCTAGCAGCCCCAGCGGCAAGCTGAATAGCAG CCAGCTGTACGTGTGGGCCAAGGACAGACCCGAGATGTGG GAGGGCGAGCCTGTGTGTGGCCCCCCTAGAGATAGCCTGA ACCAGAGCCTGAGCCAGGACCTGACAATGGCCCCTGGCAG CACACTGTGGCTGAGCTGTGGCGTGCCACCCGACTCTGTGT CCAGAGGCCCTCTGAGCTGGACACACGTGCGGCCAAAGGG CCCTAAGAGCAGCCTGCTGAGCCTGGAACTGAAGGACGAC CGGCCCGACCGGGATATGTGGGTGGTGGATACAGGCCTGC TGCTGACCAGAGCCACAGCCCAGGATGCCGGCAAGTACTA CTGCCACAGAGGCAACTGGACCAAGAGCTTTTACCTGGAA ATCACCGCCAGACCCGCCCTGTGGCACTGGCTGCTGAGAAT CGGAGGCTGGAAGGTCGACGCTAGCGGTGGTAGTCCGACA CCTCCGACACCCGGGGGTGGTTCTGCAGACAAAACTCACA CATGCCCACCGTGCCCAGCACCTGAAGCCGCAGGGGGACC GTCAGTCTTCCTCTTCCCCCCAAAACCCAAGGACACCCTCA TGATCTCCCGGACCCCTGAGGTCACATGCGTGGTGGTGGAC GTGAGCCACGAAGACCCTGAGGTCAAGTTCAACTGGTACG TGGACGGCGTGGAGGTGCATAATGCCAAGACAAAGCCGCG GGAGGAGCAGTACAACAGCACGTACCGTGTGGTCAGCGTC CTCACCGTCCTGCACCAGGACTGGCTGAATGGCAAGGAGT ACAAGTGCAAGGTCTCCAACAAAGCCCTCGGAGCCCCCAT CGAGAAAACCATCTCCAAAGCCAAAGGGCAGCCCCGAGAA CCACAGGTGTACACCCTGCCCCCATGCCGGGATGAGCTGA CCAAGAACCAGGTCAGCCTGTGGTGCCTGGTCAAAGGCTT CTATCCCAGCGACATCGCCGTGGAGTGGGAGAGCAATGGG CAGCCGGAGAACAACTACAAGACCACGCCTCCCGTGCTGG ACTCCGACGGCTCCTTCTTCCTCTACAGCAAGCTCACCGTG GACAAGAGCAGGTGGCAGCAGGGGAACGTCTTCTCATGCT CCGTGATGCATGAGGCTCTGCACAACCACTACACGCAGAA GAGCCTCTCCCTGTCTCCGGGTAAATCCGGAGGCCTGAACG ACATCTTCGAGGCCCAGAAGATTGAATGGCACGAG 168 cynomolgus PQEPLVVKVEEGDNAVLQCLEGTSDGPTQQLVWCRDSPFEPF CD19 antigen LNLSLGLPGMGIRMGPLGIWLLIFNVSNQTGGFYLCQPGLPSE Fc knob KAWQPGWTVSVEGSGELFRWNVSDLGGLGCGLKNRSSEGPS chain avi tag SPSGKLNSSQLYVWAKDRPEMWEGEPVCGPPRDSLNQSLSQD LTMAPGSTLWLSCGVPPDSVSRGPLSWTHVRPKGPKSSLLSLE LKDDRPDRDMWVVDTGLLLTRATAQDAGKYYCHRGNWTKS FYLEITARPALWHWLLRIGGWKVDASGGSPTPPTPGGGSADK THTCPPCPAPEAAGGPSVFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVD VSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHNAKTKPREEQYNSTYRVVSVL TVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNKALGAPIEKTISKAKGQPREPQV YTLPPCRDELTKNQVSLWCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENN YKTTPPVLDSDGSFFLYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEAL HNHYTQKSLSLSPGKSGGLNDIFEAQKIEWHE

For the production of the monomeric antigen/Fc fusion molecules, exponentially growing suspension CHO cells were co-transfected with two plasmids encoding the two components of fusion protein (knob and hole chains) using standard methods.

Secreted protein was purified from cell culture supernatant by affinity chromatography using Protein A, followed by size exclusion chromatography. For affinity chromatography, the supernatant was loaded on a MabSelect Sure column volume (CV)=5-15 mL, resin from GE Healthcare) equilibrated with Sodium Phosphate (20 mM), Sodium Citrate (20 mM), 0.5M sodium chloride buffer (pH 7.5). Unbound protein was removed by washing with at least 6 column volumes of the same buffer. The bound protein was eluted using a linear gradient; step 1, 10 CV from 0 to 60% elution buffer (20 mM sodium citrate, 500 mM Sodium chloride buffer (pH 2.5)); step 2, 2 CV from 60 to 100% elution buffer. For the linear gradient an additional 2 column volumes step elution with 100% elution buffer was applied.

The pH of collected fractions was adjusted by adding 1/40 (v/v) of 2M Tris, pH8.0. The protein was concentrated and filtered prior to loading on a HiLoad Superdex 200 column (GE Healthcare) equilibrated with 2 mM MOPS, 150 mM sodium chloride, 0.02% (w/v) sodium azide solution of pH 7.4.

Table 14 summarizes the yield and final monomer content of monomeric human and cynomolgus CD19 antigen Fc(kih) fusion protein.

TABLE 14 Biochemical analysis of monomeric human and cynomolgus CD19 antigen Fc (kih) fusion protein Monomer [%] Yield Construct (SEC) [mg/l] monomeric human CD19 Fc (kih) fusion protein 91 0.2 monomeric cynomolgus CD19 Fc (kih) fusion 95 3.56 protein

Part of the purified antigen was in vitro biotinylated using the BirA biotin-protein ligase standard reaction kit (Avidity, Cat. # BirA500) according to the manufacturer's instructions. The biotinylation degree for the human CD19-containing fusion was 94%, for the respective cynomolgus CD19 construct 100%. The biotinylated protein was then used for selection, screening and characterization of affinity-matured 8B8-derived clones devoid of the de-amidation hotspots N27d and N28. Two phage display libraries were generated in which a) both asparagine residues at positions 27d and 28 were eliminated and b) additional CDRs of heavy and light chain were randomized in order to select for 8B8 variants with an improved affinity.

1.8.3 Generation of 8B8 Affinity Maturation Libraries Devoid of CDR-L1 Hotspots

Generation of affinity-matured 8B8-derived antibodies without the de-amidation sites N27d and N28, located in CDR-L1, was carried out by phage display using standard protocols (Silacci et al, 2005). In a first step, the VL and VH DNA sequences of the humanized parental clone 8B8 (SEQ ID NO: 169 and SEQ ID NO: 170) were cloned into a phagemid which was then used as a template for randomization. In a next step, two libraries were generated for the selection of favourable clones by phage display. In order to eliminate the above-mentioned hotspot positions, a LCDR1 randomization primer (SEQ ID NO: 171) that only allowed amino acids S T Q E at positions 27d and 28 was used for both libraries. Maturation library 1 was randomized in CDR1 and 2 of both the light and the heavy chain, while maturation library 2 was randomized in CDR1 and 3 of the light chain and in CDR3 of the heavy chain. For the generation of the maturation library 1, randomized in CDR1 and 2 of both the light and the heavy chain, three fragments were assembled by “splicing by overlapping extension” (SOE) PCR and cloned into the phage vector. The following primer combinations were used to generate the library fragments: fragment 1 (LMB3 (SEQ ID NO: 176) and CD19 L1 reverse random (SEQ ID NO: 171), fragment 2 (CD19 L2 forward random (SEQ ID NO: 172) and CD19 H1 reverse random (SEQ ID NO: 173), and fragment 3 (CD19 H2 forward random (SEQ ID NO: 174) and CD19 H3 reverse constant (SEQ ID NO: 175) (Table 15). After assembly of sufficient amounts of full length randomized fragment, it was digested with NcollNhel alongside with identically treated acceptor phagemid vector. A 3-fold molar excess of library insert was ligated with 10 μg of phagemid vector. Purified ligations were used for 20 transformations resulting in 2×10 exp9 transformants. Phagemid particles displaying the 8B8 affinity maturation library were rescued and purified by PEG/NaCl purification to be used for selections.

The generation of the second library, randomized in CDR1 and 3 of the light chain and in CDR3 of the heavy chain, was done similarly. The following primer combinations were used to generate the library fragments: fragment 1 (LMB3 (SEQ ID NO: 176) and CD19 L1 reverse random (SEQ ID NO: 171), fragment 2 (CD19 L1 forward constant (SEQ ID NO 177) and CD19 L3 reverse random (SEQ ID NO 178), and fragment 3 (CD19 L3 forward constant (SEQ ID NO: 179) and CD19 H3 reverse random (SEQ ID NO: 180) (Table 16). After assembly of sufficient amounts of full length randomized fragment, it was digested with NcoI/KpnI alongside with identically treated acceptor phagemid vector. A 3-fold molar excess of library insert was ligated with 20 ug of phagemid vector. Purified ligations were used for 40 transformations resulting in 2×10 exp9 transformants. Phagemid particles displaying the 8B8 affinity maturation library were rescued and purified by PEG/NaCl purification to be used for selections.

TABLE 15 Primers for 8B8 affinity maturation and hotspot removal library L1_L2/H1_H2 SEQ ID Name Sequence 171 CD19 L1 CAG CTG CGG GCT CTG ACC CGG TTT CTG GAG ATA reverse CCA GTT CAG 1 CGT 2 GCC 3 GGA 4 TTC CAG AGA TTG random GCT GGA TTT GCA AGA AAT G 1: 40% Y, 6% A/S/T/G/P/D/N/E/Q/V, 2: 40% N, 6% A/S/T/Y/G/P/D/E/Q/V, 3: 25% S/T/Q/E, 4: 25% S/T/Q/E 172 CD19 L2 CTC CAG AAA CCG GGT CAG AGC CCG CAG CTG CTG forward ATC TAC 5 GTA TCT 6 CGC 7 8 GGC GTT 9 GAT CGT TTC random AGC GGT TCT GGA TCC GGC ACC 5: 30% R, 20% E, 5% A/S/T/Y/G/P/D/N/Q/V. 6: 30% K, 20% S, 5% A/N/T/Y/G/P/D/E/Q/V, 7: 40% F, 5% A/S/T/Y/G/P/D/E/Q/V/I/L, 8: 40% S, 6.6% A/T/Y/G/P/D/E/Q/V, 9: 50% P, 50% L 173 CD19 H1 CAT CCA CTC CAG ACC CTG GCC CGG GGC CTG ACG reverse AAC CCA 10 CAT 11 12 13 14 GAA 15 GTA ACC AGA TGC random TTT GCA GCT CAC TTT AAC GGA AGC 10: 52% H, 4% G/A/S/P/T/N/Y/D/E/Q/V/I, 11: 30% I, 15% Y, 5% G/A/S/T/P/N/H/D/E/Q/V, 12: 52% Y, 4% G/A/S/P/T/N/H/D/E/Q/V/I, 13: 30% D, 15% G, 5% A/S/P/Y/N/H/D/E/Q/V/I, 14: 52% T, 4% G/A/S/P/Y/N/H/D/E/Q/V/I, 15: 52% T, 4% G/A/S/P/Y/N/H/D/E/Q/V/I 174 CD19 H2 CAG GCC CCG GGC CAG GGT CTG GAG TGG ATG GGC forward 16 ATT 17 CCA 18 19 20 21 TCC 22 TAT ACC 23 AAA TTC random CAG GGC CGC GTC ACG ATG ACC 16: 45% Y, 5% A/S/P/T/N/H/D/E/Q/V/I, 17: 52% N, 4% G/A/S/P/Y/T/H/D/E/Q/V/I, 18: 40% Y, 5% G/A/S/P/T/N/H/D/E/Q/V/I, 19: 30% N, 15% S, 5% G/A/T/P/Y/H/D/E/Q/V/I, 20: 30% D, 15% G, 5% A/S/T/P/Y/N/H/E/Q/V/I, 21: 52% G, 4% N/A/S/P/Y/T/H/D/E/Q/V/I, 22: 30% K, 15% N, 4% G/A/S/P/Y/T/H/D/E/Q/V/I, 23: 30% E, 15% Q, 5% G/A/S/T/P/Y/N/H/D/V/I 175 CD19 H3 CGTCACCGGTTCGGGGAAGTAGTCCTTGACCAG reverse constant 176 LMB3 CAGGAAACAGCTATGACCATGATTAC

TABLE 16 Primers for 8B8 affinity maturation and hotspot removal library L1_L3/H3 SEQ ID Name Sequence 177 CD19 L1 TGGTATCTCCAGAAACCGGGTCAGAGCCCGCAG forward constant 171 CD19 L1 See Table 15 reverse random 178 CD19 L3 TTT AAT TTC CAG TTT AGT TCC TTG ACC GAA GGT 24 reverse 25 26 27 28 29 CTG CAG ACA ATA GTA GAC GCC AAC random GTC TTC AGC 24: 52% Y, 4% G/A/S/T/N/P/D/E/Q/V/L/I, 25: 52% P, 4% G/A/S/T/Y/N/H/D/E/Q/V/I, 26: 42% V, 10% L, 4% G/A/S/T/Y/N/P/D/E/Q/V/I, 27: 52% H, 4% G/A/S/T/Y/N/P/D/E/Q/V/I, 28: 42% T, 10% I, 4% G/A/S/T/Y/N/P/D/E/Q/V/L, 29: 45% L, 11% G, 4% A/S/T/Y/N/P/D/E/Q/V/I 179 CD19 L3 ACCTTCGGTCAAGGAACTAAACTGGAAATTAAACG forward constant 180 CD19 H3 TT GGT GCT AGC AGA GCT TAC GGT CAC CGT GGT reverse ACC TTG GCC CCA GTA ATC AAA 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 random 38 GCG TGC ACA ATA GTA AAC AGC GGT GTC 30: 50% L, 3.8% G/A/S/T/P/H/Y/N/D/E/Q/V/I, 31: 50% A, 4.2% G/S/T/P/H/Y/N/D/E/Q/V/I, 32: 50% S, 4.2% G/A/T/P/H/Y/N/D/E/Q/V/I, 33: 50% G, 4.2% S/A/T/P/H/Y/N/D/E/Q/V/I, 34: 50% Y, 4.2% G/A/T/P/H/S/N/D/E/Q/V/I, 35: 50% Y, 4.2% G/A/T/P/H/S/N/D/E/Q/V/I, 36: 50% Y, 4.2% G/A/T/P/H/S/N/D/E/Q/V/I, 37: 50% T, 4.2% G/A/Y/P/H/S/N/D/E/Q/V/I, 38: 50% G, 4.2% Y/A/T/P/H/S/N/D/E/Q/V/I 176 LMB3 See Table 15

1.8.4 Selection of Affinity Matured 8B8-derived Clones Devoid of CDR-L1 Hotspots N27d and N28

For the selection of affinity-matured clones devoid of the CDR-Llhotspots N27d and N28, two selection approaches by phage display were performed:

In the first approach, the selection was executed on human CD19-Fc fusion protein using both phage display libraries. Panning rounds were performed in solution according to the following pattern: 1. binding of ˜1012 phagemid particles to 30nM biotinylated CD19-Fc protein for 0.5 h in a total volume of 1 ml, 2. capture of biotinylated CD19-Fc protein and specifically bound phage particles by addition of 5.4×107 streptavidin-coated magnetic beads for 10 min, 3. washing of beads using 5×1 ml PBS/Tween20 and 5×1 ml PBS, 4. elution of phage particles by addition of 1 ml 100 mM TEA for 10 min and neutralization by adding 500 ul M Tris/HCl pH 7.4, 5. re-infection of exponentially growing E. coli TG1 bacteria, and 6.infection with helperphage VCSM13 and subsequent PEG/NaCl precipitation of phagemid particles to be used in subsequent selection rounds. Selections were carried out over 3 rounds using decreasing antigen concentrations (30×10−9M, 10×10−9M, and 3×10−9M). In round 2 and 3, capture of antigen:phage complexes was performed using neutravidin plates instead of streptavidin beads. Neutravidin plates were washed with 5× PBS/Tween20 and 5× PBS. In round 3, the neutravidin plate was incubated overnight in 2 liters PBS for an “off-rate” selection before phage was eluted from the plate. Furthermore, cynomolgus CD19-Fc protein was used in round 2 in order to enrich cross-reactive binders.

In the second selection approach, the phage panning was executed on cells transiently expressing either the human or cynomolgus CD19 ECD on the cell surface. For the transient transfection of HEK cells, expression plasmids were generated that harbor the DNA sequences (from 5′ to 3′) for the following protein segments: A Flag tag, a SNAP tag, the CD19 ECD of either human or cynomolgus origin, and the transmembrane region of the Platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) (SEQ ID NOs: 227 and 228). The expression of the respective proteins (SEQ ID NOs: 229 and 230) on the cell surface was confirmed by flow cytometry using an anti-Flag antibody for detection. Both libraries were exposed in the first selection round to cells either expressing the human or cynomolgus CD19 ECD-containing protein fusion. For the subsequent panning rounds, the species of the CD19 ECD was alternated accordingly. Cells transiently transfected with an irrelevant membrane protein were used for pre-clearing.

Panning rounds were performed according to the following pattern:

  • 1. Transfection of HEK cells with constructs expressing either CD19 ECD or an irrelevant transmembrane protein according to the standard procedure described before,
  • 2. Incubation of the cells for total 48h at 37° C. in an incubator with a 5% CO2 atmosphere,
  • 3. Isolation of cells by centrifugation (3 min at 250×g) and re-suspension of 1×10E7 CD19 ECD-positive cells and 1×10E7 negative cells in PBS/5% BSA, respectively,
  • 4. Pre-clearing of unspecific phage by incubating the phage library with 1×107 CD19-negative cells for 60 min at 4° C. using a gently rotating tube rotator,
  • 5. Centrifugation of cells at 250xg for 3min and transfer of supernatant into a fresh tube and addition of 1×10E7 CD19-positive cells and incubation for 60 min at 4° C. by gentle rotation on a tube rotator,
  • 6. Washing of cells by centrifugation for 1 min at 250×g, aspiration of the supernatant, and re-suspension in 1 ml PBS (8 times),
  • 7. Phage elution with 1 ml 100mM TEA, incubation for 5 min at RT, and neutralization of the eluate with 500 ul 1M Tris-HCl, pH7.6,
  • 8. re-infection of exponentially growing E. coli TG1 bacteria, and
  • 9. infection with helperphage VCSM13 and subsequent PEG/NaCl precipitation of phagemid particles to be used in subsequent selection rounds. Selections were carried out over 3 rounds.

For both selection approaches, specific binders were identified by ELISA as follows: 100 ul of 30 nM biotinylated CD19-Fc protein per well were coated on neutravidin plates. Fab-containing bacterial supernatants were added and binding Fabs were detected via their Flag-tags using an anti-Flag/HRP secondary antibody.

Clones that were ELISA-positive on recombinant human CD19 were further tested in a cell-based ELISA using cells that were transiently transfected with the human CD19 ECD-containing expression plasmid (SEQ ID NO: 227). This analysis was performed as follows: 48 h after transfection, HEK cells were harvested and centrifuged at 250×g for 5 min. Cells were then re suspended in ice-cold PBS BSA 2% to 4×106 cells/ml and incubated for 20 min on ice to block unspecific binding sites. 4×105 cells in 100 ul were distributed to each well of a 96 well plate and centrifuged at 250×g and 4° C. for 3 min. Supernatant was aspirated off and 50 ul bacterial supernatant containing soluble Fab fragments was diluted with 50 ul ice-cold PBS/BSA 2%, added to the plate, mixed with the cells and incubated for 1 h at 4° C. Afterwards, cells were washed 3 times with ice cold PBS before 100 ul PBS BSA 2% per well containing a 1:2000 dilution of anti-Fab-HRP antibody were added. After an incubation time of 1 h, cells were washed again 3 times with ice-cold PBS. For the development, 100 ul “1-step ultra TMB-ELISA” substrate was added per well. After an incubation time of 10 minutes, supernatant was transferred to a new 96-well plate containing 40 ul H2SO4 1M per well and absorbance was measured 450 nM. Clones exhibiting significant signals over background were subjected to a kinetic screening experiment by SPR-analysis using ProteOn XPR36.

1.8.5 Identification of Affinity-Matured 8B8-derived Variants by SPR

In order to further characterize the ELISA-positive clones, the off-rate was measured by surface plasmon resonance and compared with the parental humanized clone 8B8.

For this experiment, 7000 RU of polyclonal anti-human Fab antibody were immobilized on all 6 channels of a GLM chip by Amine coupling (NaAcetate pH4.5, 25 μl/min, 240 s) (vertical orientation). Each antibody-containing bacterial supernatant was filtered and 2-fold diluted with PBS, and then injected for 360s at 25 μl/minute to achieve immobilization levels of between 100 and 400 response units (RU) in vertical orientation. Injection of monomeric CD19-Fc: For one-shot kinetics measurements, injection direction was changed to horizontal orientation, three-fold dilution series of purified monomeric CD19-Fc (varying concentration ranges between 150 and 6 nM) were injected simultaneously at 50 μl/min along separate channels 1-4, with association times of 180 s, and dissociation times of 300 s. A human IgG Fc fragment (150nM) was injected in channel 5 as a negative control for specific binding to the affinity matured CD19 variants along with a PBS injection in the 6th channel to provide an “in-line” blank for referencing. Regeneration was performed by two pulses of 10 mM glycine pH 1.5 and 50 mM NaOH for 30 s at 90 ul/min (horizontal orientation). Dissociation rate constants (koff) were calculated using a simple one-to-one Langmuir binding model in ProteOn Manager v3.1 software by simultaneously fitting the sensorgrams. Clones expressing Fabs with the slowest dissociation rate constants were identified. The variable domains of the corresponding phagemids were sequenced. Importantly, both asparagine residue in CDR-L1 (position 27d and 28) were replaced by a serine or a threonine, demonstrating that both de-amidation sites were removed.

TABLE 17 Dissociation constants of parental 8B8 and selected clone 2B11 obtained in screening analysis with bacterial supernatant Dissociation clone constant kd (1/s) Parental 8B8 3.01E−4 2B11 4.37E−6

Table 18 shows the amino acid sequences of the CDRs and variable regions VH and VL of clones 8B8-018 and 8B8-2B11, respectively.

TABLE 18 Sequences of of the CDRs and variable regions VH and VL of clones 8B8-018 and 8B8-2B11 SEQ ID NO: Description Sequence 120 CD19 (8B8-018) CDR-H1 DYIMH 121 CD19 (8B8-018) CDR-H2 YINPYNDGSKYTEKFQG 122 CD19 (8B8-018) CDR-H3 GTYYYGSALFDY 123 CD19 (8B8-018) CDR-L1 KSSQSLENPNGNTYLN 124 CD19 (8B8-018) CDR-L2 RVSKRFS 125 CD19 (8B8-018) CDR-L3 LQLTHVPYT 126 CD19 (8B8-018) VH QVQLVQSGAEVKKPGASVKVSCKASGYTFTDYIMH WVRQAPGQGLEWMGYINPYNDGSKYTEKFQGRVT MTSDTSISTAYMELSRLRSDDTAVYYCARGTYYYGS ALFDYWGQGTTVTVSS 127 CD19 (8B8-018) VL DIVMTQTPLSLSVTPGQPASISCKSSQSLENPNGNTYL NWYLQKPGQSPQLLIYRVSKRFSGVPDRFSGSGSGTD FTLKISRVEAEDVGVYYCLQLTHVPYTFGQGTKLEIK 128 CD19 (8B8-2B11) CDR-H1 DYIMH 129 CD19 (8B8-2B11) CDR-H2 YINPYNDGSKYTEKFQG 130 CD19 (8B8-2B11) CDR-H3 GTYYYGPQLFDY 131 CD19 (8B8-2B11) CDR-L1 KS SQSLETSTGTTYLN 132 CD19 (8B8-2B11) CDR-L2 RVSKRFS 133 CD19 (8B8-2B11) CDR-L3 LQLLEDPYT 134 CD19 (8B8-018) VH QVQLVQSGAEVKKPGASVKVSCKASGYTFTDYIMH WVRQAPGQGLEWMGYINPYNDGSKYTEKFQGRVT MTSDTSISTAYMELSRLRSDDTAVYYCARGTYYYGP QLFDYWGQGTTVTVSS 135 CD19 (8B8-018) VL DIVMTQTPLSLSVTPGQPASISCKSSQSLETSTGTTYL NWYLQKPGQSPQLLIYRVSKRFSGVPDRFSGSGSGTD FTLKISRVEAEDVGVYYCLQLLEDPYTFGQGTKLEIK

Example 2 Preparation and Purification of “Untargeted” Single Chain 4-1BB Ligand Trimer-Containing Fc Fusion Antigen Binding Molecules

The polypeptide chain coding for the single chain trimeric ligand (FIG. 1A) was used to prepare untargeted (germline control, DP47) 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing Fc fusion antigen binding molecules (for example the monovalent control shown in FIG. 3B), as described above for the FAP-targeted construct.

The variable region of heavy and light chain DNA sequences of the FAP binder, were replaced with those of a germline control (DP47) and subcloned in frame with either the constant heavy chain of the hole or the constant light chain of human IgG1.

The untargeted single chain 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecules were produced as described above for the FAP-targeted construct. The cells were transfected with the corresponding expression vectors at a 1:1:1 ratio (“vector trimeric ligand-knob chain”: “vector DP47 Fab-hole chain”: “vector DP47 light chain”).

Table 19 shows, respectively, the cDNA and amino acid sequences of the monovalent DP47-containing 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule.

TABLE 19 Sequences of monovalent DP47-containing single chain 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule (DP47 single chain 4-1BBL trimer) (Control 1) SEQ ID NO: Description Sequence 66 nucleotide see Table 1 sequence of trimeric hu 4- 1BBL (71-254)- Fc knob chain 69 nucleotide GAGGTGCAATTGTTGGAGTCTGGGGGAGGCTTGGTAC sequence of DP47 AGCCTGGGGGGTCCCTGAGACTCTCCTGTGCAGCCTCC Fc hole chain GGATTCACCTTTAGCAGTTATGCCATGAGCTGGGTCCG CCAGGCTCCAGGGAAGGGGCTGGAGTGGGTCTCAGCT ATTAGTGGTAGTGGTGGTAGCACATACTACGCAGACTC CGTGAAGGGCCGGTTCACCATCTCCAGAGACAATTCCA AGAACACGCTGTATCTGCAGATGAACAGCCTGAGAGC CGAGGACACGGCCGTATATTACTGTGCGAAAGGCAGC GGATTTGACTACTGGGGCCAAGGAACCCTGGTCACCGT CTCGAGTGCTAGCACCAAGGGCCCATCGGTCTTCCCCC TGGCACCCTCCTCCAAGAGCACCTCTGGGGGCACAGCG GCCCTGGGCTGCCTGGTCAAGGACTACTTCCCCGAACC GGTGACGGTGTCGTGGAACTCAGGCGCCCTGACCAGC GGCGTGCACACCTTCCCGGCTGTCCTACAGTCCTCAGG ACTCTACTCCCTCAGCAGCGTGGTGACCGTGCCCTCCA GCAGCTTGGGCACCCAGACCTACATCTGCAACGTGAAT CACAAGCCCAGCAACACCAAGGTGGACAAGAAAGTTG AGCCCAAATCTTGTGACAAAACTCACACATGCCCACCG TGCCCAGCACCTGAAGCTGCAGGGGGACCGTCAGTCTT CCTCTTCCCCCCAAAACCCAAGGACACCCTCATGATCT CCCGGACCCCTGAGGTCACATGCGTGGTGGTGGACGTG AGCCACGAAGACCCTGAGGTCAAGTTCAACTGGTACG TGGACGGCGTGGAGGTGCATAATGCCAAGACAAAGCC GCGGGAGGAGCAGTACAACAGCACGTACCGTGTGGTC AGCGTCCTCACCGTCCTGCACCAGGACTGGCTGAATGG CAAGGAGTACAAGTGCAAGGTCTCCAACAAAGCCCTC GGCGCCCCCATCGAGAAAACCATCTCCAAAGCCAAAG GGCAGCCCCGAGAACCACAGGTGTGCACCCTGCCCCC ATCCCGGGATGAGCTGACCAAGAACCAGGTCAGCCTC TCGTGCGCAGTCAAAGGCTTCTATCCCAGCGACATCGC CGTGGAGTGGGAGAGCAATGGGCAGCCGGAGAACAAC TACAAGACCACGCCTCCCGTGCTGGACTCCGACGGCTC CTTCTTCCTCGTGAGCAAGCTCACCGTGGACAAGAGCA GGTGGCAGCAGGGGAACGTCTTCTCATGCTCCGTGATG CATGAGGCTCTGCACAACCACTACACGCAGAAGAGCC TCTCCCTGTCTCCGGGTAAA 70 nucleotide GAAATCGTGTTAACGCAGTCTCCAGGCACCCTGTCTTT sequence of DP47 GTCTCCAGGGGAAAGAGCCACCCTCTCTTGCAGGGCCA light chain GTCAGAGTGTTAGCAGCAGCTACTTAGCCTGGTACCAG CAGAAACCTGGCCAGGCTCCCAGGCTCCTCATCTATGG AGCATCCAGCAGGGCCACTGGCATCCCAGACAGGTTC AGTGGCAGTGGATCCGGGACAGACTTCACTCTCACCAT CAGCAGACTGGAGCCTGAAGATTTTGCAGTGTATTACT GTCAGCAGTATGGTAGCTCACCGCTGACGTTCGGCCAG GGGACCAAAGTGGAAATCAAACGTACGGTGGCTGCAC CATCTGTCTTCATCTTCCCGCCATCTGATGAGCAGTTGA AATCTGGAACTGCCTCTGTTGTGTGCCTGCTGAATAAC TTCTATCCCAGAGAGGCCAAAGTACAGTGGAAGGTGG ATAACGCCCTCCAATCGGGTAACTCCCAGGAGAGTGTC ACAGAGCAGGACAGCAAGGACAGCACCTACAGCCTCA GCAGCACCCTGACGCTGAGCAAAGCAGACTACGAGAA ACACAAAGTCTACGCCTGCGAAGTCACCCATCAGGGC CTGAGCTCGCCCGTCACAAAGAGCTTCAACAGGGGAG AGTGT 15 trimeric hu 4- see Table 1 1BBL (71-254)- Fc knob chain 71 DP47 Fc hole EVQLLESGGGLVQPGGSLRLSCAASGFTFSSYAMSWVRQ chain APGKGLEWVSAISGSGGSTYYADSVKGRFTISRDNSKNTL YLQMNSLRAEDTAVYYCAKGSGFDYWGQGTLVTVSSAS TKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWN SGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVTVPSSSLGTQTYIC NVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPEAAGGPS VFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNWY VDGVEVHNAKTKPREEQYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNG KEYKCKVSNKALGAPIEKTISKAKGQPREPQVCTLPPSRD ELTKNQVSLSCAVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTP PVLDSDGSFFLVSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALH NHYTQKSLSLSPGK 72 DP47 light chain EIVLTQSPGTLSLSPGERATLSCRASQSVSSSYLAWYQQK PGQAPRLLIYGASSRATGIPDRFSGSGSGTDFTLTISRLEPE DFAVYYCQQYGSSPLTFGQGTKVEIKRTVAAPSVFIFPPS DEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPREAKVQWKVDNALQSGNS QESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTLSKADYEKHKVYACEVTH QGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC

Table 20 summarizes the yield and final monomer content of the DP47-containing single chain 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion molecule.

TABLE 20 Summary of the production of DP47-containing 4-1BBL trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion molecule Monomer [%] Yield LC/MS Construct (SEC) [mg/l] (non red) DP47-containing 4-1BBL 100 8 Theoretical*: trimer-containing Fc 156912.9 Da (kih) fusion molecule Experimental: (DP47 single chain 156937.5 Da 4-1BBL trimer) *without Control 1 terminal lysines

Table 21 shows, respectively, the cDNA and amino acid sequences of the bivalent DP47-containing 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule (Control 2).

TABLE 21 Sequences of bivalent DP47-containing single chain 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule (DP47 single chain 4-1BBL trimer) (Control 2) SEQ ID NO: Description Sequence  69 nucleotide see Table 19 sequence of DP47 Fc hole chain 181 nucleotide GAGGTGCAATTGTTGGAGTCTGGGGGAGGCTTGGTAC sequence of DP47 AGCCTGGGGGGTCCCTGAGACTCTCCTGTGCAGCCTCC Fc knob fused to GGATTCACCTTTAGCAGTTATGCCATGAGCTGGGTCCG trimeric hu 4- CCAGGCTCCAGGGAAGGGGCTGGAGTGGGTCTCAGCT 1BBL (71-254) ATTAGTGGTAGTGGTGGTAGCACATACTACGCAGACTC CGTGAAGGGCCGGTTCACCATCTCCAGAGACAATTCCA AGAACACGCTGTATCTGCAGATGAACAGCCTGAGAGC CGAGGACACGGCCGTATATTACTGTGCGAAAGGCAGC GGATTTGACTACTGGGGCCAAGGAACCCTGGTCACCGT CTCGAGTGCTAGCACCAAGGGCCCATCGGTCTTCCCCC TGGCACCCTCCTCCAAGAGCACCTCTGGGGGCACAGCG GCCCTGGGCTGCCTGGTCAAGGACTACTTCCCCGAACC GGTGACGGTGTCGTGGAACTCAGGCGCCCTGACCAGC GGCGTGCACACCTTCCCGGCTGTCCTACAGTCCTCAGG ACTCTACTCCCTCAGCAGCGTGGTGACCGTGCCCTCCA GCAGCTTGGGCACCCAGACCTACATCTGCAACGTGAAT CACAAGCCCAGCAACACCAAGGTGGACAAGAAAGTTG AGCCCAAATCTTGTGACAAAACTCACACATGCCCACCG TGCCCAGCACCTGAAGCTGCAGGGGGACCGTCAGTCTT CCTCTTCCCCCCAAAACCCAAGGACACCCTCATGATCT CCCGGACCCCTGAGGTCACATGCGTGGTGGTGGACGTG AGCCACGAAGACCCTGAGGTCAAGTTCAACTGGTACG TGGACGGCGTGGAGGTGCATAATGCCAAGACAAAGCC GCGGGAGGAGCAGTACAACAGCACGTACCGTGTGGTC AGCGTCCTCACCGTCCTGCACCAGGACTGGCTGAATGG CAAGGAGTACAAGTGCAAGGTCTCCAACAAAGCCCTC GGCGCCCCCATCGAGAAAACCATCTCCAAAGCCAAAG GGCAGCCCCGAGAACCACAGGTGTACACCCTGCCCCC CTGCAGAGATGAGCTGACCAAGAACCAGGTGTCCCTG TGGTGCCTCGTGAAGGGCTTCTACCCCTCCGATATCGC CGTGGAATGGGAGAGCAACGGCCAGCCCGAGAACAAC TACAAGACCACCCCCCCTGTGCTGGACAGCGACGGCTC ATTCTTCCTGTACTCCAAGCTGACCGTGGACAAGAGCC GGTGGCAGCAGGGCAACGTGTTCAGCTGCAGCGTGAT GCACGAGGCCCTGCACAACCACTACACCCAGAAGTCC CTGAGCCTGAGCCCTGGCGGAGGCGGAGGATCTGGCG GGGGAGGATCTAGAGAGGGCCCTGAGCTGTCCCCCGA TGATCCTGCTGGACTGCTGGACCTGCGGCAGGGCATGT TTGCTCAGCTGGTGGCCCAGAACGTGCTGCTGATCGAC GGCCCTCTGAGCTGGTACAGCGATCCTGGACTGGCTGG CGTGTCACTGACAGGCGGCCTGAGCTACAAAGAGGAC ACCAAAGAACTGGTGGTGGCCAAGGCCGGCGTGTACT ACGTGTTCTTTCAGCTGGAACTGCGGAGAGTGGTGGCC GGCGAGGGATCTGGATCTGTGTCTCTGGCCCTGCATCT GCAGCCCCTGAGATCAGCTGCTGGCGCTGCTGCTCTGG CTCTGACAGTGGATCTGCCTCCTGCCAGCAGCGAGGCC CGGAATAGCGCATTTGGGTTTCAAGGCAGGCTGCTGCA CCTGTCTGCCGGCCAGAGGCTGGGAGTGCATCTGCACA CAGAAGCCAGAGCCAGGCACGCTTGGCAGCTGACACA GGGCGCTACAGTGCTGGGCCTGTTCAGAGTGACCCCCG AGATTCCAGCCGGCCTGCCTTCTCCAAGAAGCGAAGGC GGCGGAGGCTCCGGAGGAGGCGGCTCTAGAGAAGGAC CTGAACTGAGCCCAGACGACCCCGCAGGGCTGCTGGA TCTGAGACAGGGAATGTTCGCCCAGCTGGTGGCTCAGA ATGTGCTGCTGATTGATGGACCCCTGTCCTGGTACTCC GACCCAGGGCTGGCAGGGGTGTCCCTGACTGGCGGAC TGTCTTACAAAGAAGATACAAAAGAACTGGTGGTGGC TAAAGCTGGGGTGTACTATGTGTTTTTTCAGCTGGAAC TGAGGCGGGTGGTGGCTGGGGAAGGCAGTGGCTCTGT GTCCCTGGCACTGCATCTGCAGCCTCTGCGCAGTGCTG CAGGCGCAGCCGCACTGGCACTGACTGTGGACCTGCCC CCAGCTTCCAGCGAGGCTAGAAACAGCGCCTTCGGGTT TCAAGGACGCCTGCTGCATCTGAGCGCCGGACAGCGC CTGGGAGTGCATCTGCATACTGAGGCTAGGGCCAGAC ATGCCTGGCAGCTGACCCAGGGGGCAACTGTGCTGGG ACTGTTTCGCGTGACACCTGAGATCCCCGCTGGCCTGC CAAGCCCTAGATCAGAAGGCGGAGGGGGATCAGGGGG AGGCGGATCCAGAGAGGGCCCTGAGCTGAGCCCCGAT GATCCTGCTGGACTGCTGGACCTGCGGCAGGGCATGTT TGCTCAGCTGGTGGCCCAGAACGTGCTGCTGATCGATG GCCCCCTGTCCTGGTACAGCGATCCTGGACTGGCTGGC GTGTCACTGACAGGCGGCCTGAGCTACAAAGAGGACA CCAAAGAACTGGTGGTGGCCAAGGCCGGCGTGTACTA CGTGTTCTTTCAGCTGGAACTGCGGAGAGTGGTGGCCG GCGAAGGATCTGGCTCTGTGTCTCTGGCCCTGCATCTG CAGCCTCTGAGAAGCGCTGCTGGCGCTGCAGCTCTGGC ACTGACAGTGGATCTGCCTCCTGCCAGCTCCGAGGCCC GGAATAGCGCATTTGGGTTTCAAGGCAGGCTGCTGCAC CTGTCTGCCGGCCAGAGGCTGGGAGTGCATCTGCACAC AGAGGCCAGGGCTAGACACGCCTGGCAGCTGACACAG GGCGCTACAGTGCTGGGCCTGTTCAGAGTGACCCCCGA GATTCCAGCCGGCCTGCCTTCTCCAAGAAGCGAA  70 nucleotide see Table 19 sequence of DP47 light chain  71 DP47 Fc hole see Table 19 chain 182 DP47 Fc knob EVQLLESGGGLVQPGGSLRLSCAASGFTFSSYAMSWVRQ fused to trimeric APGKGLEWVSAISGSGGSTYYADSVKGRFTISRDNSKNTL hu 4-1BBL (71- YLQMNSLRAEDTAVYYCAKGSGFDYWGQGTLVTVSSAS 254) TKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWN SGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVTVPSSSLGTQTYIC NVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPEAAGGPS VFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNWY VDGVEVHNAKTKPREEQYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNG KEYKCKVSNKALGAPIEKTISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPCRD ELTKNQVSLWCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTP PVLDSDGSFFLYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALH NHYTQKSLSLSPGGGGGSGGGGSREGPELSPDDPAGLLD LRQGMFAQLVAQNVLLIDGPLSWYSDPGLAGVSLTGGLS YKEDTKELVVAKAGVYYVFFQLELRRVVAGEGSGSVSL ALHLQPLRSAAGAAALALTVDLPPASSEARNSAFGFQGR LLHLSAGQRLGVHLHTEARARHAWQLTQGATVLGLFRV TPEIPAGLPSPRSEGGGGSGGGGSREGPELSPDDPAGLLDL RQGMFAQLVAQNVLLIDGPLSWYSDPGLAGVSLTGGLSY KEDTKELVVAKAGVYYVFFQLELRRVVAGEGSGSVSLA LHLQPLRSAAGAAALALTVDLPPASSEARNSAFGFQGRL LHLSAGQRLGVHLHTEARARHAWQLTQGATVLGLFRVT PEIPAGLPSPRSEGGGGSGGGGSREGPELSPDDPAGLLDLR QGMFAQLVAQNVLLIDGPLSWYSDPGLAGVSLTGGLSY KEDTKELVVAKAGVYYVFFQLELRRVVAGEGSGSVSLA LHLQPLRSAAGAAALALTVDLPPASSEARNSAFGFQGRL LEILSAGQRLGVHLHTEARARHAWQLTQGATVLGLFRVT PEIPAGLPSPRSE  72 DP47 light chain see Table 19

Example 3 Production of Targeted Single Chain 4-1BB Ligand Trimer-Containing Fc (kih) Fusion Antigen Binding Molecules and Their Controls

The encoding sequences of the targeted and untargeted trimeric 4-1BB ligand Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecules as described herein before were cloned into a plasmid vector, which drives expression of the insert from an MPSV promoter and contains a synthetic polyA sequence located at the 3′ end of the CDS. In addition, the vector contains an EBV OriP sequence for episomal maintenance of the plasmid.

The targeted and untargeted single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecules were produced by co-transfecting HEK293-EBNA cells with the mammalian expression vectors using polyethylenimine. The cells were transfected with the corresponding expression vectors in a 1:1:1 ratio (“vector knob chain”: “vector hole chain”: “vector light chain”).

For production in 500 mL shake flasks, 300 million HEK293 EBNA cells were seeded 24 hours before transfection. For transfection cells were centrifuged for 10 minutes at 210×g, and the supernatant was replaced by 20mL pre-warmed CD CHO medium. Expression vectors (200 μg of total DNA) were mixed in 20 mL CD CHO medium. After addition of 540 μL PEI, the solution was vortexed for 15 seconds and incubated for 10 minutes at room temperature. Afterwards, cells were mixed with the DNA/PEI solution, transferred to a 500 mL shake flask and incubated for 3 hours at 37° C. in an incubator with a 5% CO2 atmosphere. After the incubation, 160 mL of Excell medium supplemented with 6mM L-Glutamine, 5 g/L PEPSOY and 1.2 mM valproic acid was added and cells were cultured for 24 hours. One day after transfection 12% Feed were added. After culturing for 7 days, the supernatant was collected by centrifugation for 30-40 minutes at least 400×g. The solution was sterile filtered (0.22 μm filter), supplemented with sodium azide to a final concentration of 0.01% (w/v), and kept at 4° C.

Secreted proteins were purified from cell culture supernatants by affinity chromatography using Protein A, followed by size exclusion chromatography. For affinity chromatography, the supernatant was loaded on a MabSelect Sure column (CV=5-15 mL, resin from GE Healthcare) equilibrated with Sodium Phosphate (20 mM), Sodium Citrate (20 mM) buffer (pH 7.5). Unbound protein was removed by washing with at least 6 column volumes of the same buffer. The bound protein was eluted using either a linear gradient (20 CV) or a step elution (8 CV) with 20 mM sodium citrate, 100 mM Sodium chloride, 100 mM Glycine buffer (pH 3.0). For the linear gradient an additional 4 column volumes step elution was applied.

The pH of collected fractions was adjusted by adding 1/10 (v/v) of 0.5M sodium phosphate, pH8.0. The protein was concentrated prior to loading on a HiLoad Superdex 200 column (GE Healthcare) equilibrated with 20 mM histidine, 140 mM sodium chloride, 0.01% (v/v) Tween20 solution of pH 6.0.

The protein concentration was determined by measuring the optical density (OD) at 280 nm, using a molar extinction coefficient calculated on the basis of the amino acid sequence.

Purity and molecular weight of the targeted trimeric 4-1BB ligand Fc (kih) fusion was analyzed by SDS-PAGE in the presence and absence of a reducing agent (5 mM 1,4-dithiotreitol) and staining with Coomassie SimpleBlue™ SafeStain (Invitrogen USA) or CE-SDS using Caliper LabChip GXII (Perkin Elmer). The aggregate content of samples was analyzed using a TSKgel G3000 SW XL analytical size-exclusion column (Tosoh) equilibrated in 25 mM K2HPO4, 125 mM NaCl, 200 mM L-Arginine Monohydrocloride, 0.02% (w/v) NaN3, pH 6.7 running buffer at 25° C.

Table 22 summarizes the yield and final monomer content of the targeted and untargeted single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecules.

TABLE 22 Biochemical analysis of targeted and untargeted single chain 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecules Monomer [%] Yield Construct (SEC) [mg/l] Bivalent FAP(4B9) targeted single chain 92.2 2.7 trimeric 4-1BB ligand Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule Compound S2 Bivalent CEA(sm9b) targeted single chain 98.9 3.9 trimeric 4-1BB ligand Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule Compound S4 Bivalent untargeted trimeric 4-1BB single 89 2.0 chain ligand Fc fusion as control antigen binding molecule Control 2 Monovalent FAP(4B9) targeted single chain 97.5 21.2 trimeric 4-1BB ligand Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule Compound S3 Monovalent CEA(sm9b) targeted single chain 94.5 4.7 trimeric 4-1BB ligand Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule Compound S5

Example 4 Preparation, Purification and Characterization of 4-1BB

DNA sequences encoding the ectodomains of human, mouse or cynomolgus 4-1BB (Table 23) were subcloned in frame with the human IgG1 heavy chain CH2 and CH3 domains on the knob (Merchant et al., 1998). An AcTEV protease cleavage site was introduced between an antigen ectodomain and the Fc of human IgG1. An Avi tag for directed biotinylation was introduced at the C-terminus of the antigen-Fc knob. Combination of the antigen-Fc knob chain containing the S354C/T366W mutations, with a Fc hole chain containing the Y349C/T366S/L368A/Y407V mutations allows generation of a heterodimer which includes a single copy of the 4-1BB ectodomain containing chain, thus creating a monomeric form of Fc-linked antigen (FIG. 3C). Table 24 lists the cDNA and amino acid sequences of monomeric antigen Fc(kih) fusion molecules as depicted in FIG. 3C.

TABLE 23 Amino acid numbering of antigen ectodomains (ECD) and their origin SEQ ID NO: Construct Origin ECD 73 human 4-1BB ECD Synthetized according aa 24-186 to Q07011 74 cynomolgus 4-1BB isolated from aa 24-186 ECD cynomolgus blood 75 murine 4-1BB Synthetized according aa 24-187 ECD to P20334

TABLE 24 cDNA and Amino acid sequences of monomeric antigen Fc(kih) fusion molecules (produced by combination of one Fc hole chain with one antigen Fc knob chain) SEQ ID NO: Antigen Sequence 76 Nucleotide GACAAAACTCACACATGCCCACCGTGCCCAGCACCTGA sequence ACTCCTGGGGGGACCGTCAGTCTTCCTCTTCCCCCCAAA Fc hole chain ACCCAAGGACACCCTCATGATCTCCCGGACCCCTGAGGT CACATGCGTGGTGGTGGACGTGAGCCACGAAGACCCTG AGGTCAAGTTCAACTGGTACGTGGACGGCGTGGAGGTG CATAATGCCAAGACAAAGCCGCGGGAGGAGCAGTACAA CAGCACGTACCGTGTGGTCAGCGTCCTCACCGTCCTGCA CCAGGACTGGCTGAATGGCAAGGAGTACAAGTGCAAGG TCTCCAACAAAGCCCTCCCAGCCCCCATCGAGAAAACC ATCTCCAAAGCCAAAGGGCAGCCCCGAGAACCACAGGT GTGCACCCTGCCCCCATCCCGGGATGAGCTGACCAAGA ACCAGGTCAGCCTCTCGTGCGCAGTCAAAGGCTTCTATC CCAGCGACATCGCCGTGGAGTGGGAGAGCAATGGGCAG CCGGAGAACAACTACAAGACCACGCCTCCCGTGCTGGA CTCCGACGGCTCCTTCTTCCTCGTGAGCAAGCTCACCGT GGACAAGAGCAGGTGGCAGCAGGGGAACGTCTTCTCAT GCTCCGTGATGCATGAGGCTCTGCACAACCACTACACGC AGAAGAGCCTCTCCCTGTCTCCGGGTAAA 77 Nucleotide CTGCAGGACCCCTGCAGCAACTGCCCTGCCGGCACCTTC sequence TGCGACAACAACCGGAACCAGATCTGCAGCCCCTGCCC human 4-1BB CCCCAACAGCTTCAGCTCTGCCGGCGGACAGCGGACCT antigen Fc knob GCGACATCTGCAGACAGTGCAAGGGCGTGTTCAGAACC chain CGGAAAGAGTGCAGCAGCACCAGCAACGCCGAGTGCGA CTGCACCCCCGGCTTCCATTGTCTGGGAGCCGGCTGCAG CATGTGCGAGCAGGACTGCAAGCAGGGCCAGGAACTGA CCAAGAAGGGCTGCAAGGACTGCTGCTTCGGCACCTTC AACGACCAGAAGCGGGGCATCTGCCGGCCCTGGACCAA CTGTAGCCTGGACGGCAAGAGCGTGCTGGTCAACGGCA CCAAAGAACGGGACGTCGTGTGCGGCCCCAGCCCTGCT GATCTGTCTCCTGGGGCCAGCAGCGTGACCCCTCCTGCC CCTGCCAGAGAGCCTGGCCACTCTCCTCAGGTCGACGAA CAGTTATATTTTCAGGGCGGCTCACCCAAATCTGCAGAC AAAACTCACACATGCCCACCGTGCCCAGCACCTGAACTC CTGGGGGGACCGTCAGTCTTCCTCTTCCCCCCAAAACCC AAGGACACCCTCATGATCTCCCGGACCCCTGAGGTCACA TGCGTGGTGGTGGACGTGAGCCACGAAGACCCTGAGGT CAAGTTCAACTGGTACGTGGACGGCGTGGAGGTGCATA ATGCCAAGACAAAGCCGCGGGAGGAGCAGTACAACAGC ACGTACCGTGTGGTCAGCGTCCTCACCGTCCTGCACCAG GACTGGCTGAATGGCAAGGAGTACAAGTGCAAGGTCTC CAACAAAGCCCTCCCAGCCCCCATCGAGAAAACCATCT CCAAAGCCAAAGGGCAGCCCCGAGAACCACAGGTGTAC ACCCTGCCCCCATGCCGGGATGAGCTGACCAAGAACCA GGTCAGCCTGTGGTGCCTGGTCAAAGGCTTCTATCCCAG CGACATCGCCGTGGAGTGGGAGAGCAATGGGCAGCCGG AGAACAACTACAAGACCACGCCTCCCGTGCTGGACTCC GACGGCTCCTTCTTCCTCTACAGCAAGCTCACCGTGGAC AAGAGCAGGTGGCAGCAGGGGAACGTCTTCTCATGCTC CGTGATGCATGAGGCTCTGCACAACCACTACACGCAGA AGAGCCTCTCCCTGTCTCCGGGTAAATCCGGAGGCCTGA ACGACATCTTCGAGGCCCAGAAGATTGAATGGCACGAG 78 Nucleotide TTGCAGGATCTGTGTAGTAACTGCCCAGCTGGTACATTC sequence TGTGATAATAACAGGAGTCAGATTTGCAGTCCCTGTCCT cynomolgus 4- CCAAATAGTTTCTCCAGCGCAGGTGGACAAAGGACCTGT 1BB antigen GACATATGCAGGCAGTGTAAAGGTGTTTTCAAGACCAG Fc knob chain GAAGGAGTGTTCCTCCACCAGCAATGCAGAGTGTGACT GCATTTCAGGGTATCACTGCCTGGGGGCAGAGTGCAGC ATGTGTGAACAGGATTGTAAACAAGGTCAAGAATTGAC AAAAAAAGGTTGTAAAGACTGTTGCTTTGGGACATTTAA TGACCAGAAACGTGGCATCTGTCGCCCCTGGACAAACT GTTCTTTGGATGGAAAGTCTGTGCTTGTGAATGGGACGA AGGAGAGGGACGTGGTCTGCGGACCATCTCCAGCCGAC CTCTCTCCAGGAGCATCCTCTGCGACCCCGCCTGCCCCT GCGAGAGAGCCAGGACACTCTCCGCAGGTCGACGAACA GTTATATTTTCAGGGCGGCTCACCCAAATCTGCAGACAA AACTCACACATGCCCACCGTGCCCAGCACCTGAACTCCT GGGGGGACCGTCAGTCTTCCTCTTCCCCCCAAAACCCAA GGACACCCTCATGATCTCCCGGACCCCTGAGGTCACATG CGTGGTGGTGGACGTGAGCCACGAAGACCCTGAGGTCA AGTTCAACTGGTACGTGGACGGCGTGGAGGTGCATAAT GCCAAGACAAAGCCGCGGGAGGAGCAGTACAACAGCA CGTACCGTGTGGTCAGCGTCCTCACCGTCCTGCACCAGG ACTGGCTGAATGGCAAGGAGTACAAGTGCAAGGTCTCC AACAAAGCCCTCCCAGCCCCCATCGAGAAAACCATCTC CAAAGCCAAAGGGCAGCCCCGAGAACCACAGGTGTACA CCCTGCCCCCATGCCGGGATGAGCTGACCAAGAACCAG GTCAGCCTGTGGTGCCTGGTCAAAGGCTTCTATCCCAGC GACATCGCCGTGGAGTGGGAGAGCAATGGGCAGCCGGA GAACAACTACAAGACCACGCCTCCCGTGCTGGACTCCG ACGGCTCCTTCTTCCTCTACAGCAAGCTCACCGTGGACA AGAGCAGGTGGCAGCAGGGGAACGTCTTCTCATGCTCC GTGATGCATGAGGCTCTGCACAACCACTACACGCAGAA GAGCCTCTCCCTGTCTCCGGGTAAATCCGGAGGCCTGAA CGACATCTTCGAGGCCCAGAAGATTGAATGGCACGAG 79 murine 4-1BB GTGCAGAACAGCTGCGACAACTGCCAGCCCGGCACCTT antigen Fc knob CTGCCGGAAGTACAACCCCGTGTGCAAGAGCTGCCCCC chain CCAGCACCTTCAGCAGCATCGGCGGCCAGCCCAACTGC AACATCTGCAGAGTGTGCGCCGGCTACTTCCGGTTCAAG AAGTTCTGCAGCAGCACCCACAACGCCGAGTGCGAGTG CATCGAGGGCTTCCACTGCCTGGGCCCCCAGTGCACCAG ATGCGAGAAGGACTGCAGACCCGGCCAGGAACTGACCA AGCAGGGCTGTAAGACCTGCAGCCTGGGCACCTTCAAC GACCAGAACGGGACCGGCGTGTGCCGGCCTTGGACCAA TTGCAGCCTGGACGGGAGAAGCGTGCTGAAAACCGGCA CCACCGAGAAGGACGTCGTGTGCGGCCCTCCCGTGGTGT CCTTCAGCCCTAGCACCACCATCAGCGTGACCCCTGAAG GCGGCCCTGGCGGACACTCTCTGCAGGTCCTGGTCGACG AACAGTTATATTTTCAGGGCGGCTCACCCAAATCTGCAG ACAAAACTCACACATGCCCACCGTGCCCAGCACCTGAA CTCCTGGGGGGACCGTCAGTCTTCCTCTTCCCCCCAAAA CCCAAGGACACCCTCATGATCTCCCGGACCCCTGAGGTC ACATGCGTGGTGGTGGACGTGAGCCACGAAGACCCTGA GGTCAAGTTCAACTGGTACGTGGACGGCGTGGAGGTGC ATAATGCCAAGACAAAGCCGCGGGAGGAGCAGTACAAC AGCACGTACCGTGTGGTCAGCGTCCTCACCGTCCTGCAC CAGGACTGGCTGAATGGCAAGGAGTACAAGTGCAAGGT CTCCAACAAAGCCCTCCCAGCCCCCATCGAGAAAACCA TCTCCAAAGCCAAAGGGCAGCCCCGAGAACCACAGGTG TACACCCTGCCCCCATGCCGGGATGAGCTGACCAAGAA CCAGGTCAGCCTGTGGTGCCTGGTCAAAGGCTTCTATCC CAGCGACATCGCCGTGGAGTGGGAGAGCAATGGGCAGC CGGAGAACAACTACAAGACCACGCCTCCCGTGCTGGAC TCCGACGGCTCCTTCTTCCTCTACAGCAAGCTCACCGTG GACAAGAGCAGGTGGCAGCAGGGGAACGTCTTCTCATG CTCCGTGATGCATGAGGCTCTGCACAACCACTACACGCA GAAGAGCCTCTCCCTGTCTCCGGGTAAATCCGGAGGCCT GAACGACATCTTCGAGGCCCAGAAGATTGAATGGCACG AG 80 Fc hole chain DKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGPSVFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCV VVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHNAKTKPREEQYNSTYR VVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNKALPAPIEKTISKAKG QPREPQVCTLPPSRDELTKNQVSLSCAVKGFYPSDIAVEWE SNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFFLVSKLTVDKSRWQQGNV FSCSVMHEALHNHYTQKSLSLSPGK 81 human 4-1BB LQDPCSNCPAGTFCDNNRNQICSPCPPNSFSSAGGQRTCDI antigen Fc knob CRQCKGVFRTRKECSSTSNAECDCTPGFHCLGAGCSMCEQ chain DCKQGQELTKKGCKDCCFGTFNDQKRGICRPWTNCSLDG KSVLVNGTKERDVVCGPSPADLSPGASSVTPPAPAREPGHS PQVDEQLYFQGGSPKSADKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGPSVFLFP PKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVE VHNAKTKPREEQYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCK VSNKALPAPIEKTISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPCRDELTKNQV SLWCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGS FFLYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQKSLS LSPGKSGGLNDIFEAQKIEWHE 82 cynomolgus 4- LQDLCSNCPAGTFCDNNRSQICSPCPPNSFSSAGGQRTCDIC 1BB antigen RQCKGVFKTRKECSSTSNAECDCISGYHCLGAECSMCEQD Fc knob chain CKQGQELTKKGCKDCCFGTFNDQKRGICRPWTNCSLDGK SVLVNGTKERDVVCGPSPADLSPGASSATPPAPAREPGHSP QVDEQLYFQGGSPKSADKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGPSVFLFPP KPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEV HNAKTKPREEQYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKV SNKALPAPIEKTISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPCRDELTKNQVS LWCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGSF FLYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQKSLSL SPGKSGGLNDIFEAQKIEWHE 83 murine 4-1BB VQNSCDNCQPGTFCRKYNPVCKSCPPSTFSSIGGQPNCNIC antigen Fc knob RVCAGYFRFKKFCSSTHNAECECIEGFHCLGPQCTRCEKDC chain RPGQELTKQGCKTCSLGTFNDQNGTGVCRPWTNCSLDGR SVLKTGTTEKDVVCGPPVVSFSPSTTISVTPEGGPGGHSLQ VLVDEQLYFQGGSPKSADKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGPSVFLFP PKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVE VHNAKTKPREEQYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCK VSNKALPAPIEKTISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPCRDELTKNQV SLWCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGS FFLYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQKSLS LSPGKSGGLNDIFEAQKIEWHE

All 4-1BB-Fc-fusion encoding sequences were cloned into a plasmid vector, which drives expression of the insert from an MPSV promoter and contains a synthetic polyA signal sequence located at the 3′ end of the CDS. In addition, the vector contains an EBV OriP sequence for episomal maintenance of the plasmid.

For preparation of the biotinylated monomeric antigen/Fc fusion molecules, exponentially growing suspension HEK293 EBNA cells were co-transfected with three vectors encoding the two components of fusion protein (knob and hole chains) as well as BirA, an enzyme necessary for the biotinylation reaction. The corresponding vectors were used at a 2:1:0.05 ratio (“antigen ECD-AcTEV-Fc knob” : “Fc hole”:“BirA”).

For protein production in 500 ml shake flasks, 400 million HEK293 EBNA cells were seeded 24 hours before transfection. For transfection cells were centrifuged for 5 minutes at 210 g, and supernatant was replaced by pre-warmed CD CHO medium. Expression vectors were resuspended in 20 mL of CD CHO medium containing 200 μg of vector DNA. After addition of 540 μL of polyethylenimine (PEI), the solution was vortexed for 15 seconds and incubated for 10 minutes at room temperature. Afterwards, cells were mixed with the DNA/PEI solution, transferred to a 500 mL shake flask and incubated for 3 hours at 37° C. in an incubator with a 5% CO2 atmosphere. After the incubation, 160 mL of F17 medium was added and cells were cultured for 24 hours. One day after transfection, 1 mM valproic acid and 7% Feed were added to the culture. After 7 days of culturing, the cell supernatant was collected by spinning down cells for 15 min at 210 g. The solution was sterile filtered (0.22 μm filter), supplemented with sodium azide to a final concentration of 0.01% (w/v), and kept at 4° C.

Secreted proteins were purified from cell culture supernatants by affinity chromatography using Protein A, followed by size exclusion chromatography. For affinity chromatography, the supernatant was loaded on a HiTrap ProteinA HP column (CV=5 mL, GE Healthcare) equilibrated with 40 mL 20 mM sodium phosphate, 20 mM sodium citrate pH 7.5. Unbound protein was removed by washing with at least 10 column volumes of 20 mM sodium phosphate, 20 mM sodium citrate, 0.5 M sodium chloride containing buffer (pH 7.5). The bound protein was eluted using a linear pH-gradient of sodium chloride (from 0 to 500 mM) created over 20 column volumes of20 mM sodium citrate, 0.01% (v/v) Tween-20, pH 3.0 . The column was then washed with 10 column volumes of 20 mM sodium citrate, 500 mM sodium chloride, 0.01% (v/v) Tween-20, pH 3.0.

The pH of collected fractions was adjusted by adding 1/40 (v/v) of 2M Tris, pH8.0. The protein was concentrated and filtered prior to loading on a HiLoad Superdex 200 column (GE Healthcare) equilibrated with 2 mM MOPS, 150 mM sodium chloride, 0.02% (w/v) sodium azide solution of pH 7.4.

For affinity determination to the human receptor, the ectodomain of human 4-1BB was also subcloned in frame with an avi (GLNDIFEAQKIEWHE, SEQ ID NO:84) and a hexahistidine tag. Protein production was performed as described above for the Fc-fusion protein.

Secreted proteins were purified from cell culture supernatants by chelating chromatography, followed by size exclusion chromatography. The first chromatographic step was performed on a NiNTA Superflow Cartridge (5 ml, Qiagen) equilibrated in 20 mM sodium phosphate, 500 nM sodium chloride, pH 7.4. Elution was performed by applying a gradient over 12 column volume from 5% to 45% of elution buffer (20 mM sodium phosphate, 500 nM sodium chloride, 500 mM Imidazole, pH 7.4). The protein was concentrated and filtered prior to loading on a HiLoad Superdex 75 column (GE Healthcare) equilibrated with 2 mM MOPS, 150 mM sodium chloride, 0.02% (w/v) sodium azide solution of pH 7.4.

TABLE 25 Sequences of monomeric human 4-1BB His molecule SEQ ID NO: antigen Sequence 85 nucleotide CTGCAGGACCCCTGCAGCAACTGCCCTGCCGGCACCTTCTG sequence CGACAACAACCGGAACCAGATCTGCAGCCCCTGCCCCCCC human AACAGCTTCAGCTCTGCCGGCGGACAGCGGACCTGCGACA 4-1BB His TCTGCAGACAGTGCAAGGGCGTGTTCAGAACCCGGAAAGA GTGCAGCAGCACCAGCAACGCCGAGTGCGACTGCACCCCC GGCTTCCATTGTCTGGGAGCCGGCTGCAGCATGTGCGAGC AGGACTGCAAGCAGGGCCAGGAACTGACCAAGAAGGGCT GCAAGGACTGCTGCTTCGGCACCTTCAACGACCAGAAGCG GGGCATCTGCCGGCCCTGGACCAACTGTAGCCTGGACGGC AAGAGCGTGCTGGTCAACGGCACCAAAGAACGGGACGTCG TGTGCGGCCCCAGCCCTGCTGATCTGTCTCCTGGGGCCAGC AGCGTGACCCCTCCTGCCCCTGCCAGAGAGCCTGGCCACTC TCCTCAGGTCGACGAACAGTTATATTTTCAGGGCGGCTCAG GCCTGAACGACATCTTCGAGGCCCAGAAGATCGAGTGGCA CGAGGCTCGAGCTCACCACCATCACCATCAC 86 human LQDPCSNCPAGTFCDNNRNQICSPCPPNSFSSAGGQRTCDICR 4-1BB His QCKGVFRTRKECSSTSNAECDCTPGFHCLGAGCSMCEQDCK QCQELTKKGCKDCCFGTFNDQKRGICRPWTNCSLDGKSVLV NGTKERDVVCGPSPADLSPGASSVTPPAPAREPGHSPQVDEQL YFQGGSGLNDIFEAQKIEWHEARAHHHHHH

Example 5 Biochemical Characterization of FAP-targeted Single Chain 4-1BB Ligand Trimer-Containing Fc Fusion Antigen Binding Molecule by Surface Plasmon Resonance

Binding of FAP-targeted single chain 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule to recombinant 4-1BB was assessed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). All SPR experiments were performed on a Biacore T100 at 25° C. with HBS-EP as a running buffer (0.01 M HEPES pH 7.4, 0.15 M NaCl, 3 mM EDTA, 0.005% Surfactant P20, Biacore, Freiburg/Germany).

The avidity of the interaction between the FAP-targeted or “untargeted” 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecules and recombinant 4-1BB (human, cyno and murine) was determined as illustrated in FIG. 5A. The data demonstrated that all variants of 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecules (see for example the curves for FAP (28H1) single chain 4-1BBL trimer (Compound S1) in FIGS. 5A-D, and for the “untargeted” DP47 single chain 4-1BBL trimer (Control A) in FIGS. 6A-C) bind with comparable avidities to human and cynomolgus 4-1BB but negligibly to the mouse homolog.

Recombinant biotinylated human, cynomolgus and murine 4-1BB Fc(kih) fusion molecules were directly coupled on a SA chip using the standard coupling instruction (Biacore, Freiburg/Germany). The immobilization level was about 30 resonance units (RU). FAP-targeted 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule (Compound S1), or the DP47-containing control, was passed at a concentration range from 0.9 to 500 nM with a flow of 30 μL/minutes through the flow cells over 180 seconds. The dissociation was monitored for 180 seconds. Bulk refractive index differences were corrected for by subtracting the response obtained on a reference empty flow cell.

For affinity measurement (FIGS. 7A-E), direct coupling of around 7200 resonance units (RU) of the anti-human Fc specific antibody was performed on a CMS chip at pH 5.0 using the standard amine coupling kit (GE Healthcare). FAP-targeted or untargeted single chain 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule at 50 nM was captured with a flow rate of 30 μl/min for 60 seconds on flow cell 2. A dilution series (1.95 to 1000 nM) of hu4-1BB avi His was passed on both flow cells at 30 μl/min for 120 seconds to record the association phase. The dissociation phase was monitored for 180 seconds and triggered by switching from the sample solution to HBS-EP. The chip surface was regenerated after every cycle using a double injection of 60 seconds 3M MgCl2. Bulk refractive index differences were corrected for by subtracting the response obtained on the reference flow cell 1. For the interaction between targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand Fc(kih) fusion antigen binding molecule and hu4-1BB avi His, the affinity constants were derived from the rate constants by fitting to a 1:1 Langmuir binding using the Biaeval software (GE Healthcare). Dissociation constants can be found in Table 26.

TABLE 26 Fittings to 1:1 Langmuir binding and Affinity constants Ligand Analyte ka (1/Ms) kd (1/s) KD (M) FAP single chain Hu 4-1BB 6.2E+04 3.3E−02 5.4E−07 4-1BBL trimer avi His Compound S1 DP47 single chain Hu 4-1BB 6.2E+04 3.3E−02 5.2E−07 4-1BBL trimer avi His Control 1

Example 6 Preparation and Purification Of Targeted Single Chain OX40 Ligand Trimer-Containing Fc Fusion Antigen Binding Molecules

The DNA sequence encoding part of the ectodomain (amino acids 51-183) of human OX40 ligand was synthetized according to UniProt Accession No. P23510 (SEQ ID NO:38). Two Asn-linked glycosylation sites (N90 and N114) were replaced by aspartic acid (Asp) by mutagenesis.

A polypeptide containing three ectodomains of OX40 ligand, separated by (G45)2 linkers, was cloned as described in FIG. 1B: human OX40 ligand, (G45)2 connector, human Ox40 ligand, (G45)2 connector, human Ox40 ligand.

The polypeptide encoding the single chain trimeric Ox40 ligand was subcloned in frame with the human IgG1 heavy chain CH2 and CH3 domains on the knob (Merchant, Zhu et al. 1998), using a linker (GSPGSSSSGS) of SEQ ID NO:57.

The variable region of heavy and light chain DNA sequences encoding a binder specific for fibroblast activation protein (FAP) were subcloned in frame with either the constant heavy chain of the hole (Carter, 2001) or the constant light chain of human IgG1.

The Pro329Gly, Leu234Ala and Leu235Ala mutations have been introduced in the constant region of the knob and hole heavy chains to abrogate binding to Fc gamma receptors according to the method described in International Patent Appl. Publ. No. WO 2012/130831 A1.

Combination of the single chain ligand-Fc knob chain containing the S354C/T366W mutations, with the targeted anti-FAP-Fc hole chain containing the Y349C/T366S/L368A/Y407V mutations and the anti-FAP light chain, allows generation of a heterodimer, which includes a single chain trimeric OX40 ligand and a FAP binding Fab (FIG. 4A).

Table 27 shows, respectively, the cDNA and amino acid sequences of the FAP-targeted single chain OX40 ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule. The polypeptide encoding the single chain trimeric Ox40 ligand was subcloned in frame with the human IgG1 heavy chain CH2 and CH3 domains on the knob (Merchant, Zhu et al. 1998), using a linker (GSPGSSSSGS) of SEQ ID NO:57.

TABLE 27 Sequences of FAP(28H1)-targeted human OX40 ligand trimer- containing Fc (kih) fusion molecule (FAP single chain OX40L trimer) (Compound S10) SEQ ID NO: Description Sequence 87 nucleotide CAGGTGTCCCACAGATACCCCAGAATCCAGAGCATCAA sequence of GGTGCAGTTCACCGAGTACAAGAAAGAGAAGGGCTTCA trimeric hu OX40L TCCTGACCAGCCAGAAAGAGGACGAGATCATGAAGGTG (51-183)-Fc knob CAGGACAACAGCGTGATCATCAACTGCGACGGCTTCTA chain CCTGATCAGCCTGAAGGGCTACTTCAGCCAGGAAGTGG ACATCAGCCTGCACTACCAGAAGGACGAGGAACCCCTG TTCCAGCTGAAGAAAGTGCGGAGCGTGAACAGCCTGAT GGTGGCCAGCCTGACCTACAAGGACAAGGTGTACCTGA ACGTGACCACCGACAACACCAGCCTGGACGACTTCCAC GTGAACGGCGGCGAGCTGATCCTGATTCACCAGAACCC CGGCGAGTTCTGCGTGCTGGGAGGCGGAGGATCTGGCG GAGGCGGATCTCAGGTGTCACACCGCTACCCCCGGATTC AGTCCATTAAGGTGCAGTTTACAGAGTATAAGAAAGAA AAAGGCTTTATTCTGACTTCCCAGAAAGAAGATGAGATT ATGAAGGTGCAGGATAATTCTGTGATCATCAATTGTGAT GGGTTTTATCTGATCTCCCTGAAAGGATACTTTAGTCAG GAAGTGGATATTTCTCTGCACTATCAGAAAGATGAAGA ACCTCTGTTCCAGCTGAAAAAAGTGCGCTCCGTGAATTC TCTGATGGTGGCTTCCCTGACATACAAAGACAAAGTGTA TCTGAATGTGACAACAGATAATACCTCCCTGGATGATTT CCATGTGAATGGGGGGGAACTGATTCTGATCCATCAGA ACCCTGGGGAATTTTGTGTGCTGGGCGGAGGGGGAAGT GGCGGCGGAGGCAGTCAGGTGTCCCATCGGTATCCTAG AATCCAGTCTATCAAAGTGCAGTTTACTGAGTACAAAAA AGAGAAAGGATTCATTCTGACCTCTCAGAAAGAGGACG AAATTATGAAGGTGCAGGATAACAGTGTGATTATTAACT GTGATGGGTTCTACCTGATTTCTCTGAAGGGATATTTCA GTCAGGAAGTGGACATCTCACTGCATTACCAGAAGGAT GAAGAACCACTGTTCCAGCTGAAGAAAGTGCGCTCTGT GAATAGCCTGATGGTGGCCTCTCTGACTTATAAGGATAA GGTGTACCTGAATGTGACAACTGACAATACTTCTCTGGA CGACTTTCATGTGAACGGGGGAGAGCTGATTCTGATCCA CCAGAATCCAGGCGAGTTTTGTGTGCTGGGAAGCCCCGG CAGCAGCAGCTCTGGATCCGACAAAACTCACACATGCC CACCGTGCCCAGCACCTGAAGCTGCAGGGGGACCGTCA GTCTTCCTCTTCCCCCCAAAACCCAAGGACACCCTCATG ATCTCCCGGACCCCTGAGGTCACATGCGTGGTGGTGGAC GTGAGCCACGAAGACCCTGAGGTCAAGTTCAACTGGTA CGTGGACGGCGTGGAGGTGCATAATGCCAAGACAAAGC CGCGGGAGGAGCAGTACAACAGCACGTACCGTGTGGTC AGCGTCCTCACCGTCCTGCACCAGGACTGGCTGAATGGC AAGGAGTACAAGTGCAAGGTCTCCAACAAAGCCCTCGG CGCCCCCATCGAGAAAACCATCTCCAAAGCCAAAGGGC AGCCCCGAGAACCACAGGTGTACACCCTGCCCCCATGC CGGGATGAGCTGACCAAGAACCAGGTCAGCCTGTGGTG CCTGGTCAAAGGCTTCTATCCCAGCGACATCGCCGTGGA GTGGGAGAGCAATGGGCAGCCGGAGAACAACTACAAGA CCACGCCTCCCGTGCTGGACTCCGACGGCTCCTTCTTCC TCTACAGCAAGCTCACCGTGGACAAGAGCAGGTGGCAG CAGGGGAACGTCTTCTCATGCTCCGTGATGCATGAGGCT CTGCACAACCACTACACGCAGAAGAGCCTCTCCCTGTCT CCGGGTAAA 67 nucleotide GAAGTGCAGCTGCTGGAATCCGGCGGAGGCCTGGTGCA sequence of anti- GCCTGGCGGATCTCTGAGACTGTCCTGCGCCGCCTCCGG FAP(28H1) Fc CTTCACCTTCTCCTCCCACGCCATGTCCTGGGTCCGACA hole chain GGCTCCTGGCAAAGGCCTGGAATGGGTGTCCGCCATCTG GGCCTCCGGCGAGCAGTACTACGCCGACTCTGTGAAGG GCCGGTTCACCATCTCCCGGGACAACTCCAAGAACACCC TGTACCTGCAGATGAACTCCCTGCGGGCCGAGGACACC GCCGTGTACTACTGTGCCAAGGGCTGGCTGGGCAACTTC GACTACTGGGGACAGGGCACCCTGGTCACCGTGTCCAG CGCTAGCACCAAGGGCCCCTCCGTGTTCCCCCTGGCCCC CAGCAGCAAGAGCACCAGCGGCGGCACAGCCGCTCTGG GCTGCCTGGTCAAGGACTACTTCCCCGAGCCCGTGACCG TGTCCTGGAACAGCGGAGCCCTGACCTCCGGCGTGCAC ACCTTCCCCGCCGTGCTGCAGAGTTCTGGCCTGTATAGC CTGAGCAGCGTGGTCACCGTGCCTTCTAGCAGCCTGGGC ACCCAGACCTACATCTGCAACGTGAACCACAAGCCCAG CAACACCAAGGTGGACAAGAAGGTGGAGCCCAAGAGCT GCGACAAAACTCACACATGCCCACCGTGCCCAGCACCT GAAGCTGCAGGGGGACCGTCAGTCTTCCTCTTCCCCCCA AAACCCAAGGACACCCTCATGATCTCCCGGACCCCTGA GGTCACATGCGTGGTGGTGGACGTGAGCCACGAAGACC CTGAGGTCAAGTTCAACTGGTACGTGGACGGCGTGGAG GTGCATAATGCCAAGACAAAGCCGCGGGAGGAGCAGTA CAACAGCACGTACCGTGTGGTCAGCGTCCTCACCGTCCT GCACCAGGACTGGCTGAATGGCAAGGAGTACAAGTGCA AGGTCTCCAACAAAGCCCTCGGCGCCCCCATCGAGAAA ACCATCTCCAAAGCCAAAGGGCAGCCCCGAGAACCACA GGTGTGCACCCTGCCCCCATCCCGGGATGAGCTGACCAA GAACCAGGTCAGCCTCTCGTGCGCAGTCAAAGGCTTCTA TCCCAGCGACATCGCCGTGGAGTGGGAGAGCAATGGGC AGCCGGAGAACAACTACAAGACCACGCCTCCCGTGCTG GACTCCGACGGCTCCTTCTTCCTCGTGAGCAAGCTCACC GTGGACAAGAGCAGGTGGCAGCAGGGGAACGTCTTCTC ATGCTCCGTGATGCATGAGGCTCTGCACAACCACTACAC GCAGAAGAGCCTCTCCCTGTCTCCGGGTAAA 68 nucleotide GAGATCGTGCTGACCCAGTCCCCCGGCACCCTGTCTCTG sequence of anti- AGCCCTGGCGAGAGAGCCACCCTGTCCTGCAGAGCCTC FAP(28H1) light CCAGTCCGTGTCCCGGTCCTACCTCGCCTGGTATCAGCA chain GAAGCCCGGCCAGGCCCCTCGGCTGCTGATCATCGGCG CCTCTACCAGAGCCACCGGCATCCCTGACCGGTTCTCCG GCTCTGGCTCCGGCACCGACTTCACCCTGACCATCTCCC GGCTGGAACCCGAGGACTTCGCCGTGTACTACTGCCAGC AGGGCCAGGTCATCCCTCCCACCTTTGGCCAGGGCACCA AGGTGGAAATCAAGCGTACGGTGGCTGCACCATCTGTCT TCATCTTCCCGCCATCTGATGAGCAGTTGAAATCTGGAA CTGCCTCTGTTGTGTGCCTGCTGAATAACTTCTATCCCAG AGAGGCCAAAGTACAGTGGAAGGTGGATAACGCCCTCC AATCGGGTAACTCCCAGGAGAGTGTCACAGAGCAGGAC AGCAAGGACAGCACCTACAGCCTCAGCAGCACCCTGAC GCTGAGCAAAGCAGACTACGAGAAACACAAAGTCTACG CCTGCGAAGTCACCCATCAGGGCCTGAGCTCGCCCGTCA CAAAGAGCTTCAACAGGGGAGAGTGT 20 trimeric hu QVSHRYPRIQSIKVQFTEYKKEKGFILTSQKEDEIMKVQDN OX40L (51-183)- SVIINCDGFYLISLKGYFSQEVDISLHYQKDEEPLFQLKKVR Fc knob chain SVNSLMVASLTYKDKVYLNVTTDNTSLDDFHVNGGELILI HQNPGEFCVLGGGGSGGGGSQVSHRYPRIQSIKVQFTEYK KEKGFILTSQKEDEIMKVQDNSVIINCDGFYLISLKGYFSQE VDISLHYQKDEEPLFQLKKVRSVNSLMVASLTYKDKVYLN VTTDNTSLDDFHVNGGELILIHQNPGEFCVLGGGGSGGGG SQVSHRYPRIQSIKVQFTEYKKEKGFILTSQKEDEIMKVQD NSVIINCDGFYLISLKGYFSQEVDISLHYQKDEEPLFQLKKV RSVNSLMVASLTYKDKVYLNVTTDNTSLDDFHVNGGELIL IHQNPGEFCVLGSPGSSSSGSDKTHTCPPCPAPEAAGGPSVF LFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDG VEVHNAKTKPREEQYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYK CKVSNKALGAPIEKTISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPCRDELTKN QVSLWCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSD GSFFLYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQKS LSLSPGK 18 anti-FAP(28H1) EVQLLESGGGLVQPGGSLRLSCAASGFTFSSHAMSWVRQA Fc hole chain PGKGLEWVSAIWASGEQYYADSVKGRFTISRDNSKNTLYL QMNSLRAEDTAVYYCAKGWLGNFDYWGQGTLVTVSSAS TKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWNS GALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVTVPSSSLGTQTYICN VNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPEAAGGPSVF LFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDG VEVHNAKTKPREEQYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYK CKVSNKALGAPIEKTISKAKGQPREPQVCTLPPSRDELTKN QVSLSCAVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSD GSFFLVSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQKS LSLSPGK 19 anti-FAP (28H1) EIVLTQSPGTLSLSPGERATLSCRASQSVSRSYLAWYQQKP light chain GQAPRLLIIGASTRATGIPDRFSGSGSGTDFTLTISRLEPEDF AVYYCQQGQVIPPTFGQGTKVEIKRTVAAPSVFIFPPSDEQ LKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPREAKVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESV TEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTLSKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSS PVTKSFNRGEC

The targeted single chain OX40 ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule encoding sequences were cloned into a plasmid vector driving expression of the insert from an MPSV promoter and containing a synthetic polyA sequence located at the 3′ end of the CDS. In addition, the vector contained an EBV OriP sequence for episomal maintenance of the plasmid.

The targeted single chain trimeric OX40 ligand Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule was produced by co-transfecting HEK293-EBNA cells with the mammalian expression vectors using polyethylenimine. The cells were transfected with the corresponding expression vectors in a 1:1:1 ratio (“vector knob chain”: “vector hole chain”: “vector light chain”).

For production in 500 mL shake flasks, 400 million HEK293 EBNA cells were seeded 24 hours before transfection. For transfection cells were centrifuged for 5 minutes at 210 x g, and supernatant was replaced by pre-warmed CD CHO medium. Expression vectors were mixed in 20 mL CD CHO medium to a final amount of 200 μg DNA. After addition of 540 μL PEI, the solution was vortexed for 15 seconds and incubated for 10 minutes at room temperature. Afterwards, cells were mixed with the DNA/PEI solution, transferred to a 500 mL shake flask and incubated for 3 hours at 37° C. in an incubator with a 5% CO2 atmosphere. After the incubation, 160 mL F17 medium was added and cells were cultured for 24 hours. One day after transfection 1 mM valproic acid and 7% Feed with supplements were added. After culturing for 7 days, the supernatant was collected by centrifugation for 15 minutes at 210 x g. The solution was sterile filtered (0.22 μm filter), supplemented with sodium azide to a final concentration of 0.01% (w/v), and kept at 4° C.

The targeted single chain OX40 ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule was purified from cell culture supernatants by affinity chromatography using Protein A, followed by size exclusion chromatography. For affinity chromatography, the supernatant was loaded on a HiTrap ProteinA HP column (CV=5 mL, GE Healthcare) equilibrated with 20 mM sodium phosphate, 20 mM sodium citrate, 0.5 M sodium chloride, 0.01% (v/v) Tween-20 containing buffer (pH 7.5). Unbound protein was removed by washing with at least 10 column volumes of the same buffer. The bound protein was eluted using a linear pH gradient over 20 column volumes to 100% of 20 mM sodium citrate, 0.5 M sodium chloride, 0.01% (v/v) Tween-20 containing buffer (pH 2.5). The column was then washed with 10 column volumes of 20 mM sodium citrate, 0.5 M sodium chloride, 0.01% Tween-20 buffer (pH 2.5).

The pH of collected fractions was adjusted by adding 1/40 (v/v) of 2M Tris, pH8.0. The protein was concentrated prior to loading on a HiLoad Superdex 200 column (GE Healthcare) equilibrated with 20 mM Histidine, 150 mM sodium chloride, 0.01% (v/v) Tween/20 solution of pH 6.0.

The protein concentration was determined by measuring the optical density (OD) at 280 nm, using the molar extinction coefficient calculated on the basis of the amino acid sequence. Purity and molecular weight of the targeted OX40 ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule was analyzed by SDS-PAGE in the presence and absence of a reducing agent (5 mM 1,4-dithiotreitol) and staining with Coomassie SimpleBlueTM SafeStain (Invitrogen USA). The aggregate content of samples was analyzed using a TSKgel G3000 SW XL analytical size-exclusion column (Tosoh) equilibrated in 25 mM K2HPO4, 125 mM sodium chloride, 200 mM L-arginine monohydrochloride, 0.02% (w/v) NaN3, pH 6.7 running buffer at 25° C.

The targeted single chain OX40 ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule (Compound SC-10) was obtained with a yield of 9.1 mg/ml and a final monomer content of 87% (SEC).

Example 7 Preparation and Purification of “Untargeted” Single Chain OX40 Ligand Trimer-Containing Fc Fusion Antigen Binding Molecules

The “untargeted” construct was composed by the Ox40 ligand-Fc knob chain described above, a DP47 germline control-Fc hole chain and a DP47 light chain (FIG. 4B), which were co-transfected in a 1:1:1 ratio (“vector knob chain”: “vector hole chain”: “vector light chain”).

Production and purification were performed as described above for targeted single chain OX40 ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule. The variable region of heavy and light chain DNA sequences of the FAP binder, were replaced with those of a germline control (DP47) and subcloned in frame with either the constant heavy chain of the hole or the constant light chain of human IgG1.

Table 28 shows, respectively, the cDNA and amino acid sequences of the DP47-containing 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule.

TABLE 28 Sequences of DP47-containing single chain OX40 ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion molecule (DP47 single chain OX40L trimer) (Control 3) SEQ ID NO: Description Sequence 87 nucleotide see Table 27 sequence of trimeric hu OX40L (51-183)-Fc knob chain 69 nucleotide GAGGTGCAATTGTTGGAGTCTGGGGGAGGCTTGGTAC sequence of DP47 AGCCTGGGGGGTCCCTGAGACTCTCCTGTGCAGCCTCC Fc hole chain GGATTCACCTTTAGCAGTTATGCCATGAGCTGGGTCCG CCAGGCTCCAGGGAAGGGGCTGGAGTGGGTCTCAGCT ATTAGTGGTAGTGGTGGTAGCACATACTACGCAGACTC CGTGAAGGGCCGGTTCACCATCTCCAGAGACAATTCCA AGAACACGCTGTATCTGCAGATGAACAGCCTGAGAGC CGAGGACACGGCCGTATATTACTGTGCGAAAGGCAGC GGATTTGACTACTGGGGCCAAGGAACCCTGGTCACCGT CTCGAGTGCTAGCACCAAGGGCCCATCGGTCTTCCCCC TGGCACCCTCCTCCAAGAGCACCTCTGGGGGCACAGCG GCCCTGGGCTGCCTGGTCAAGGACTACTTCCCCGAACC GGTGACGGTGTCGTGGAACTCAGGCGCCCTGACCAGC GGCGTGCACACCTTCCCGGCTGTCCTACAGTCCTCAGG ACTCTACTCCCTCAGCAGCGTGGTGACCGTGCCCTCCA GCAGCTTGGGCACCCAGACCTACATCTGCAACGTGAAT CACAAGCCCAGCAACACCAAGGTGGACAAGAAAGTTG AGCCCAAATCTTGTGACAAAACTCACACATGCCCACCG TGCCCAGCACCTGAAGCTGCAGGGGGACCGTCAGTCTT CCTCTTCCCCCCAAAACCCAAGGACACCCTCATGATCT CCCGGACCCCTGAGGTCACATGCGTGGTGGTGGACGTG AGCCACGAAGACCCTGAGGTCAAGTTCAACTGGTACG TGGACGGCGTGGAGGTGCATAATGCCAAGACAAAGCC GCGGGAGGAGCAGTACAACAGCACGTACCGTGTGGTC AGCGTCCTCACCGTCCTGCACCAGGACTGGCTGAATGG CAAGGAGTACAAGTGCAAGGTCTCCAACAAAGCCCTC GGCGCCCCCATCGAGAAAACCATCTCCAAAGCCAAAG GGCAGCCCCGAGAACCACAGGTGTGCACCCTGCCCCC ATCCCGGGATGAGCTGACCAAGAACCAGGTCAGCCTC TCGTGCGCAGTCAAAGGCTTCTATCCCAGCGACATCGC CGTGGAGTGGGAGAGCAATGGGCAGCCGGAGAACAAC TACAAGACCACGCCTCCCGTGCTGGACTCCGACGGCTC CTTCTTCCTCGTGAGCAAGCTCACCGTGGACAAGAGCA GGTGGCAGCAGGGGAACGTCTTCTCATGCTCCGTGATG CATGAGGCTCTGCACAACCACTACACGCAGAAGAGCC TCTCCCTGTCTCCGGGTAAA 70 nucleotide GAAATCGTGTTAACGCAGTCTCCAGGCACCCTGTCTTT sequence of DP47 GTCTCCAGGGGAAAGAGCCACCCTCTCTTGCAGGGCCA light chain GTCAGAGTGTTAGCAGCAGCTACTTAGCCTGGTACCAG CAGAAACCTGGCCAGGCTCCCAGGCTCCTCATCTATGG AGCATCCAGCAGGGCCACTGGCATCCCAGACAGGTTC AGTGGCAGTGGATCCGGGACAGACTTCACTCTCACCAT CAGCAGACTGGAGCCTGAAGATTTTGCAGTGTATTACT GTCAGCAGTATGGTAGCTCACCGCTGACGTTCGGCCAG GGGACCAAAGTGGAAATCAAACGTACGGTGGCTGCAC CATCTGTCTTCATCTTCCCGCCATCTGATGAGCAGTTGA AATCTGGAACTGCCTCTGTTGTGTGCCTGCTGAATAAC TTCTATCCCAGAGAGGCCAAAGTACAGTGGAAGGTGG ATAACGCCCTCCAATCGGGTAACTCCCAGGAGAGTGTC ACAGAGCAGGACAGCAAGGACAGCACCTACAGCCTCA GCAGCACCCTGACGCTGAGCAAAGCAGACTACGAGAA ACACAAAGTCTACGCCTGCGAAGTCACCCATCAGGGC CTGAGCTCGCCCGTCACAAAGAGCTTCAACAGGGGAG AGTGT 20 trimeric hu see Table 27 OX40L (51-183)- Fc knob chain 71 DP47 Fc hole EVQLLESGGGLVQPGGSLRLSCAASGFTFSSYAMSWVRQ chain APGKGLEWVSAISGSGGSTYYADSVKGRFTISRDNSKNTL YLQMNSLRAEDTAVYYCAKGSGFDYWGQGTLVTVSSAS TKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWN SGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVTVPSSSLGTQTYIC NVNHKPSNTKVDKKVEPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPEAAGGPS VFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNWY VDGVEVHNAKTKPREEQYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNG KEYKCKVSNKALGAPIEKTISKAKGQPREPQVCTLPPSRD ELTKNQVSLSCAVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTP PVLDSDGSFFLVSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALH NHYTQKSLSLSPGK 72 DP47 light chain EIVLTQSPGTLSLSPGERATLSCRASQSVSSSYLAWYQQK PGQAPRLLIYGASSRATGIPDRFSGSGSGTDFTLTISRLEPE DFAVYYCQQYGSSPLTFGQGTKVEIKRTVAAPSVFIFPPS DEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPREAKVQWKVDNALQSGNS QESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTLTLSKADYEKHKVYACEVTH QGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC

The DP47-containing single chain OX40 ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule (Control 3) was obtained in a yield of 7 mg/ml and a final monomer content of 100% (SEC).

Example 8 Preparation, Purification and Characterization of OX40

DNA sequences encoding the ectodomains of human, mouse or cynomolgus OX40 (Table 11) were subcloned in frame with the human IgG1 heavy chain CH2 and CH3 domains on the knob (Merchant et al., 1998). An AcTEV protease cleavage site was introduced between an antigen ectodomain and the Fc of human IgG1. An Avi tag for directed biotinylation was introduced at the C-terminus of the antigen-Fc knob. Combination of the antigen-Fc knob chain containing the S354C/T366W mutations, with a Fc hole chain containing the Y349C/T366S/L368A/Y407V mutations allows generation of a heterodimer which includes a single copy of the OX40 ectodomain containing chain, thus creating a monomeric form of Fc-linked antigen (FIG. 4C). Table 29 shows the amino acid sequences of the various OX40 ectodomains. Table 30 shows the cDNA and amino acid sequences of monomeric antigen Fc(kih) fusion molecules as depicted in FIG. 4C.

TABLE 29 Amino acid numbering of antigen ectodomains (ECD) and their origin SEQ ID NO: Construct Origin ECD 88 human Ox40 ECD Synthetized according to P43489 aa 29-214 89 cynomolgus Ox40 isolated from cynomolgus blood aa 29-214 ECD 90 murine Ox40 ECD Synthetized according to P47741 aa 10-211

TABLE 30 cDNA and Amino acid sequences of monomeric antigen Fc(kih) fusion molecules (produced by combination of one Fc hole chain with one antigen Fc knob chain) SEQ ID NO: Antigen Sequence 76 Nucleotide GACAAAACTCACACATGCCCACCGTGCCCAGCACCTGA sequence ACTCCTGGGGGGACCGTCAGTCTTCCTCTTCCCCCCAAA Fc hole chain ACCCAAGGACACCCTCATGATCTCCCGGACCCCTGAGGT CACATGCGTGGTGGTGGACGTGAGCCACGAAGACCCTG AGGTCAAGTTCAACTGGTACGTGGACGGCGTGGAGGTG CATAATGCCAAGACAAAGCCGCGGGAGGAGCAGTACAA CAGCACGTACCGTGTGGTCAGCGTCCTCACCGTCCTGCA CCAGGACTGGCTGAATGGCAAGGAGTACAAGTGCAAGG TCTCCAACAAAGCCCTCCCAGCCCCCATCGAGAAAACC ATCTCCAAAGCCAAAGGGCAGCCCCGAGAACCACAGGT GTGCACCCTGCCCCCATCCCGGGATGAGCTGACCAAGA ACCAGGTCAGCCTCTCGTGCGCAGTCAAAGGCTTCTATC CCAGCGACATCGCCGTGGAGTGGGAGAGCAATGGGCAG CCGGAGAACAACTACAAGACCACGCCTCCCGTGCTGGA CTCCGACGGCTCCTTCTTCCTCGTGAGCAAGCTCACCGT GGACAAGAGCAGGTGGCAGCAGGGGAACGTCTTCTCAT GCTCCGTGATGCATGAGGCTCTGCACAACCACTACACGC AGAAGAGCCTCTCCCTGTCTCCGGGTAAA 91 Nucleotide CTGCACTGCGTGGGCGACACCTACCCCAGCAACGACCG sequence GTGCTGCCACGAGTGCAGACCCGGCAACGGCATGGTGT human OX40 CCCGGTGCAGCCGGTCCCAGAACACCGTGTGCAGACCTT antigen Fc knob GCGGCCCTGGCTTCTACAACGACGTGGTGTCCAGCAAGC chain CCTGCAAGCCTTGTACCTGGTGCAACCTGCGGAGCGGCA GCGAGCGGAAGCAGCTGTGTACCGCCACCCAGGATACC GTGTGCCGGTGTAGAGCCGGCACCCAGCCCCTGGACAG CTACAAACCCGGCGTGGACTGCGCCCCTTGCCCTCCTGG CCACTTCAGCCCTGGCGACAACCAGGCCTGCAAGCCTTG GACCAACTGCACCCTGGCCGGCAAGCACACCCTGCAGC CCGCCAGCAATAGCAGCGACGCCATCTGCGAGGACCGG GATCCTCCTGCCACCCAGCCTCAGGAAACCCAGGGCCCT CCCGCCAGACCCATCACCGTGCAGCCTACAGAGGCCTG GCCCAGAACCAGCCAGGGGCCTAGCACCAGACCCGTGG AAGTGCCTGGCGGCAGAGCCGTCGACGAACAGTTATAT TTTCAGGGCGGCTCACCCAAATCTGCAGACAAAACTCAC ACATGCCCACCGTGCCCAGCACCTGAACTCCTGGGGGG ACCGTCAGTCTTCCTCTTCCCCCCAAAACCCAAGGACAC CCTCATGATCTCCCGGACCCCTGAGGTCACATGCGTGGT GGTGGACGTGAGCCACGAAGACCCTGAGGTCAAGTTCA ACTGGTACGTGGACGGCGTGGAGGTGCATAATGCCAAG ACAAAGCCGCGGGAGGAGCAGTACAACAGCACGTACCG TGTGGTCAGCGTCCTCACCGTCCTGCACCAGGACTGGCT GAATGGCAAGGAGTACAAGTGCAAGGTCTCCAACAAAG CCCTCCCAGCCCCCATCGAGAAAACCATCTCCAAAGCCA AAGGGCAGCCCCGAGAACCACAGGTGTACACCCTGCCC CCATGCCGGGATGAGCTGACCAAGAACCAGGTCAGCCT GTGGTGCCTGGTCAAAGGCTTCTATCCCAGCGACATCGC CGTGGAGTGGGAGAGCAATGGGCAGCCGGAGAACAACT ACAAGACCACGCCTCCCGTGCTGGACTCCGACGGCTCCT TCTTCCTCTACAGCAAGCTCACCGTGGACAAGAGCAGGT GGCAGCAGGGGAACGTCTTCTCATGCTCCGTGATGCATG AGGCTCTGCACAACCACTACACGCAGAAGAGCCTCTCC CTGTCTCCGGGTAAATCCGGAGGCCTGAACGACATCTTC GAGGCCCAGAAGATTGAATGGCACGAG 92 Nucleotide CTCCACTGTGTCGGGGACACCTACCCCAGCAACGACCG sequence GTGCTGTCAGGAGTGCAGGCCAGGCAACGGGATGGTGA cynomolgus GCCGCTGCAACCGCTCCCAGAACACGGTGTGCCGTCCGT OX40 antigen GCGGGCCCGGCTTCTACAACGACGTGGTCAGCGCCAAG Fc knob chain CCCTGCAAGGCCTGCACATGGTGCAACCTCAGAAGTGG GAGTGAGCGGAAACAGCCGTGCACGGCCACACAGGACA CAGTCTGCCGCTGCCGGGCGGGCACCCAGCCCCTGGAC AGCTACAAGCCTGGAGTTGACTGTGCCCCCTGCCCTCCA GGGCACTTCTCCCCGGGCGACAACCAGGCCTGCAAGCC CTGGACCAACTGCACCTTGGCCGGGAAGCACACCCTGC AGCCAGCCAGCAATAGCTCGGACGCCATCTGTGAGGAC AGGGACCCCCCACCCACACAGCCCCAGGAGACCCAGGG CCCCCCGGCCAGGCCCACCACTGTCCAGCCCACTGAAGC CTGGCCCAGAACCTCACAGAGACCCTCCACCCGGCCCGT GGAGGTCCCCAGGGGCCCTGCGGTCGACGAACAGTTAT ATTTTCAGGGCGGCTCACCCAAATCTGCAGACAAAACTC ACACATGCCCACCGTGCCCAGCACCTGAACTCCTGGGG GGACCGTCAGTCTTCCTCTTCCCCCCAAAACCCAAGGAC ACCCTCATGATCTCCCGGACCCCTGAGGTCACATGCGTG GTGGTGGACGTGAGCCACGAAGACCCTGAGGTCAAGTT CAACTGGTACGTGGACGGCGTGGAGGTGCATAATGCCA AGACAAAGCCGCGGGAGGAGCAGTACAACAGCACGTAC CGTGTGGTCAGCGTCCTCACCGTCCTGCACCAGGACTGG CTGAATGGCAAGGAGTACAAGTGCAAGGTCTCCAACAA AGCCCTCCCAGCCCCCATCGAGAAAACCATCTCCAAAG CCAAAGGGCAGCCCCGAGAACCACAGGTGTACACCCTG CCCCCATGCCGGGATGAGCTGACCAAGAACCAGGTCAG CCTGTGGTGCCTGGTCAAAGGCTTCTATCCCAGCGACAT CGCCGTGGAGTGGGAGAGCAATGGGCAGCCGGAGAACA ACTACAAGACCACGCCTCCCGTGCTGGACTCCGACGGCT CCTTCTTCCTCTACAGCAAGCTCACCGTGGACAAGAGCA GGTGGCAGCAGGGGAACGTCTTCTCATGCTCCGTGATGC ATGAGGCTCTGCACAACCACTACACGCAGAAGAGCCTC TCCCTGTCTCCGGGTAAATCCGGAGGCCTGAACGACATC TTCGAGGCCCAGAAGATTGAATGGCACGAG 93 murine OX40 GTGACCGCCAGACGGCTGAACTGCGTGAAGCACACCTA antigen Fc knob CCCCAGCGGCCACAAGTGCTGCAGAGAGTGCCAGCCCG chain GCCACGGCATGGTGTCCAGATGCGACCACACACGGGAC ACCCTGTGCCACCCTTGCGAGACAGGCTTCTACAACGAG GCCGTGAACTACGATACCTGCAAGCAGTGCACCCAGTG CAACCACAGAAGCGGCAGCGAGCTGAAGCAGAACTGCA CCCCCACCCAGGATACCGTGTGCAGATGCAGACCCGGC ACCCAGCCCAGACAGGACAGCGGCTACAAGCTGGGCGT GGACTGCGTGCCCTGCCCTCCTGGCCACTTCAGCCCCGG CAACAACCAGGCCTGCAAGCCCTGGACCAACTGCACCC TGAGCGGCAAGCAGACCAGACACCCCGCCAGCGACAGC CTGGATGCCGTGTGCGAGGACAGAAGCCTGCTGGCCAC CCTGCTGTGGGAGACACAGCGGCCCACCTTCAGACCCA CCACCGTGCAGAGCACCACCGTGTGGCCCAGAACCAGC GAGCTGCCCAGTCCTCCTACCCTCGTGACACCTGAGGGC CCCGTCGACGAACAGTTATATTTTCAGGGCGGCTCACCC AAATCTGCAGACAAAACTCACACATGCCCACCGTGCCC AGCACCTGAACTCCTGGGGGGACCGTCAGTCTTCCTCTT CCCCCCAAAACCCAAGGACACCCTCATGATCTCCCGGAC CCCTGAGGTCACATGCGTGGTGGTGGACGTGAGCCACG AAGACCCTGAGGTCAAGTTCAACTGGTACGTGGACGGC GTGGAGGTGCATAATGCCAAGACAAAGCCGCGGGAGGA GCAGTACAACAGCACGTACCGTGTGGTCAGCGTCCTCAC CGTCCTGCACCAGGACTGGCTGAATGGCAAGGAGTACA AGTGCAAGGTCTCCAACAAAGCCCTCCCAGCCCCCATCG AGAAAACCATCTCCAAAGCCAAAGGGCAGCCCCGAGAA CCACAGGTGTACACCCTGCCCCCATGCCGGGATGAGCTG ACCAAGAACCAGGTCAGCCTGTGGTGCCTGGTCAAAGG CTTCTATCCCAGCGACATCGCCGTGGAGTGGGAGAGCA ATGGGCAGCCGGAGAACAACTACAAGACCACGCCTCCC GTGCTGGACTCCGACGGCTCCTTCTTCCTCTACAGCAAG CTCACCGTGGACAAGAGCAGGTGGCAGCAGGGGAACGT CTTCTCATGCTCCGTGATGCATGAGGCTCTGCACAACCA CTACACGCAGAAGAGCCTCTCCCTGTCTCCGGGTAAATC CGGAGGCCTGAACGACATCTTCGAGGCCCAGAAGATTG AATGGCACGAG 80 Fc hole chain DKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGPSVFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCV VVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHNAKTKPREEQYNSTYR VVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNKALPAPIEKTISKAKG QPREPQVCTLPPSRDELTKNQVSLSCAVKGFYPSDIAVEWE SNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFFLVSKLTVDKSRWQQGNV FSCSVMHEALHNHYTQKSLSLSPGK 94 human OX40 LHCVGDTYPSNDRCCHECRPGNGMVSRCSRSQNTVCRPC antigen Fc knob GPGFYNDVVSSKPCKPCTWCNLRSGSERKQLCTATQDTVC chain RCRAGTQPLDSYKPGVDCAPCPPGHFSPGDNQACKPWTN CTLAGKHTLQPASNSSDAICEDRDPPATQPQETQGPPARPIT VQPTEAWPRTSQGPSTRPVEVPGGRAVDEQLYFQGGSPKS ADKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGPSVFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTC VVVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHNAKTKPREEQYNSTY RVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNKALPAPIEKTISKAK GQPREPQVYTLPPCRDELTKNQVSLWCLVKGFYPSDIAVE WESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFFLYSKLTVDKSRWQQ GNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQKSLSLSPGKSGGLNDIFEAQKI EWHE 95 cynomolgus LHCVGDTYPSNDRCCQECRPGNGMVSRCNRSQNTVCRPC OX40 antigen GPGFYNDVVSAKPCKACTWCNLRSGSERKQPCTATQDTV Fc knob chain CRCRAGTQPLDSYKPGVDCAPCPPGHFSPGDNQACKPWT NCTLAGKHTLQPASNSSDAICEDRDPPPTQPQETQGPPARP TTVQPTEAWPRTSQRPSTRPVEVPRGPAVDEQLYFQGGSP KSADKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGPSVFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEV TCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHNAKTKPREEQYNS TYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNKALPAPIEKTISK AKGQPREPQVYTLPPCRDELTKNQVSLWCLVKGFYPSDIA VEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFFLYSKLTVDKSRWQ QGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQKSLSLSPGKSGGLNDIFEAQ KIEWHE 96 murine OX40 VTARRLNCVKHTYPSGHKCCRECQPGHGMVSRCDHTRDT antigen Fc knob LCHPCETGFYNEAVNYDTCKQCTQCNHRSGSELKQNCTPT chain QDTVCRCRPGTQPRQDSGYKLGVDCVPCPPGHFSPGNNQA CKPWTNCTLSGKQTRHPASDSLDAVCEDRSLLATLLWETQ RPTFRPTTVQSTTVWPRTSELPSPPTLVTPEGPVDEQLYFQG GSPKSADKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGPSVFLFPPKPKDTLMISRT PEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHNAKTKPREEQ YNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNKALPAPIEK TISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPCRDELTKNQVSLWCLVKGFYP SDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFFLYSKLTVDKS RWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQKSLSLSPGKSGGLNDIF EAQKIEWHE

All OX40-Fc-fusion encoding sequences were cloned into a plasmid vector driving expression of the insert from an MPSV promoter and containing a synthetic polyA signal sequence located at the 3′ end of the CDS. In addition, the vector contained an EBV OriP sequence for episomal maintenance of the plasmid.

For preparation of the biotinylated monomeric antigen/Fc fusion molecules, exponentially growing suspension HEK293 EBNA cells were co-transfected with three vectors encoding the two components of fusion protein (knob and hole chains) as well as BirA, an enzyme necessary for the biotinylation reaction. The corresponding vectors were used at a 2:1:0.05 ratio (“antigen ECD-AcTEV-Fc knob”: “Fc hole”: “BirA”).

For protein production in 500 ml shake flasks, 400 million HEK293 EBNA cells were seeded 24 hours before transfection. For transfection cells were centrifuged for 5 minutes at 210 g, and supernatant was replaced by pre-warmed CD CHO medium. Expression vectors were resuspended in 20 mL of CD CHO medium containing 200 μg of vector DNA. After addition of 540 μL of polyethylenimine (PEI), the solution was vortexed for 15 seconds and incubated for 10 minutes at room temperature. Afterwards, cells were mixed with the DNA/PEI solution, transferred to a 500 mL shake flask and incubated for 3 hours at 37° C. in an incubator with a 5% CO2 atmosphere. After the incubation, 160 mL of F17 medium was added and cells were cultured for 24 hours. One day after transfection, 1 mM valproic acid and 7% Feed were added to the culture. After 7 days of culturing, the cell supernatant was collected by spinning down cells for 15 min at 210 g. The solution was sterile filtered (0.22 μm filter), supplemented with sodium azide to a final concentration of 0.01% (w/v), and kept at 4° C.

Secreted proteins were purified from cell culture supernatants by affinity chromatography using Protein A, followed by size exclusion chromatography. For affinity chromatography, the supernatant was loaded on a HiTrap ProteinA HP column (CV=5 mL, GE Healthcare) and equilibrated with 20 mM sodium phosphate, 20 mM sodium citrate, 0.5 M sodium chloride, 0.01% (v/v) Tween-20 containing buffer (pH 7.5). Unbound protein was removed by washing with at least 10 column volumes of the same buffer. The bound protein was eluted using a linear pH gradient over 12 column volumes to 100% of 20 mM sodium citrate, 0.5 M sodium chloride, 0.01% (v/v) Tween-20 containing buffer (pH 2.5). The column was then washed with 10 column volumes of 20 mM sodium citrate, 0.5 M sodium chloride, 0.01% Tween-20 buffer (pH 2.5).

The pH of the collected fractions was adjusted by adding 1/40 (v/v) of 2M Tris, pH8.0. The protein was concentrated and filtered prior to loading on a HiLoad Superdex 200 column (GE Healthcare) equilibrated with 2 mM MOPS, 150 mM sodium chloride, 0.02% (w/v) sodium azide solution of pH 7.4.

For affinity determination to the human receptor, the ectodomain of human OX40 was also subcloned in frame with an avi (GLNDIFEAQKIEWHE, SEQ ID NO:84) and a hexahistidine tag. The sequences are shown in Table 31.

Protein production was performed as described above for the Fc-fusion protein. Secreted proteins were purified from cell culture supernatants by chelating chromatography, followed by size exclusion chromatography. The first chromatographic step was performed on a NiNTA Superflow Cartridge (5m1, Qiagen) equilibrated with a solution of 20 mM sodium phosphate and 500 nM sodium chloride, pH 7.4. Elution was performed by applying a gradient over 12 column volume from 5% to 45% of elution buffer containing 20 mM sodium phosphate, 500 nM sodium chloride and 500 mM Imidazole (pH 7.4). The protein was concentrated and filtered prior to loading on a HiLoad Superdex 75 column (GE Healthcare) equilibrated with a solution of 2 mM MOPS, 150 mM sodium chloride and 0.02% (w/v) sodium azide (pH 7.4).

TABLE 31 Sequences of monomeric human OX40 His molecule SEQ ID NO: antigen Sequence 97 nucleotide CTGCACTGCGTGGGCGACACCTACCCCAGCAACGACCGGT sequence GCTGCCACGAGTGCAGACCCGGCAACGGCATGGTGTCCCG human GTGCAGCCGGTCCCAGAACACCGTGTGCAGACCTTGCGGC OX40 His CCTGGCTTCTACAACGACGTGGTGTCCAGCAAGCCCTGCAA GCCTTGTACCTGGTGCAACCTGCGGAGCGGCAGCGAGCGG AAGCAGCTGTGTACCGCCACCCAGGATACCGTGTGCCGGT GTAGAGCCGGCACCCAGCCCCTGGACAGCTACAAACCCGG CGTGGACTGCGCCCCTTGCCCTCCTGGCCACTTCAGCCCTG GCGACAACCAGGCCTGCAAGCCTTGGACCAACTGCACCCT GGCCGGCAAGCACACCCTGCAGCCCGCCAGCAATAGCAGC GACGCCATCTGCGAGGACCGGGATCCTCCTGCCACCCAGC CTCAGGAAACCCAGGGCCCTCCCGCCAGACCCATCACCGT GCAGCCTACAGAGGCCTGGCCCAGAACCAGCCAGGGGCCT AGCACCAGACCCGTGGAAGTGCCTGGCGGCAGAGCCGTCG ACGAACAGTTATATTTTCAGGGCGGCTCAGGCCTGAACGA CATCTTCGAGGCCCAGAAGATCGAGTGGCACGAGGCTCGA GCTCACCACCATCACCATCAC 98 human LHCVGDTYPSNDRCCHECRPGNGMVSRCSRSQNTVCRPCGP OX40 His GFYNDVVSSKPCKPCTWCNLRSGSERKQLCTATQDTVCRCR AGTQPLDSYKPGVDCAPCPPGHFSPGDNQACKPWTNCTLAG KHTLQPASNSSDAICEDRDPPATQPQETQGPPARPITVQPTEA WPRTSQGPSTRPVEVPGGRAVDEQLYFQGGSGLNDIFEAQKIE WHEARAHHHHHH

Example 9 Biochemical Characterization of FAP-Targeted Single Chain OX40 Ligand Trimer-Containing Fc Fusion Antigen Binding Molecule by Surface Plasmon Resonance

Binding of FAP-targeted single chain OX40 ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule to recombinant OX40 was assessed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). All SPR experiments were performed on a Biacore T100 at 25° C. with HBS-EP as a running buffer (0.01 M HEPES pH 7.4, 0.15 M NaCl, 3 mM EDTA, 0.005% Surfactant P20, Biacore, Freiburg/Germany).

The avidity of the interaction between the FAP-targeted or untargeted OX40 ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecules and recombinant OX40 (human, cyno and murine) was determined as illustrated in FIG. 8A. The data demonstrated that both variants of OX40 ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecules (FAP single chain OX40 trimer (compound S10 in FIGS. 8A-D, and DP47-containing single chain OX40 trimer (Control 3) in FIGS. 9A-C) bind with comparable avidities to human and cynomolgus OX40 but negligibly to the mouse homolog.

Recombinant biotinylated human, cynomolgus and murine OX40 Fc(kih) fusion molecules were directly coupled on a SA chip using the standard coupling instruction (Biacore, Freiburg/Germany). The immobilization level was about 600 resonance units (RU). FAP-targeted OX40 ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule, or the DP47-containing control, was passed at a concentration range from 0.2 to 500 nM with a flow of 30 μL/minutes through the flow cells over 120 seconds. The dissociation was monitored for 220 seconds. Bulk refractive index differences were corrected by subtracting the response obtained on a reference empty flow cell.

For affinity measurement (FIGS. 10A-C), direct coupling of around 7200 resonance units (RU) of the anti-human Fc specific antibody was performed on a CMS chip at pH 5.0 using the standard amine coupling kit (GE Healthcare). FAP-targeted or untargeted single chain trimeric Ox40 ligand Fc(kih) fusion molecule at 200 nM was captured with a flow rate of 30 μl/min for 60 sec on flow cell 2. A dilution series (31-2000 nM) of huOX40 avi His was passed on both flow cells at 30 μl/min for 120 sec to record the association phase. The dissociation phase was monitored for 180 s and triggered by switching from the sample solution to HBS-EP. The chip surface was regenerated after every cycle using a double injection of 60 sec 3M MgCl2. Bulk refractive index differences were corrected for by subtracting the response obtained on the reference flow cell 1. For the interaction between targeted single chain trimeric OX40 ligand Fc(kih) fusion molecule and hu0x40 avi His, the affinity constants were derived from the rate constants by fitting to a 1:1 Langmuir binding using the Biaeval software (GE Healthcare). Dissociation constants can be found in Table 32.

TABLE 32 Fittings to 1:1 Langmuir binding and Affinity constants Ligand Analyte ka (1/Ms) kd (1/s) KD (M) FAP single chain Hu OX40 1.8E+05 1.3E−01 7.5E−07 OX40 trimer avi His Compound S10

Example 10 Functional Characterization of the Targeted 4-1BB Ligand or OX40 Ligand Trimer-Containing Fc Fusion Antigen Binding Molecules

10.1. Binding on Naïve Versus Activated Human PMBCs of the FAP-Targeted 4-1BB Ligand or OX40 Ligand Trimer-Containing Fc (kih) Fusion Antigen Binding Molecules

Buffy coats were obtained from the Zurich blood donation center. To isolate fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) the buffy coat was diluted with the same volume of DPBS (Gibco by Life Technologies, Cat. No. 14190 326). 50 mL polypropylene centrifuge tubes (TPP, Cat.-No. 91050) were supplied with 15 mL Histopaque 1077 (SIGMA Life Science, Cat.-No. 10771, polysucrose and sodium diatrizoate, adjusted to a density of 1.077 g/mL) and the buffy coat solution were layered above the Histopaque 1077. The tubes were centrifuged for 30 min at 450 x g. PBMCs were collected from the interface, washed three times with DPBS and resuspended in T cell medium consisting of RPMI 1640 medium (Gibco by Life Technology, Cat. No. 42401-042) supplied with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS, Gibco by Life Technology, Cat. No. 16000-044, Lot 941273, gamma-irradiated, mycoplasma-free and heat inactivated at 56° C. for 35 min), 1% (v/v) GlutaMAX I (GIBCO by Life Technologies, Cat. No. 35050 038), 1 mM Sodium-Pyruvat (SIGMA, Cat. No. S8636), 1% (v/v) MEM non-essential amino acids (SIGMA, Cat.-No. M7145) and 50 μM β-Mercaptoethanol (SIGMA, M3148).

PBMCs were used directly after isolation (naïve, resting PBMCs) or they were stimulated to induce 4-1BB and OX40 expression on the cell surface of T cells (activated PBMCs) as following: naïve PBMCs were cultured for four days in T cell medium supplemented with 200 U/mL Proleukin and 2 ug/mL PHA-L in a 6-well tissue culture plate. For reactivation cells were further activated for 1 day on 6-well tissue culture plate coated with 10 ug/mL anti-human CD3 (clone OKT3) and 2 ug/mL anti-human CD28 (clone CD28.2) in the T cell medium supplemented with 200 U/mL Proleukin at 37° C. and 5% CO2.

For detection of 4-1BB binding, 0.1×106 naïve or activated PBMCs were added to each well of a round-bottom suspension cell 96-well plates (greiner bio-one, cellstar, Cat. No. 650185). For detection of OX40, naïve human PBMC and activated human PBMC were mixed. To enable discrimination of naïve and activated human PBMC naïve cells were labeled prior to the binding assay using the eFluor670 cell proliferation dye (eBioscience, Cat.-No.65-0840-85).

For eFluor670 cell proliferation dye labelling, cells were harvested, washed with pre-warmed (37° C.) DPBS and adjusted to a cell density of 1×107 cells/mL in DPBS. eFluor670 cell proliferation dye (eBioscience, Cat.-No.65-0840-85) was added to naïve human PBMC at a final concentration of 2.5 mM and a final cell density of 0.5×107 cells/mL in DPBS. Cells were then incubated for 10 min at room temperature in the dark. To stop labeling reaction, 2 mL FBS were added and cells were washed three times with the T cell medium. A 1 to 1 mixture of 1×105 naive, eFluor670 labeled human PBMC and unlabeled activated human PBMC were then added to each well of a round-bottom suspension cell 96-well plates (greiner bio-one, cellstar, Cat. No. 650185).

Plates were centrifuged 4 minutes at 400×g and at 4° C. and supernatant was flicked off. Cells were washed once with 200 μL 4° C. cold FACS buffer (DPBS supplied with 2% FBS, 5 mM EDTA pH8 (Amresco, Cat. No. E177) and 7.5 mM Sodium azide (Sigma-Aldrich Cat. No. S2002)). Cells were incubated in 50 μL/well of 4° C. cold FACS containing titrated FAP-targeted or DP47 untargeted single chain 4-1BB or OX40 ligand trimer-containing Fc fusion antigen binding molecules for 120 minutes at 4° C. Plates were washed four times with 200 μL/well 4° C. FACS buffer.

For detection of 4-1BB binding, cells were resuspended in 50 μL/well 4° C. cold FACS buffer containing 0.125 μg/mL anti-human CD4-BV421 (clone RPA-T4, mouse IgG1 k, BioLegend, Cat.-No. 300532), 20 μL/mL anti-human CD3-PerCP/Cy5.5 (clone SK7, mouse IgG1k, BD Bioscience, Cat.-No. 332771), 0.25 μg/mL anti-human CD8a-APC (clone RPA-T8, mouse IgG1k, BioLegend, Cat.-No. 301014), 0.25 μg/mL anti-human CD56-AF488 (clone HCD56, mouse IgGlk, BD Pharmingen, Cat.-No. 318310), 2.5 μg/mL anti-human Fcy-specific goat IgG F(ab)2 fragment-PE (Jackson Immunoresearch, Cat. No. 109 116 098 or 109-116-170) and incubated for 30 minutes at 4° C. in the dark.

For detection of OX40 binding, cells were resuspended in 50 μL/well 4° C. cold FACS buffer containing 0.255 μg/mL anti-human CD4-BV421 (clone RPA-T4, mouse IgG1 k, BioLegend, Cat.-No. 300532), 0.250 μg/mL anti-human CD8-BV711 (clone RPa-T8, mouse IgG1k, BioLegend, Cat.-No. 3010441), 0.250 μg/mL anti-human CD45-PerCP Cy5.5 (clone HI30, mouse IgGlk, BioLegend, Cat.-No. 304028), and 30 μg/mL Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated AffiniPure anti-human IgG Fcy-fragment-specific goat IgG F(ab′)2 fragment (Jackson ImmunoResearch, Cat. No. 109 096 098) and incubated for 30 minutes at 4° C. in the dark.

Plates where then washed twice with 200 μL/well 4° C. FACS buffer and cells were finally resuspended in 80 μL/well FACS-buffer containing 0.2 μg/mL DAPI (Santa Cruz Biotec, Cat. No. Sc-3598) and acquired the same day using 5-laser LSR-Fortessa (BD Bioscience with DIVA software).

In some cases, cells were fixed and acquired the next day. For this method cells were stained additionally prior to incubation with primary antibody with 100 μL/well DPBS containing 1:1000 diluted LIVE/DEAD Fixable Blue Dead Cell Stain Kit, for UV excitation (Life Technologies, Molecular Probes, Cat. No. L-23105) for 30 minutes at 4° C. in the dark. After incubation with a secondary antibody cocktail, plates were washed twice with 200 μL/well 4° C. FACS buffer, fixed with 50 DPBS containing 1% Formaldehyde (Sigma, HT501320-9.5L) and incubated overnight at 4° C. For flow cytomtric analysis cells were resuspended in 80 μl/well FACS buffer.

As shown in FIGS. 11A to 11D and FIGS. 12A to 12D, neither FAP-targeted nor DP47-containing single chain 4-1BBL and OX40L trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecules did bind to resting human CD4+ T cells or CD8+ T cells. In contrast, all constructs bound strongly to activated CD8+ or CD4+ T cells. The single chain 4-1BBL trimer-containing molecules showed approximately 10 fold lower binding to CD4+ as compared to CD8+ T-cells. In contrast, the single chain Ox40L trimer-containing molecules showed approximately 4 fold higher intensity of specific fluorescence upon binding to CD4+ as compared to CD8+ T cells. These differences concur very well with 10-20 fold higer levels of 4-1BB expression on CD8+ human T-cells as compared to CD4+ T-cells while the latter express approximately 4 fold higher levels of OX40 as compared to the CD8+ subset. As shown in FIGS. 11E to 11H, monovalent and bivalent FAP (28H1 or 4B9)-targeted or CEA (sm9b)-targeted or DP47-untargeted single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand Fc (kih) fusion molecules did not bind to resting human CD4+ or CD8+ T cells but strongly to activated CD8+ T cells and to a less extend to activated CD4+ T cells. As can be seen in FIGS. 11J to 11M, the binding was independent of targeting or bivalency, e.g. independent of the fusion location of the single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand.

10.2. Binding to FAP-Expressing Tumor Cells

For binding assays on FAP expressing cells, human fibroblast activating protein (huFAP) expressing cells NIH/3T3-huFAP clone 39 or WM266-4 cells (ATCC, Cat. No. CRL-1676) were used. The NIH/3T3-huFAP clone 39 was generated by the transfection of the mouse embryonic fibroblast NIH/3T3 cell line (ATCC, Cat. No. CRL-1658) with the expression vector pETR4921 to express huFAP under 1.5 μg/mL Puromycin selection.

0.1×106 NIH/3T3-huFAP clone 39 (4-1BBL) or 33 104 WM266-4 cells (OX40L) in DPBS were added to each well of round-bottom suspension cell 96-well plates. Plates were centrifuged 4 minutes, 400×g at 4° C. and supernatants were flicked off. Cells were washed once with 200 μL DPBS and pellets were resuspended by a short and gentle vortex. For binding analysis of the 4-1BBL trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecule, 100 μL/well of 4° C. cold DPBS buffer containing 1:5000 diluted Fixable Viability Dye eFluor 450 (eBioscience, Cat. No. 65 0863 18) were added and plates were incubated for 30 minutes at 4° C. Cells were washed once with 200 μL 4° C. cold DPBS buffer. All samples were resuspended in 50 μL/well of 4° C. cold FACS buffer containing the FAP-targeted or DP47-containing single chain 4-1BBL or OX40L trimer-containing molecules at the indicated range of cocentrations and incubated for 1 hour at 4° C. Afterwards the cells were washed five times with 200 μL 4° C. FACS buffer and resuspended by a short vortex. Cells were further stained with 50 μL/well of 4° C. cold FACS buffer containing 30 μg/mL Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated AffiniPure anti-human IgG Fcγ-fragment-specific goat IgG F(ab′)2 fragment (Jackson ImmunoResearch, Cat. No. 109 096 098) for 30 minutes at 4° C. Cells were washed twice with 200 μL 4° C. FACS buffer. Cells stained with OX40L trimer-containing molecule were finally resuspended in 80 μL/well FACS-buffer containing 0.2 μg/mL DAPI (Santa Cruz Biotec, Cat. No. Sc-3598) and acquired the same day using 5-laser LSR-Fortessa (BD Bioscience with DIVA software).

Cells stained with 4-1BBL trimer-containing antigen binding molecules and cells were fixed by resuspension in 50 DPBS containing 1% Formaldehyde. The next day cells were resuspended in 100 μL FACS-buffer and acquired using 5-laser LSR-Fortessa (BD Bioscience with DIVA software).

As shown in FIGS. 13A-E, the FAP-targeted molecules containing either the single chain trimeric 4-1BBL (compound 51, FIG. 13A) or OX40L (compound S10, FIG. 13B) efficiently bound to human FAP-expressig cells. In contrast, their counterparts containing the DP47 antibody (Control 1 and 3) showed no such binding (FIGS. 13A and 13B). Therefore, only FAP-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BBL or OX40L containing molecules showed tumor-targeting properties. As shown, in FIGS. 13C and 13D, monovalent and bivalent FAP (28H1 or 4B9)-targeted, but not DP47-untargeted single chain trimeric 4-1BBL Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecules can bind to FAP-expressing human melanoma cell lines MV-3 and WM-266-4. FAP-binding clone 4B9 shows the strongest binding whereas clone 28H1 shows a lower affinity on FAP-expressing tumor cells. Due to the lower affinity, differences between the monovalent FAP (28H1)-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BBL (kih) fusion molecule and the bivalent binding FAP (28H1)-targeted hu IgG1 P329G LALA control molecule become more obvious. The bivalent binding FAP(28H1)-targeted hu IgG1 P329G LALA control molecule shows a lower MFI (bivalent occupancy of the FAP molecules) and lower EC50 value.

10.3. Binding to CEA-Expressing Tumor Cells

For binding assays on CEA-expressing tumor cells, the following human CEA-expressing tumor cell line was used: human gastric cancer (stomach) cell line received from a liver metastasis MKN45 (DMSZ, No. ACC 409). The assays were performed as described for the FAP-expressing MV-3 and WM-266-4 tumor cell lines in Example 10.2.

As shown in FIG. 13E, monovalent and bivalent CEA (sm9b)-targeted but not DP47-untargeted single chain 4-1BB ligand trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecules can bind to CEA-expressing human gastric cancer cell line MKN45. Differences between the monovalent CEA (sm9b)-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BBL Fc (kih) fusion molecule (Compound S5) and the bivalent CEA (sm9b)-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BBL Fc (kih) fusion molecule (Compound S4) is shown in a lower MFI (bivalent occupancy of the CEA molecules).

10.4. Binding to Activated Mouse Splenocytes Expressing Mouse 4-1BB

Mouse spleens were collected in 3 mL PBS and a single cell suspension was generated using the gentle MACS tubes (Miltenyi Biotec Cat.-No. 130-096-334) and gentle MACS Octo Dissociator (Miltenyi Biotec). Afterwards splenocytes were filtered through a 70 μm pre-separation filters (Miltenyi Biotec Cat.-No. 130-041-407) and centrifuged for 7 min at 350×g and 4° C. Supernatants were aspirated and cells were resuspended in RPMI 1640 medium supplied with 10% (v/v) FBS, 1% (v/v) GlutaMAX I, 1 mM Sodium-Pyruvate, 1% (v/v) MEM non-essential amino acids, 50 μM β-Mercaptoethanol and 10% Penicillin-Streptomycin (SIGMA, Cat.-No. P4333). 106 cells/mL were cultured for 2 days in a 6-well tissue culture plate coated with 10 μg/mL anti-mouse CD3c Armenian hamster IgG (clone 145-2C11, BioLegend, Cat.-No. 100331) and 2 μg/mL anti-mouse CD28 Syrian hamster IgG (clone 37.51, BioLegend, Cat.-No. 102102). Activated mouse splenocytes were harvested, washed in DPBS, counted and 0.1×106 cells were transferred to each well of a 96 U-bottom non-tissue culture treated well plate. Supernatant was removed and cells were stained in 100 uL/well DPBS containing 1:5000 diluted Fixable Viability Dye eF660 (Bioscience, Cat-No. 65-0864-18) for 30 min at 4° C. Cells were washed with DPBS and stained in 50 uL FACS buffer containing different concentration of FAP-targeted or DP47-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BBL antigen binding molecule or anti-mouse CD137 human IgG1 P329G LALA mAb (clone Lob.12.3). Cells were incubated for 60 min at 4° C. Then cells were washed four times with FACS buffer and stained in 50 μL/well FACS buffer containing 10 μg/mL purified anti-mouse CD16/CD32 rat IgG-Fc-Block (BD Pharmingen, Cat.-No. 553142 clone 2.4G2), 5 μg/mL anti-mouse CD8b rat IgG2bκ-FITC (BioLegend, Cat.-No. 126606, clone YTS156.7.7), 0.67 μg/mL anti-mouse CD3 rat IgG2bκ-APC-Cy7 (BioLegend, Cat.-No. 100222, clone 17A2), 0.67 μg/mL anti-mouse CD4 rat IgG2bκ-PE-Cy7 (BioLegend, Cat.-No. 100422, clone GK1.5), 2 μg/mL anti-mouse NK1.1 Mouse (C3H x BALB/c) IgG2aκ-PerCp-Cy5.5 (BioLegend, Cat.-No. 108728, clone PK136) and 10 μg/mL PE-conjugated AffiniPure polyclonal F(ab′)2 Fragment goat anti-human IgG, Fcγ fragment specific, minimal cross-reactive to Bovine mouse and rabbit serum proteins (Jackson ImmunoResearch, Cat.-No. 109-116-170) for 30 min at 4° C. Cells were washed twice with 200 μL/well cold FACS buffer, fixed with 50 μL/well DPBS containing 1% Formaldehyde and stored overnight at 4° C. The next day cells were resuspended in FACS-buffer and acquired using a 3-laser Canto II flow cytometer (BD Bioscience with DIVA software).

As shown in FIGS. 14A-B, the FAP-targeted or DP47-containing single chain trimeric human 4-1BBL molecules (Compound S1 and Control 1) do not bind to mouse 4-1BB. Therefore their activity cannot be tested in immune competent mice. For in vivo mode of action studies either humanized mouse models or surrogates containing single chain trimeric mouse 4-1BBL have to be used.

Example 11 Biological Activity of the Targeted 4-1BB Ligand or OX40 Ligand Trimer-Containing Fc Fusion Antigen Binding Molecules

11.1. NFκB Activation in HeLa Cells Expressing Human 4-1BB or OX40

11.1.1. Generation of HeLa Cells Expressing Human 4-1BB and Luciferase Under Control of an NFκB Enhancer Region

The human-papilloma-virus-18-induced cervix carcinoma cell line HeLa (ATCC, Cat. No. CCL-2) was transduced with the expression vector pETR10829, which contains the human sequence of 4-1BB (Uniprot accession Q07011, SEQ ID NO:99) under control of the CMV-promoter and the Puromycin resistance gene. Cells were cultured in DMEM-medium supplied with 10% FBS, 1% GlutaMAX-I and 3 μg/mL Puromycin (InvivoGen, Cat-No. ant-pr). 4-1BB-transduced HeLa cells were tested for 4-1BB expression by flow cytometry: 0.2×106 living cells were resuspended in 100 μL FACS buffer containing 0.1 μg PerCP/Cy5.5 conjugated anti-human 4-1BB mouse IgG1κ clone 4B4-1 (BioLegend Cat. No. 309814) or its isotype control (PerCP/Cy5.5 conjugated mouse IgG1κ isotype control antibody clone MOPC 21, BioLegend Cat. No. 400150) and incubated for 30 minutes at 4° C. Cells were washed twice with FACS buffer, resuspended in 300 μL FACS buffer containing 0.06 μg DAPI and acquired using 5-laser LSR-Fortessa the same day. Single clones were generated by limited dilution. To this end, living human-4-1BB transduced HeLa cells were resuspended in medium to a density of 10, 5 and 2.5 cells/mL and 200 μL of these cell suspensions were transferred to round bottom tissue-culture treated 96-well plates (6 plates/cell concentration, TPP Cat. No. 92697). Single clones were harvested, expanded and tested for 4-1BB expression as described above. The clone with the highest expression of 4-1BB (clone 5) was chosen for further transfection with the NF-κB-luciferase expression-vector 5495p Tranlucent HygB, which was generated at Roche. The expression-vector 5495p Tranlucent HygB combines a Hygromycin B resistance into NF-κB(1) Luciferase Reporter Vector (Panomics, Cat. No. LR0051). Human-4-1BB HeLa clone 5 cells were cultured to a confluency of 70 percent. 50 μg (40 μL) of linearized (restriction enzymes AseI and SalI) 5495p Tranlucent HygB expression vector DNA were added to a sterile 0.4 cm Gene Pulser/MicroPulser Cuvette (Biorad, Cat.-No, 165-2081). 2.5×106 human-4-1BB HeLa clone 5 cells in 400 μl supplement-free DMEM were added and mixed carefully with the plasmid solution. The cuvette was implemented into the Gene Pulser Xcell total system (Biorad, Cat No. 165 2660) and an electroporation transfection was performed with following settings: Exponential pulse, capacitance 500 μF, voltage 160 V, resistance ∞. Immediately after the pulse transfected cells were transferred to a tissue culture flask 75 cm2 (TPP, Cat. No. 90075) with 15 mL 37° C. warm DMEM-Medium supplied with 10% FBS and 1% GlutaMAX I. 24 hours after seeding the selection media was added containing 3 μg/mL Puromycin and 200 μg/mL Hygromycin B (Roche, Cat. No. 10843555001). Afterwards surviving cells were expanded and limited dilution was performed as described above to generate single clones.

Clones were tested for 4-1BB expression as described above and for NF-κB-Luciferase activity as following: Clones were harvested in selection medium and counted using a Cell Counter Vi-cell xr 2.03 (Beckman Coulter, Cat. No. 731050). Cells were set to a cell density of 0.33×106 cells/mL and 150 μL of this cell suspension were transferred to each well of a sterile white 96-well flat bottom tissue culture plate with lid (greiner bio one, Cat. No. 655083) and, as a control, to a conventional 96 well flat bottom tissue culture plate (TPP Cat. No. 92096) to test survival and cell density on the next day. Cells were incubated at 37° C. and 5% CO2 overnight. On the next day 50 μL of medium containing recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alpha (rhTNFα, PeproTech, Cat.-No. 300 01A) at different concentrations were added to each well of the white 96-well plate resulting in final concentrations of 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 0 ng/well rhTNFα. Cells were incubated for 6 hours at 37° C. and 5% CO2 and washed afterwards three times with 200 μL/well DPBS. 30 μl freshly prepared Reporter Lysis Buffer (Promega, Cat-No: E3971) were added to each well and the plates were stored over night at −20° C. The next day frozen cell plates and detection buffer (Luciferase 1000 Assay System, Promega, Cat. No. E4550) were thawed to room temperature. 100 μL of detection buffer were added to each well and the plate was measured immediately using the SpectraMax M5/M5e microplate reader and SoftMax Pro Software (Molecular Devices) with following settings: for luciferase (RLUs), 500 ms integration time, no filter, collecting all wave length and top reading. Measured URLs above control (no rhTNFa added) were taken as luciferase activity. The NF-κc-4-1BB-HeLa clone 26 was chosen for further use exhibiting the highest luciferase activity and a sensible 4-1BB-expression.

11.1.2. NFKB activation in HeLa cells expressing human 4-1BB co-cultured with crosslinking Anti-Human IgG1 Fcγ-Fragment Specific Goat IgG F(ab′)2 Fragment

NF-κB-luciferase Human-4-1BB HeLa Cells were Harvested and Resuspended in DMEM Medium supplied with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum and 1% GlutaMAX Ito a concentration of 0.8×106 cells/mL. 100 μL (8×104 cells) of this cell suspension were transferred to each well of a sterile white 96-well flat bottom tissue culture plate with lid (greiner bio one, Cat. No. 655083) and the plate were incubated at 37° C. and 5% CO2 overnight. The next day 50 μL/well of medium containing titrated FAP- or DP47-targeted single chain trimeric human 4-1BBL antigen binding molecules were added. For crosslinking 50 μL/well of medium containing secondary antibody anti-human IgG Fcγ-fragment-specific goat IgG F(ab′)2 fragment (Jackson ImmunoResearch, Cat. No. 109-006-098) were added in a 1:4 ratio (4 times more secondary antibody than the primary single chain trimeric human 4-1BBL antigen binding molecule).

Plates were incubated for 6 hours at 37° C. and 5% CO2. Luciferase activity was measured as described under Example 11.1.1. The principle of the assay is illustrated in FIG. 15.

As shown in FIG. 16, crosslinking via a secondary polyclonal anti-huIgG1 Fcγ-specific goat IgG F(ab)2 fragment of FAP-targeted single chain trimeric human 4-1BBL (closed circle) or DP47-containing single chain trimeric human 4-1BBL (open circle, dotted line) leads to similar activation of the NFκB promoter as assessed by the level of luciferase expression in the reporter cell line. Therefore, following their artificially induced non-specific oligomerization, the DP47-cotaining and FAP-targeted single chain trimeric human 4-1BBL molecules show comparable capacity to agonistically engage 4-1BB at the cell surface.

11.1.3. NFκB Activation in HeLa Cells Expressing Human 4-1BB with FAP-Expressing Tumor Cells

NFκB-luciferase human-4-1BB HeLa cells were harvested and resuspended in DMEM

Medium supplied with 10% FBS and 1% GlutaMAX Ito a concentration of 0.2×106 cells/mL. 100 μL (2×104 cells) of this cell suspension were transferred to each well of a sterile white 96-well flat bottom tissue culture plate with lid (greiner bio one, Cat. No. 655083) and the plate were incubated at 37° C. and 5% CO2 overnight. On the next day 50 μL of medium containing titrated FAP- or DP47-targeted single chain trimeric human 4-1BBL antigen binding molecule were added.

The following human FAP-expressing tumor cells were resuspended in DMEM supplied with 10% FBS and 1% GlutaMAX-I to a concentration of 2×106 cells/mL:

    • human melanoma cell line MV3 (first published in van Muijen GN et al. 1991),
    • human female melanoma WM-266-4 cell line (ATCC No. CRL-1676), and
    • mouse embryonic fibroblast NIH/3T3 (ATCC No. CRL-1658) transfected with expression vector pETR4921 to express human FAP and Puromycin resistance: NIH/3T3-huFAP clone 39 as described in Example 10.2.

50 μL of FAP-expressing tumor cell suspension were added to each well. After adding crosslinking FAP-expressing tumor cells or medium (no crosslinking), plates were incubated for 6 hours at 37° C. and 5% CO2. Luciferase activity was measured as described in Example 11.1.1. Incubation time and ratio between NFKB-Luciferase human-CD137 HeLa cells and 3T3-human FAP clone 39 cells were titrated and time and ratio were set to values reaching the luciferase activation plateau. The principle of the assay is shown in FIG. 17.

As shown in FIGS. 18A to 18D, FAP-targeted single chain 4-1BBL trimer-containing Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecules (Compound Si) (filled circles) can be crosslinked via FAP-expressing tumor cells that leads to NFκB-mediated luciferase-activation in the reporter cell line in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, the DP47-containing single chain trimeric human 4-1BBL (Control 1) is unable to activate the reporter cell line under the same experimental conditions. In the absence of crosslinking (no addition of FAP-expressing tumor cells) both molecules are unable to induce NFκB-mediated luciferase-activation in the reporter cell line.

As shown in FIGS. 19A to 19C, monovalent or bivalent FAP (4B9 or 28H1)-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BBL Fc (kih) fusion antigen binding molecules can be crosslinked via FAP-expressing tumor cells and therefore can induce NF-κB-mediated luciferase-activation in the reporter cell line HeLa-hu4-1BB-NF-κB-luc in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, monovalent or bivalent DP47-untargeted single chain trimeric 4-1BBL Fc (kih) fusion molecules (Controls 1 and 2) are unable to activate the reporter cell line without cross-linking. In the absence of crosslinking (no addition of FAP-expressing tumor cells) all molecules are unable to induce NFκB-mediated luciferase-activation in the reporter cell line. The monovalent FAP-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BBL Fc(kih) fusion antigen binding molecules induce a stronger activation than the bivalent FAP (4B9)-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand (kih) fusion molecule, which reflects also the binding to FAP-expressing tumor cells. The differences between the 4B9 and the 28H1 FAP-binding clones however are not as strong as in the binding assay to FAP-expressing tumor cells. Still the monovalent FAP (4B9)-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand (kih) fusion molecule shows a slightly lower EC50 value which can be explained by the higher affinity to FAP.

11.1.4. NFκB Activation in HeLa Cells Expressing Human 4-1BB with CEA-Expressing Tumor Xells

The NF-κB activation assay using HeLa-human 4-1BB-NF-κB-luc reporter cell together with CEA-expressing tumor cell lines has been performed in the same way as described in 11.1.3., however the FAP-expressing tumor cells were exchanged with CEA-expressing MKN45 tumor cell line described already in Example 10.3 in this application.

As shown in FIGS. 20A and 20B, monovalent and bivalent CEA (sm9b)-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BBL Fc(kih) fusion antigen binding molecules can be crosslinked via CEA-expressing tumor cells and therefore can induce NF-κB-mediated luciferase-activation in the reporter cell line HeLa-hu4-1BB-NF-κB-luc in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast monovalent or bivalent DP47-untargeted single chain trimeric 4-1BBL Fc(kih) fusion molecules (Controls 1 and 2) are unable to activate the reporter cell line without cross-linking. In the absence of crosslinking (no addition of CEA-expressing tumor cell line MKN45) all molecules are unable to induce NFKB-mediated luciferase-activation in the reporter cell line. The monovalent CEA (sm9b)-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand (kih) fusion molecules (Compound S5) induce a stronger activation than the bivalent CEA (sm9b)-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand (kih) fusion molecules (Compound S4), which reflects also the MFI of binding to CEA-expressing human MKN45 tumor cell line shown in FIG. 13E.

11.1.5. HeLa Cells Expressing Human OX40 and Reporter Gene NFκB-luciferase

Agonstic binding of OX40 to its ligand induces downstream signaling via activation of NFκB (Weinberg et al., 2004). The recombinant reporter cell line HeLa_hOx40_NFκB_Luc1 was generated to express human OX40 on its surface. Additionally, it harbors a reporter plasmid containing the luciferase gene under the control of an NFκB-sensitive enhancer region. Ox40 triggering induces dose-dependent activation of NFκB, which translocates in the nucleus, where it binds on the NFκB sensitive enhancer of the reporter plasmid to increase expression of the luciferase protein. Luciferase catalyzes luciferin-oxidation resulting in oxyluciferin which emits light. This can be quantified by a luminometer. The scope of one experiment was to test the capacity of the single chain trimeric human OX40L antigen binding molecule to induce NFκB activation in HeLa_hOx40_NFκB_Luc1 cells.

Morris et al. showed that agonistic co-stimulation with conventional anti-Ox40 antibodies relied on surface immobilization (Morris et al., 2007). Thus, to achieve a higher degree of hypercrosslinking of OX40, FAP-targeted single chain trimeric human OX40L antigen binding molecules were hyper-crosslinked with WM-266-4 tumor cells naturally expressing FAP.

11.1.6. NFκB Activation in HeLa Cells Expressing Human OX40 with FAP-Expressing Tumor Cells

All centrifugations were done at 350×g for 5 minutes at 4° C. To wash the cells, the tubes or wells were filled up with the indicated buffer. After centrifugation the supernatant was aspirated and the cell pellet resuspended in the indicated buffer.

Adherent HeLa hOX40_NFκB_Luc1 cells and WM-266-4 cells were harvested using cell dissociation buffer (Invitrogen, Cat.-No. 13151-014) for 10 minutes at 37° C. Cells were washed once with DPBS. HeLa_hOX40_NFκB_Luc1 cells were adjusted to a cell density of 2×105 cells/mL in assay medium containing MEM (Invitrogen, Cat.-No. 22561-021), 10% (v/v) heat-inactivated FBS, 1 mM sodium pyruvate and 1% (v/v) non-essential amino acids. Cells were seeded in a density of 0.3×105 cells per well in a sterile white 96-well flat bottom tissue culture plate with lid (greiner bio one, Cat. No. 655083) and kept over night at 37° C. and 5% CO2 in an incubator (Hera Cell 150). On the next day, HeLa_hOX40_NFκB_Luc1 were stimulated for 6 hours adding assay medium containing titrated FAP-targeted or DP47-containing single chain trimeric human OX40L antigen binding molecules. For hyper-crosslinking human FAP-expressing WM266-4 tumor cells were adjusted to a cell density of 3×106 cells/mL in assay media and cells were added to a final density of 0.75×105 cells/well.

After 6 hours of incubation at 37° C. and 5% CO2 in an incubator, supernatant was aspirated and plates washed two times with DPBS. Quantification of light emission was done using the luciferase 100 assay system and the reporter lysis buffer (both Promega, Cat. No. E4550 and Cat-No: E3971) according to manufacturer instructions.

Emitted relative light units (URL) were corrected by basal luminescence of HeLa_hOX40_NFκB_Luc1 cells and were blotted against the logarithmic primary antibody concentration using Prism4 (GraphPad Software, USA). Curves were fitted using the inbuilt sigmoidal dose response.

As shown in FIGS. 21A-B, both the FAP-targeted and DP47-containing single chain trimeric human OX40L Fc(kih) fusion molecules (filled and open circles) induced detectable NFKB activation. This is in contrast to what was observed with the single chain trimeric human 4-1BBL molecules which showed no NFkB-inducing activity without hyper-crosslinking through secondary antibodies. Hyper-crosslinking via FAP-expressing tumor cell WM-266-4 strongly increased induction of NFκB-mediated luciferase expression in a concentration-dependent manner by the FAP-targeted single chain trimeric human OX40L Fc(kih) fusion antigen binding molecule (Compounds S10, filled circle). No such effect was seen when the DP47-containing single chain trimeric human OX40L Fc(kih) fusion molecule was used.

11.2 Antigen-Specific CD8+ T Cell-Based Assay

11.2.1. Isolation and Culture of Antigen-Specific CD8 T Cells

Fresh blood was obtained from a HLA-A2+ CMV-infected volunteer. PBMCs were isolated as described in Example 10.1 by ficoll density centrifugation. CD8 T cells were purified from PBMCs using a negative selection human CD8 T cell isolation kit according to manufacturer's recommendations (Miltenyi Biotec, Cat. No. 130-094-156). Ten million of isolated CD8 T cells were resuspended in 1 mL sterile DPBS supplemented with 1% (v/v) FBS along with 50 μL of PE-labeled HLA-A2-pentamer containing the CMV-derived NLVPMVATV peptide (ProImmune, Cat. No. F008-2B, SEQ ID NO:183) and incubated for 10 min at room temperature. Cells were washed twice with 3 mL sterile DPBS supplied with 1% (v/v) FBS. Cells were resuspended in 1 mL DPBS supplied with 1% (v/v) FBS containing 1 μg/mL anti-human CD8-FITC (clone LT8, Abcam, Cat. No. Ab28010) and incubated for 30 minutes at 4° C. Then, the cells were washed twice, resuspended to a concentration of 5×106 cells/mL in DPBS supplied with 1% (v/v) FBS, and filtrated through a 30 μm pre-separation nylon-net cell strainer (Miltenyi Biotec, Cat. No. 130-041-407). NLV-peptide-specific CD8+ T cells were isolated by FACS sorting using an ARIA cell sorter (BD Bioscience with DIVA software) with the following settings: 100 μm nozzle and purity sort mask. Sorted cells were collected in a 15 ml polypropylene centrifuge tube (TPP, Cat. No. 91015) containing 5 ml RPMI 1640 medium supplied with 10% (v/v) FBS, 1% (v/v) GlutaMAX-I and 400 U/mL Proleukin. Sorted cells were centrifuged for 7 minutes at 350×g at room temperature and resuspended in same medium to a concentration of 0.53×106 cells/mL. 100 μL/well of this cell suspension were added to each well of a previously prepared plate with PHA-L-activated irradiated allogeneic feeder cells. Feeder cells were prepared from PBMCs as previously described (Levitsky et al., 1998) and distributed to 96-well culture plates using 2×105 feeder cells per well.

After one day of culture, 100 μL medium were removed from each well and replaced by new RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% (v/v) FBS and 1% (v/v) GlutaMAX-I and 400 U/mL Proleukin. This was repeated during culture on a regular basis (every 2-4 days). As soon as NLV-specific CD8+ T cells started to proliferate, they were transferred to 24-well flat-bottom tissue culture plate (TPP, 92024). Cells were expanded/split and reactivated with new feeder cell preparation on a regular basis.

11.2.2. Activation Assay of Antigen-Specific CD8+ T Cells

Cells of the human FAP-expressing melanoma cell line MV3 cell line (described in Example 11.1.3.) were harvested and washed with DPBS and 2×107 cells were resuspended in 250 μL C diluent of the PKH-26 Red Fluorescence Cell linker Kit (Sigma, Cat.-No. PKH26GL). 1μL PKH26-Red-stain solution was diluted with 250 μL C diluent and added to the suspension of MV3 cells which were then incubated for 5 min at room temperature in the dark. 0.5 mL FBS were added, cells were incubated for 1 minute and washed once with T cell medium consisting of RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% (v/v) FBS, 1% (v/v) GlutaMAX-I, 1 mM sodium pyruvate, 1% (v/v) MEM non-essential amino acids and 50 μM β-Mercaptoethanol. 1×106 MV3 cells/mL were resuspended in T cell medium and separated into three tubes. Synthetic NLVPMVATV peptide (obtained from thinkpeptides, SEQ ID NO: 181) was added to a final concentration of 1×10−9M or 1×10−8M and cells were incubated for 90 min under rotation at 37° C. and 5% CO2. MV3 cells were washed once with T cell medium and resuspended to a density of 0.5×106 cells/mL, distributed (100 μL/well) to a 96-well round bottom cell-suspension plate (Greiner bio-one, cellstar, Cat. No. 650185) and incubated over night at 37° C. and 5% CO2.

On the next day, FAP-targeted and DP47-containing single chain trimeric human 4-1BBL molecules were added with 50 μL of T-cell medium to achieve the indicated final concentrations.NLV-specific CD8 T cells were harvested, washed and added in 50 μL medium to each well (final tumor: CD8 T cell ratio 0.125). Cells were incubated for 24 h and 50 μL/well T cell medium containing 2.64 μL/mL Golgi stop (Protein Transport Inhibitor containing Monesin, BD Bioscience, Cat.-No. 554724) were added to each well. Cells were incubated for additional 4 h, washed with 200 μL/well DPBS and stained with 100 μL DPBS containing 1:5000 diluted Fixable Viability Dye-eF450 (eBioscience, Cat. No. 65-0864) for 30 minutes at 4° C. Cells were washed with DPBS and stained in 40 μL/well FACS buffer containing the following fluorescent dye-conjugated antibodies: anti-human CD137-PerCP/Cy5.5 (clone 4B4-1, mouse IgG1κ, BioLegend, Cat. No. 309814), anti-human CD8-BV605 (clone RPA T8, mouse IgG1κ, BioLegend, Cat. No. 301012) and anti-human CD25 PE/Cy7 (clone BC96, mouse IgG1κ, BioLegend, Cat. No. 302612). After incubation for 30 min at 4° C., cells were washed twice with 200 μL/well FACS buffer, resuspended in 50 μL/well freshly prepared FoxP3 Fix/Perm buffer (eBioscience Cat.-No. 00-5123 and 00-5223) and incubated for 30 min at 4° C. Plates were washed twice with 200 μL/well Perm-Buffer (DPBS supplied with 2% (v/v) FBS, 1% (w/v) saponin (Sigma Life Science, 57900) and 1% (w/v) sodium azide (Sigma-Aldrich, 52002) and stained with 50 μL/well Perm-Buffer (eBioscience, Cat.-No. 00-8333-56) containing 0.25 μg/mL anti-human IFNγ-APC (clone B27, mouse IgG1κ, BioLegend, Cat. No. 506510). Plates were incubated for 1 h at 4° C. and washed twice with 200 μL/well Perm-Buffer. For fixation, 50 μL/well DPBS containing 1% formaldehyde were added and cells were stored overnight at 4° C. The next day, cells were resuspended in 100 μL/well FACS buffer and acquired using a 5-laser Fortessa flow cytometer (BD Bioscience with DIVA software). The principle of the assay is shown in FIG. 22.

As shown in FIGS. 23A to 23F, antigen-specific stimulated CD8+ T cells, but not unstimulated controls, exhibited increased levels of surface 4-1BB expression in the presence of FAP-targeted single chain trimeric human 4-1BBL Fc(kih) fusion antigen binding molecule (Compound 51, filled circles). This effect of trimeric human 4-1BBL was dose dependent and required FAP-targeting as addition of the untargeted control molecule (Control 1) did not affect the level of 4-1BB expression. Furthermore, T cells activated at a higher peptide concentration (1×10−8 M) showed sustained secretion of INFγ in the presence of FAP-targeted single chain trimeric human 4-1BBL (FIGS. 24A to 24F). Notably, this effect required a stronger primary TCR triggering as compared to the effect of the FAP-targeted single chain trimeric human 4-1BBL on 4-1BB upregulation as the latter was clearly observed also at a low concentration of the peptide. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the FAP-targeted single chain trimeric human 4-1BBL Fc(kih) fusion antigen binding molecule modulates the surface phenotype and responsiveness of antigen specific T-cells in a targeting dependent manner.

As shown in FIGS. 25A-F and 26A-F, antigen-specific CD8+ T cells co-stimulated with NLV-peptide (activation signal 1) and crosslinked monovalent or bivalent FAP (28H1 or 4B9)-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BBL Fc(kih) fusion antigen binding molecules (activation signal 2), but not unstimulated controls, exhibited increased levels of surface 4-1BB expression and IFNγ-secretion. This effect was dose dependent for the NLV-peptide concentration as well as for the concentration of FAP-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BBL Fc(kih) fusion antigen binding molecule. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the FAP-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BBL Fc(kih) fusion antigen binding molecules modulate the surface phenotype and responsiveness of antigen specific T-cells in a targeting dependent manner. The same difference between the monovalent FAP (28H1)-targeted and the FAP (4B9)-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand (kih) fusion molecules are seen as in the activation assay using the HeLa-hu4-1BB-NK-κB-luc reporter cell line, e.g. the monovalent FAP (4B9)-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BBL Fc(kih) fusion antigen binding molecule shows lower EC50 values. Different to the HeLa-hu 4-1BB-NK-κB-luc reporter cell line activation assay no big differences are seen between the monovalent and the bivalent FAP (4B9)-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BB ligand (kih) fusion molecules. At high NLV-peptide concentrations (10−8M) it evens seems, that the bivalent FAP (4B9)-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BBL Fc(kih) fusion antigen binding molecule produces a superior activation than the monovalent FAP (4B9)-targeted single chain trimeric 4-1BBL Fc(kih) fusion antigen binding molecule.

11. 3. OX40 Mediated Costimulation of Suboptimally TCR Triggered Resting Human PBMC

Human PBMC preparations contain (1) resting OX40 negative CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and (2) antigen presenting cells with various Fc-y receptor molecules on their cell surface, e.g. B cells and monocytes. Anti-human CD3 antibody of human IgG1 isotype can bind with its Fc part to Fc-y receptor molecules and mediate TCR triggering on resting OX40 negative CD4+ and CD8+ T cells which start to express OX40 within several hours. Functional agonistic compounds against OX40 can signal via the OX40 receptor present on activated CD8+ and CD4+ T cells and support TCR-mediated stimulation, leading to more prominent phenotypic changes (e.g. higher CD25 expression levels), enhanced proliferation and increased numbers of living CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.

Experiments with HeLa_hOx40_NFκB_Luc1 reporter cell lines suggested a certain intrinsic capacity of trimeric single chain Ox40L molecules to induce NFKB expression (see Example 11.1.5.). The agonistic effect was greatly increased by additional hypercrosslinking of the FAP-targeted compound via FAP expressing tumor cells. Thus, suboptimal TCR stimulation of resting human PBMC was performed in the presence of NIH/3T3-huFAP clone 39 cells and DP47-containing (untargeted) and FAP-targeted trimeric single chain Ox40L molecules to test the costimulatory activity with and without further hypercrosslinking.

Mouse embryonic fibroblast NIH/3T3-huFAP clone 39 cells (see Example 9.2.) were harvested using cell dissociation buffer (Invitrogen, Cat.-No. 13151-014) for 10 minutes at 37° C. Cells were washed once with DPBS. NIH/3T3-huFAP clone 39 cells were adjusted to a cell density of 1.6×105 in T cell media and were seeded at a density of 0.2×105 cells per well in a sterile 96-well round bottom adhesion tissue culture plate (TPP, Cat. No. 92097). Plates were kept overnight at 37° C. and 5% CO2 in an incubator (Hera Cell 150) before they were irradiated the next day in an xRay irradiator using a dose of 4500 RAD to prevent later overgrowth of human PBMC by the cell line.

Human PBMCs were isolated as described under 9.1. by ficoll density centrifugation and were labeled with CFSE. Cells were stained at a cell density of 1×106 cells/ mL with CFDA-SE (Sigma-Aldrich, Cat.-No. 2188) at a final concentration of [50 nM] for 10 minutes at 37° C. Thereafter, cells were washed twice with excess DPBS containing FBS (10% v/v). Labeled cells were rested in T cell media at 37° C. for 30 minutes. Thereafter, non-converted CFDA-SE was removed by two additional washing steps with DPBS. CFSE-labeled resting human PBMC were adjusted to a cell density of 3×106 cells/mL in T cell media and were added to each well at a density of 0.75×105 cells per well. FAP-targeted and DP47-containing single chain trimeric Ox40L antigen binding molecules were added at the indicated concentrations and anti-human CD3 antibody (clone V9, human IgG1) at a final concentration of 10 nM. Plates were kept for four days at 37° C. and 5% CO2. After 48 hours a half medium exchange was performed.

After four days cells were washed with DPBS and then stained in 25 μL/well FACS buffer containing following fluorescent dye-conjugated antibodies: 0.250 μg/mL anti-human CD4-BV421 (clone RPA-T4, mouse IgG1 k, BioLegend, Cat.-No. 300532), 0.250 μg/mL CD8-BV711 (clone RPa-T8, mouse IgG1k, BioLegend, Cat.-No. 3010441, 0.250 μg/mL anti-human CD25-PerCP Cy5.5 (clone M-A251, mouse IgGlk, BioLegend, Cat.-No. 356112). After incubation for 30 min at 4° C., cells were washed twice with 200 μL/well FACS buffer, resuspended in 50 μL/well freshly prepared FoxP3 Fix/Perm buffer (eBioscience Cat.-No. 00-5123 and 00-5223) and incubated for 45 min at room temperature in the dark. Plates were washed three times with 200 μL/well Perm-Wash-(eBioscience, Cat.-No. 00-8333-56) and were then stained with 25 μL/well Perm-Buffer (eBioscience, Cat.-No. 00-8333-56) containing 0.25 μg/mL anti-human Granzyme B—PE (clone GB-11, mouse IgG1κ, BD Bioscience, Cat. No. 561142) and 0.60 μg/mL anti-human Eomes-eFluor 670 (clone WD2918, mouse IgG1κ, eBioscience, Cat. No. 50-4877-42). Plates were incubated for 1 h at room temperature in the dark and were washed twice with 200 μL/well Perm-Buffer. Cells were resuspended in 85 μL/well FACS buffer and acquired using a 5-laser Fortessa flow cytometer (BD Bioscience with DIVA software).

As shown in FIGS. 27A-F, costimulation with DP47-containing trimeric single chain Ox40L antigen binding molecules only slightly promoted proliferation and enhanced the activated cell phenotype (CD25 expression) in human CD4+ (left side) and CD8+ T cells (right side) stimulated sub-optimally with anti-human CD3 antibody. Hyper-crosslinking of the FAP-targeted trimeric single chain Ox40L by NIH/3T3-huFAP clone 39 cells strongly increased this effect. This is in contrast to findings in the HeLa_hOx40_NFκB_Luc1 cells (FIGS. 21A-B), where the trimeric single chain Ox40L molecule per se was already strongly agonistic. This might be due to a non-physiologically high expression of OX40 in the reporter cell line, which most likely results in pre-assembly of low-signaling OX4OR oligomer units thereby lowering the threshold for agonistic signaling is the reporter cell line as compared to that Ox40+ T cells. In addition, the cellular context is likely to determine the outcome of OX40 triggering as concomitant signaling through TCR is required in T-cells, but not in the reporter cell line, to observe the effect of OX40 engagement.

CITATIONS

Aggarwal B. B. (2003), Signalling pathways of the TNF superfamily: a double-edged sword. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 3(9),745-56.

Banner D. et al (1993), Crystal structure of the soluble human 55 kd TNF receptor-human TNF beta complex: implications for TNF receptor activation. Cell 73, 431-445.

Baumann R., Shida Y., Simon D., Russmann S., Mueller C. and Simon H.-U. (2004), Functional expression of CD134 by neutrophils. Eur. J. Immunol., 34, 2268-2275.

Bodmer J., Schneider P. and Tschopp, J. (2002), The molecular architecture of the TNF superfamily. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 27(1), 19-26.

Bremer E. (2013), Targeting of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily for cancer immunotherapy. 2013, Article ID 371854, 25 pages. doi:10.1155/2013/371854

Broll K., Richter G., Pauly S., Hofstaedter F. and Schwarz, H. (2001), CD137 expression in tumor vessel walls. High correlation with malignant tumors. Am J Clin Pathol 115, 543-549.

Buechele C., Baessler T., Schmiedel B. J., Schumacher C. E., Grosse-Hovest L., Rittig K. and Salih, H .R. (2012). 4-1BB ligand modulates direct and Rituximab-induced NK-cell reactivity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Eur J Immunol 42, 737-748.

Carter P. (2001). Bispecific human IgG by design. J. Immunol. Methods 248, 7-15.

Choi B.K., Kim Y. H., Kwon P. M., Lee S. C., Kang S. W., Kim M. S., Lee M. J., and Kwon B. S. (2009). 4-1BB functions as a survival factor in dendritic cells. J Immunol 182, 4107-4115.

Croft M., Song T., Duan W. and Soroash P. (2009). The significance of 0X40 and OX40L to T-cell biology and immune disease. Immunological Reviews 229, 173-191.

Cuadros C., Dominguez A. L., Lollini P. L., Croft M., Mittler R. S., Borgstrom P., and Lustgarten J. (2005). Vaccination with dendritic cells pulsed with apoptotic tumors in combination with anti-OX40 and anti-4-1BB monoclonal antibodies induces T cell-mediated protective immunity in Her-2/neu transgenic mice. Int J Cancer 116, 934-943.

Curran M. A., Kim M., Montalvo W., Al-Shamkhani A., and Allison J. P. (2011). Combination CTLA-4 blockade and 4-1BB activation enhances tumor rejection by increasing T-cell infiltration, proliferation, and cytokine production. PLoS One 6, e19499.

Diehl L., van Mierlo G. J., den Boer A. T., van der Voort E., Fransen M., van Bostelen L., Krimpenfort P., Melief C. J., Mittler R., Toes R. E., and Offringa R. (2002). In vivo triggering through 4-1BB enables Th-independent priming of CTL in the presence of an intact CD28 costimulatory pathway. J Immunol 168, 3755-3762.

Dubrot J., Milheiro F., Alfaro C., Palazon A., Martinez-Forero I., Perez-Gracia J. L Morales-Morales-Kastresana A., Romero-Trevejo J.L., Ochoa M.C., Hervas-Stubbs S., et al. (2010). Treatment with anti-CD137 mAbs causes intense accumulations of liver T cells without selective antitumor immunotherapeutic effects in this organ. Cancer Immunol Immunother 59, 1223-1233.

Futagawa T., Akiba H., Kodama T., Takeda K., Hosoda Y., Yagita H., and Okumura K. (2002). Expression and function of 4-1BB and 4-1BB ligand on murine dendritic cells. Int Immunol 14, 275-286.

Graff, C. P., Chester K., Begent R. and Wittrup K. D. (2004). Directed evolution of an anti-carcinoembryonic antigen scFv with a 4-day monovalent dissociation half-time at 37° C. Protein Engineering, Design & Selection 17, 293-304.

Guo Z., Cheng D., Xia Z., Luan M., Wu L., Wang G., and Zhang S. (2013). Combined TIM-3 blockade and CD137 activation affords the long-term protection in a murine model of ovarian cancer. J Transl Med 11, 215.

Heinisch I. V., Daigle I., Knopfli B., and Simon H. U. (2000). CD137 activation abrogates granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-mediated anti-apoptosis in neutrophils. Eur J Immunol 30, 3441-3446.

Hornig, N., Kermer, V., Frey, K., Diebolder, P., Kontermann, R. E., Mueller, D. (2012), Combination of a bispecific antibody and costimulatory antibody-ligand fusion proteins for targeted cancer immunotherapy. J. Immunother. 35, 418-429.

Ju S. A., Cheon S. H., Park S. M., Tam N. Q., Kim Y. M., An W. G., and Kim B. S. (2008). Eradication of established renal cell carcinoma by a combination of 5-fluorouracil and anti-4-1BB monoclonal antibody in mice. Int J Cancer 122, 2784-2790.

Kermer V., Hornig N., Harder M., Bondarieva A., Kontermann R.E., and Muller D. (2014). Combining Antibody-directed presentation of IL-15 and 4-1BBL in a trifunctional fusion protein for Cancer Immunotherapy. Mol. Cancer Ther. 13, 112-121.

Kienzle G., and von Kempis J. (2000). CD137 (ILA/4-1BB), expressed by primary human monocytes, induces monocyte activation and apoptosis of B lymphocytes. Int Immunol 12, 73-82.

Kim D. H., Chang W. S., Lee Y. S., Lee K. A., Kim Y. K., Kwon B. S., and Kang C. Y. (2008). 4-1BB engagement costimulates NKT cell activation and exacerbates NKT cell ligand-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. J Immunol 180, 2062-2068.

Kim Y. H., Choi B. K., Oh H. S., Kang W. J., Mittler R. S., and Kwon B. S. (2009). Mechanisms involved in synergistic anticancer effects of anti-4-1BB and cyclophosphamide therapy. Mol Cancer Ther 8, 469-478.

Kwon B. S., and Weissman S. M. (1989). cDNA sequences of two inducible T-cell genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86, 1963-1967.

Lee H., Park H. J., Sohn H. J., Kim J. M., and Kim S. J. (2011). Combinatorial therapy for liver metastatic colon cancer: dendritic cell vaccine and low-dose agonistic anti-4-1BB antibody co-stimulatory signal. J Surg Res 169, e43-50.

Levitsky V., de Campos-Lima P. O., Frisan T., and Masucci M. G. (1998). The clonal composition of a peptide-specific oligoclonal CTL repertoire selected in response to persistent EBV infection is stable over time. J Immunol 161, 594-601.

Li F., and Ravetch J. V. (2011). Inhibitory Fcgamma receptor engagement drives adjuvant and anti-tumor activities of agonistic CD40 antibodies. Science 333, 1030-1034.

Lin W., Voskens C. J., Zhang X., Schindler D. G., Wood A., Burch E., Wei Y., Chen L., Tian G., Tamada K., et al. (2008). Fc-dependent expression of CD137 on human NK cells: insights into “agonistic” effects of anti-CD137 monoclonal antibodies. Blood 112, 699-707.

Melero I., Johnston J. V., Shufford W. W., Mittler R. S., and Chen L. (1998). NK1.1 cells express 4-1BB (CDw137) costimulatory molecule and are required for tumor immunity elicited by anti-4-1BB monoclonal antibodies. Cell Immunol 190, 167-172.

Melero I., Shuford W. W., Newby S. A., Aruffo A., Ledbetter J. A., Hellstrom K. E., Mittler R. S., and Chen L. (1997). Monoclonal antibodies against the 4-1BB T-cell activation molecule eradicate established tumors. Nat Med 3, 682-685.

Merchant A. M., Zhu Z., Yuan J. Q., Goddard A., Adams C. W., Presta L. G., and Carter P. (1998). An efficient route to human bispecific IgG. Nat Biotechnol 16, 677-681.

Morales-Kastresana A., Sanmamed M. F., Rodriguez I., Palazon A., Martinez-Forero I., Labiano S., Hervas-Stubbs S., Sangro B., Ochoa C., Rouzaut A., et al. (2013). Combined immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies extend survival in an aggressive transgenic hepatocellular carcinoma mouse model. Clin Cancer Res 19, 6151-6162.

Morris N. P., Peters C., Montler R., Hu H-M, Curti B. D., Urba W. J., and Weinberg A. D. (2007). Development and Characterization of Recombinant Human Fc:OX40L fusion protein linked via a coiled-coil trimerization domain. Mol. Immunol. 44(12), 3112-3121.

Mueller, D., Frey, K., Kontermann, R. E. (2008), A novel antibody-4-1BB1 fusion protein for targeted costimulation in cancer immunotherapy, J. Immunother. 31, 714-722.

Murillo O., Dubrot J., Palazon A., Anna A., Azpilikueta A., Alfaro C., Solano S., Ochoa M. C., Berasain C., Gabari I., et al. (2009). In vivo depletion of DC impairs the anti-tumor effect of agonistic anti-CD137 mAb. Eur J Immunol 39, 2424-2436.

Narazaki H., Zhu Y., Luo L., Zhu G., and Chen L. (2010). CD137 agonist antibody prevents cancer recurrence: contribution of CD137 on both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells. Blood 115, 1941-1948.

Nishimoto H., Lee S. W., Hong H., Potter K. G., Maeda-Yamamoto M., Kinoshita T., Kawakami Y., Mittler R. S., Kwon B .S., Ware C. F., et al. (2005). Costimulation of mast cells by 4-1BB, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, with the high-affinity IgE receptor. Blood 106, 4241-4248.

Olofsson P. S., Soderstrom L. A., Wagsater D., Sheikine Y., Ocaya P., Lang F., Rabu C., Chen L., Rudling M., Aukrust P., et al. (2008). CD137 is expressed in human atherosclerosis and promotes development of plaque inflammation in hypercholesterolemic mice. Circulation 117, 1292-1301.

Palazon A., Teijeira A., Martinez-Forero I., Hervas-Stubbs S., Roncal C., Penuelas I., Dubrot J., Morales-Kastresana A., Perez-Gracia J. L., Ochoa M. C., et al. (2011). Agonist anti-CD137 mAb act on tumor endothelial cells to enhance recruitment of activated T lymphocytes. Cancer Res 71, 801-811.

Schwarz H., Valbracht J., Tuckwell J., von Kempis J., and Lotz M. (1995). ILA, the human 4-1BB homologue, is inducible in lymphoid and other cell lineages. Blood 85, 1043-1052.

Shao, Z., and Schwarz, H. (2011). CD137 ligand, a member of the tumor necrosis factor family, regulates immune responses via reverse signal transduction. J Leukoc Biol 89, 21-29.

Shi W., and Siemann D. W. (2006). Augmented antitumor effects of radiation therapy by 4-1BB antibody (BMS-469492) treatment. Anticancer Res 26, 3445-3453.

Simeone E., and Ascierto P. A. (2012). Immunomodulating antibodies in the treatment of metastatic melanoma: the experience with anti-CTLA-4, anti-CD137, and anti-PD1. J Immunotoxicol 9, 241-247.

Snell L. M., Lin G. H., McPherson A. J., Moraes T. J., and Watts T. H. (2011). T-cell intrinsic effects of GITR and 4-1BB during viral infection and cancer immunotherapy. Immunol Rev 244, 197-217.

Song J., So T. and Croft M. (2008). Activation of NF-KB1 by OX40 contributes to antigen-driven T cell expansion and survival. J. Immunology 180(11), 7240-7248.

Stagg J., Loi S., Divisekera U., Ngiow S. F., Duret, H., Yagita H., Teng M. W., and Smyth M. J. (2011). Anti-ErbB-2 mAb therapy requires type I and II interferons and synergizes with anti-PD-1 or anti-CD137 mAb therapy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108, 7142-7147.

Teng M. W., Sharkey J., McLaughlin N. M., Exley M. A., and Smyth M.J . (2009). CD1d-based combination therapy eradicates established tumors in mice. J Immunol 183, 1911-1920.

van Muij en G N, Jansen K F, Cornelissen I M, Smeets D F, Beck J L and Ruiter D J (1991). Establishment and characterization of a human melanoma cell line (MV3) which is highly metastatic in nude mice. Int J Cancer., 48(1), 85-91.

von Kempis J., Schwarz H., and Lotz M. (1997). Differentiation-dependent and stimulus-specific expression of ILA, the human 4-1BB-homologue, in cells of mesenchymal origin. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 5, 394-406.

Watts T. H. (2005). TNF/TNFR family members in costimulation of T cell responses. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 23, 23-68

Wei H., Zhao L., Li W., Fan K., Qian W., Hou S., Wang H., Dai M., Hellstrom I., Hellstrom K. E., and Guo Y. (2013). Combinatorial PD-1 blockade and CD137 activation has therapeutic efficacy in murine cancer models and synergizes with cisplatin. PLoS One 8, e84927.

Weinberg A D, Evans D E, Thalhofer C, Shi T, Prell R A (2004). The generation of T cell memory: a review describing the molecular and cellular events following OX40 (CD134) engagement. J Leukoc Biol. 75(6), 962-972.

Wilcox R. A., Chapoval A. I., Gorski K. S., Otsuji M., Shin T., Flies D. B., Tamada K., Mittler R. S., Tsuchiya H., Pardoll D. M., and Chen L. (2002). Cutting edge: Expression of functional CD137 receptor by dendritic cells. J Immunol 168, 4262-4267.

Wilcox R. A., Tamada K., Flies D. B., Zhu G., Chapoval A. I., Blazar B. R., Kast W. M., and Chen L. (2004). Ligation of CD137 receptor prevents and reverses established anergy of CD8+ cytolytic T lymphocytes in vivo. Blood 103, 177-184.5

Zhang, N., Sadun, R. E., Arias, R. S., Flanagan, M. L., Sachsman, S. M., Nien, Y, Khawli, L. A., Hu, P., Epstein, A. L. (2007). Targeted and untargeted CD137L fusion proteins for the immunotherapy of experimental solid tumors. Clin. Cancer Res. 13, 2758-2767.

Zhang X., Voskens C. J., Sallin M., Maniar A., Montes C. L., Zhang Y., Lin W., Li G., Burch E., Tan M., et al. (2010). CD137 promotes proliferation and survival of human B cells. J Immunol 184, 787-795.

Although the foregoing invention has been described in some detail by way of illustration and example for purposes of clarity of understanding, the descriptions and examples should not be construed as limiting the scope of the invention. The disclosures of all patent and scientific literature cited herein are expressly incorporated in their entirety by reference.

Claims

1. A TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule comprising

(a) at least one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen,
(b) a polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof that are connected to each other, optionally by peptide linkers, and
(c) a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association.

2. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of claim 1 comprising

(a) at least one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen,
(b) a polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof that are connected to each other by peptide linkers and
(c) a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association.

3. The TNF family ligand trimer containing antigen binding molecule of claim 1 or 2 comprising

(a) at least one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen,
(b) a polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof that are connected to each other by peptide linkers and
(c) a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association, wherein the polypeptide comprising the three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof that are connected to each other by peptide linkers is fused to the N- or C-terminal amino acid of one of the two subunits of the Fc domain, optionally through a peptide linker.

4. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the TNF ligand family member costimulates human T-cell activation.

5. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claims 1 to 4, wherein the TNF ligand family member is selected from 4-1BBL and OX40L.

6. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the TNF ligand family member is 4-1BBL.

7. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein the ectodomain of a TNF ligand family member comprises the amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO:1, SEQ ID NO: 2, SEQ ID NO:3, SEQ ID NO:4, SEQ ID NO:99, SEQ ID NO: 100, SEQ ID NO:101 and SEQ ID NO:102, particularly the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:1 or SEQ ID NO:99.

8. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claims 1 to 6, comprising

(a) at least one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen and
(b) a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103, and
(c) a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association.

9. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the TNF ligand family member is OX40L.

10. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claim 1 to 5 or 9, wherein the ectodomain of a TNF ligand family member comprises the amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO:6 and SEQ ID NO:7, particularly the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:6.

11. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claim 1 to 5 or 9 or 10, comprising

(a) at least one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen and
(b) a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:8, and
(c) a Fc domain composed of a first and a second subunit capable of stable association.

12. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claims 1 to 11, wherein the polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof is fused at the C-terminal amino acid to a N-terminal amino acid of one of the subunits of the Fc domain.

13. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claims 1 to 11, wherein the polypeptide comprising three ectodomains of a TNF ligand family member or fragments thereof is fused at the N-terminal amino acid to a C-terminal amino acid of one of the subunits of the Fc domain.

14. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claims 1 to 13, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen is selected from the group consisting of an antibody fragment, a Fab molecule, a crossover Fab molecule, a single chain Fab molecule, a Fv molecule, a scFv molecule, a single domain antibody, an aVH and a scaffold antigen binding protein.

15. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claims 1 to 14, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen is a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen.

16. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claims 1 to 15, wherein the target cell antigen is selected from the group consisting of Fibroblast Activation Protein (FAP), Melanoma-associated Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan (MCSP), Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA), CD19, CD20 and CD33.

17. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claims 1 to 16, wherein the target cell antigen is Fibroblast Activation Protein (FAP).

18. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claims 1 to 17, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to FAP comprises

(a) a VH domain comprising (i) CDR-H1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:9, (ii) CDR-H2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:10 and (iii) CDR-H3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:11, and a VL domain comprising (iv) CDR-L1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:12, (v) CDR-L2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:13 and (vi) CDR-L3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:14, or
(b) a VH domain comprising (i) CDR-H1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:104, (ii) CDR-H2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:105 and (iii) CDR-H3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:106, and a VL domain comprising (iv) CDR-L1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:107, (v) CDR-L2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:108 and (vi) CDR-L3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:109.

19. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claims 1 to 18, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to FAP comprises a variable heavy chain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:16 and a variable light chain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:17 or wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to FAP comprises a variable heavy chain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:110 and a variable light chain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:111.

20. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claims 1 to 16, wherein the target cell antigen is CEA.

21. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claim 1 to 16 or 20, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to CEA comprises a VH domain comprising (i) CDR-H1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:112, (ii) CDR-H2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:113 and (iii) CDR-H3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:114, and a VL domain comprising (iv) CDR-L1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:115, (v) CDR-L2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:116 and (vi) CDR-L3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:117.

22. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claim 1 to 16 or 20 or 21, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to CEA comprises a variable heavy chain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:118 and a variable light chain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:119.

23. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claims 1 to 16, wherein the target cell antigen is CD19.

24. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claim 1 to 16 or 23, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to CD19 comprises

(a) a VH domain comprising (i) CDR-H1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:120, (ii) CDR-H2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:121 and (iii) CDR-H3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:122, and a VL domain comprising (iv) CDR-L1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:123, (v) CDR-L2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:124 and (vi) CDR-L3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:125, or
(b) a VH domain comprising (i) CDR-H1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:128, (ii) CDR-H2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:129 and (iii) CDR-H3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:130, and a VL domain comprising (iv) CDR-L1 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:131, (v) CDR-L2 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:132 and (vi) CDR-L3 comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:133.

25. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claim 1 to 16 or 23 or 24, wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to CD19 comprises a variable heavy chain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:126 and a variable light chain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:127 or wherein the moiety capable of specific binding to FAP comprises a variable heavy chain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:134 and a variable light chain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:135.

26. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claims 1 to 25, wherein the Fc domain is an IgG, particularly an IgG1 Fc domain or an IgG4 Fc domain.

27. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of claim 26, wherein the Fc domain is an IgG1 Fc domain comprising the amino acid substitutions at positions 234 and 235 (EU numbering) and/or 329 (EU numbering).

28. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claims 1 to 27, comprising one moiety capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen.

29. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claims 1 to 28, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises

(i) a first heavy chain comprising the VH domain of a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen,
(ii) a light chain comprising the VL domain of a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, and
(iii) a second heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103 or SEQ ID NO:8.

30. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claims 1 to to 29, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises

(i) a first heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:16 or a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:110,
(ii) a light chain comprising a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:17 or a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:111, and
(iii) a second heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103 or SEQ ID NO:8.

31. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claims 1 to 29, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises

(i) a first heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:118,
(ii) a light chain comprising a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:119, and
(iii) a second heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103 or SEQ ID NO:8.

32. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claims 1 to 29, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises

(i) a first heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:126 or a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:134,
(ii) a light chain comprising a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:127 or a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:135, and
(iii) a second heavy chain comprising the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103 or SEQ ID NO:8.

33. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claims 1 to 27, comprising two moieties capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen.

34. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claim 1 to 27 or 33, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises

(i) a first heavy chain comprising a VH domain of a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen,
(ii) two light chains comprising each the VL domain of a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen, and
(iii) a second heavy chain comprising a VH domain of a Fab molecule capable of specific binding to a target cell antigen and the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103 or SEQ ID NO:8.

35. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of claim 34, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises

(i) a first heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:16 or a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:110,
(ii) two light chains comprising each a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:17 or a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:111, and
(iii) a second heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:16 or a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:110 and the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103 or SEQ ID NO:8.

36. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of claim 34, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises

(i) a first heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:118,
(ii) two light chains comprising each a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:119, and
(iii) a second heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:118 and the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103 or SEQ ID NO:8.

37. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of claim 34, wherein the antigen binding molecule comprises

(i) a first heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:126 or a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:134,
(ii) two light chains comprising a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:127 or a VL domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:135, and
(iii) a second heavy chain comprising a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:126 or a VH domain comprising an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:134 and the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:103 or SEQ ID NO:8.

38. An isolated polynucleotide encoding the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claims 1 to 37.

39. A vector, particularly an expression vector, comprising the isolated polynucleotide of claim 38.

40. A host cell comprising the isolated polynucleotide of claim 38 or the vector of claim 39.

41. A method for producing the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claims 1 to 37, comprising the steps of

(i) culturing the host cell of claim 40 under conditions suitable for expression of the antigen binding molecule, and
(ii) recovering the antigen binding molecule.

42. A pharmaceutical composition comprising the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claims 1 to 37 and at least one pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.

43. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claims 1 to 37, or the pharmaceutical composition of claim 38, for use as a medicament.

44. The TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claims 1 to 37, or the pharmaceutical composition of claim 42, for use in the treatment of cancer.

45. Use of the TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claims 1 to 37 for the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of cancer.

46. A method of treating a disease in an individual, comprising administering to said individual a therapeutically effective amount of a composition comprising a TNF family ligand trimer-containing antigen binding molecule of any one of claims 1 to 37 in a pharmaceutically acceptable form.

47. The method of claim 46, wherein said disease is cancer.

Patent History
Publication number: 20200270321
Type: Application
Filed: Oct 15, 2019
Publication Date: Aug 27, 2020
Applicant: Hoffmann-La Roche Inc. (Little Falls, NJ)
Inventors: Maria Amann (Duebendorf), Peter Bruenker (Hittnau), Christina Claus (Ennetbaden), Claudia Ferrara Koller (Zug), Sandra Grau-Richards (Birmsdorf), Christian Klein (Bonstetten), Viktor Levitski (Schlieren), Ekkehard Moessner (Kreuzlingen), Pablo Umana (Wollerau)
Application Number: 16/653,652
Classifications
International Classification: C07K 14/525 (20060101); C07K 16/40 (20060101); C07K 16/28 (20060101); C07K 14/705 (20060101); C07K 16/30 (20060101); A61K 39/395 (20060101);