COMPRESSOR

- DAIKIN INDUSTRIES, LTD.

High power of a compressor that compresses a mixed refrigerant containing at least 1,2-difluoroethylene is achieved. A compressor (100) employs an induction motor (70) as a motor that drives a compression unit (60) that compresses a mixed refrigerant containing at least 1,2-difluoroethylene, and thus, high power is enabled at comparatively low costs.

Skip to: Description  ·  Claims  · Patent History  ·  Patent History
Description
TECHNICAL FIELD

The present invention relates to a compressor to be used in a refrigerant cycle apparatus considering environmental protection.

BACKGROUND ART

In recent years, from the point of view of environmental protection, a refrigerant (hereinafter referred to as GWP refrigerant) having low global warming potential (GWP) has been examined as a refrigerant to be used in an air conditioner. As the low GWP refrigerant, a mixed refrigerant containing 1,2-difluoroethylene is firstly presented.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Technical Problem

However, the number of prior arts considering from an aspect of high efficiency of an air conditioner that uses the aforementioned refrigerant is small. For example, when the aforementioned refrigerant is to be applied to an air conditioner such as that disclosed in PTL 1 (Japanese Unexamined Patent Application Publication No. 2013-124848), there is a problem that how high power of a compressor is achieved.

Solution to Problem

A compressor according to a first aspect includes a compression unit that compresses a mixed refrigerant containing at least 1,2-difluoroethylene and an induction motor that drives the compression unit.

Employing an induction motor, as described above, in a compressor that compresses a mixed refrigerant containing at least 1,2-difluoroethylene enables high power at comparatively low costs.

A compressor according to a second aspect is the compressor according to the first aspect, in which a rotor of the induction motor has a plurality of conducting bars that are bar-shaped conductors and that are disposed in an annular form, and an end ring that short-circuits the plurality of conducting bars at an end portion in an axial direction. At least the conducting bars are formed of a metal whose electric resistance is lower than electric resistance of aluminum.

In this compressor, heat generation due to current that flows through the conducting bars of the induction motor is suppressed, and thus, high power is enabled.

A compressor according to a third aspect is the compressor according to the first aspect, in which a rotor of the induction motor has a heat-radiation structure.

In this compressor, a temperature increase of the rotor of the induction motor is suppressed, and thus, high power is enabled.

A compressor according to a fourth aspect is the compressor according to the third aspect, in which the rotor of the induction motor has a plurality of conducting bars that are bar-shaped conductors and that are disposed in an annular form, and an end ring that short-circuits the plurality of conducting bars at an end portion in an axial direction. The heat-radiation structure is formed on the end ring.

In this compressor, heat radiation properties are improved because the heat-radiation structure rotates itself, and moreover, the rotation causes forced convection and suppresses an increase in the peripheral temperature, which enables high power.

A compressor according to a fifth aspect is the compressor according to the third aspect or the fourth aspect, in which the heat-radiation structure is a heat sink.

In this compressor, it is possible to integrally mold the heat sink when molding the end ring of the induction motor, and thus, high power is enabled at comparatively low costs.

A compressor according to a sixth aspect is the compressor according to the first aspect, in which a cooling structure that cools a stator of the induction motor by a refrigerant is further provided.

This compressor enables high power because the induction motor is cooled.

A compressor according to a seventh aspect is the compressor according to the sixth aspect, in which the cooling structure cools the stator by the cool heat of a refrigerant that flows in a refrigerant circuit to which the compressor is connected.

A compressor according to a eighth aspect is the compressor according to any of the first through seventh aspects, wherein, the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123), and 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (R1234yf).

In this compressor, an induction motor is employed, and thus high power at comparatively low costs can also be achieved when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to those of R410A is used.

A compressor according to a nineth aspect is the compressor according to the eighth aspect, wherein, when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments AA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, CO, and OA that connect the following 7 points:

point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0),
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0), and
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments BD, CO, and OA);

the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),

the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),

the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),

the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and

the line segments BD, CO, and OA are straight lines.

A compressor according to a tenth aspect is the compressor according to the eighth aspect, wherein, when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments GI, IA, AA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CG that connect the following 8 points:

point G (72.0, 28.0, 0.0),
point I (72.0, 0.0, 28.0),
point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments IA, BD, and CG);

the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),

the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),

the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),

the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and

the line segments GI, IA, BD, and CG are straight lines.

A compressor according to a eleventh aspect is the compressor according to the eighth aspect, wherein, when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments JP, PN, NK, KA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CJ that connect the following 9 points:

point J (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point N (68.6, 16.3, 15.1),
point K (61.3, 5.4, 33.3),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments BD and CJ);

the line segment PN is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43),

the line segment NK is represented by coordinates (x, 0.2421x2−29.955x+931.91, −0.2421x2+28.955x−831.91),

the line segment KA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),

the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),

the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),

the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and

the line segments JP, BD, and CG are straight lines.

A compressor according to a twelfth aspect is the compressor according to the eighth aspect, wherein, when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments JP, PL, LM, MA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CJ that connect the following 9 points:

point J (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0),
point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments BD and CJ);

the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43)

the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),

the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),

the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),

the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and

the line segments JP, LM, BD, and CG are straight lines.

A compressor according to a thirteenth aspect is the compressor according to the eighth aspect, wherein, when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PL, LM, MA′, A′B, BF, FT, and TP that connect the following 7 points:

point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0),
point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point F (0.0, 61.8, 38.2), and
point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segment BF);

the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43),

the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),

the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),

the line segment FT is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0078x2−0.7501x+61.8, −0.0078x2−0.2499x+38.2),

the line segment TP is represented by coordinates (x, 0.00672x2−0.7607x+63.525, −0.00672x2−0.2393x+36.475), and

the line segments LM and BF are straight lines.

A compressor according to a fourteenth aspect is the compressor according to the eighth aspect, wherein, when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PL, LQ, QR, and RP that connect the following 4 points:

point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0),
point Q (62.8, 29.6, 7.6), and
point R (49.8, 42.3, 7.9),
or on the above line segments;

the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43),

the line segment RP is represented by coordinates (x, 0.00672x2−0.7607x+63.525, −0.00672x2−0.2393x+36.475), and

the line segments LQ and QR are straight lines.

A compressor according to a fifth aspect is the compressor according to the eighth aspect, wherein, when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments SM, MA′, A′B, BF, FT, and TS that connect the following 6 points:

point S (62.6, 28.3, 9.1),
point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point F (0.0, 61.8, 38.2), and
point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3),
or on the above line segments,

the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),

the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),

the line segment FT is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0078x2−0.7501x+61.8, −0.0078x2−0.2499x+38.2),

the line segment TS is represented by coordinates (x, −0.0017x2−0.7869x+70.888, −0.0017x2−0.2131x+29.112), and

the line segments SM and BF are straight lines.

A compressor according to a sixth aspect is the compressor according to any of the first through seventh aspects, wherein, the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)) and trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123) in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more based on the entire refrigerant, and

the refrigerant comprises 62.0 mass % to 72.0 mass % of HFO-1132(E) based on the entire refrigerant.

In this compressor, an induction motor is employed, and thus high power at comparatively low costs can also be achieved when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to those of R410A and classified with lower flammability (Class 2L) in the standard of The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is used.

A compressor according to a seventeenth aspect is the compressor according to any of the first through seventh aspects, wherein, the refrigerant comprises HFO-1132(E) and HFO-1123 in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more based on the entire refrigerant, and

the refrigerant comprises 45.1 mass % to 47.1 mass % of HFO-1132(E) based on the entire refrigerant.

In this compressor, an induction motor is employed, and thus high power at comparatively low costs can also be achieved when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to those of R410A and classified with lower flammability (Class 2L) in the standard of The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is used.

A compressor according to a eighteenth aspect is the compressor according to any of the first through seventh aspects, wherein, the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123), 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (R1234yf), and difluoromethane (R32), wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a,

if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is (100-a) mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BD′, D′C, and CG that connect the following 6 points:

point G (0.026a2−1.7478a+72.0, −0.026a2+0.7478a+28.0, 0.0),
point I (0.026a2−1.7478a+72.0, 0.0, −0.026a2+0.7478a+28.0),
point A (0.0134a2−1.9681a+68.6, 0.0, −0.0134a2+0.9681a+31.4),
point B (0.0, 0.0144a2−1.6377a+58.7, −0.0144a2+0.6377a+41.3),
point D′ (0.0, 0.0224a2+0.968a+75.4, −0.0224a2−1.968a+24.6), and
point C (−0.2304a2−0.4062a+32.9, 0.2304a2−0.5938a+67.1, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI, AB, and D′C (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, point D′, and point C);

if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:

point G (0.02a2−1.6013a+71.105, −0.02a2+0.6013a+28.895, 0.0),
point I (0.02a2−1.6013a+71.105, 0.0, −0.02a2+0.6013a+28.895),
point A (0.0112a2−1.9337a+68.484, 0.0, −0.0112a2+0.9337a+31.516),
point B (0.0, 0.0075a2−1.5156a+58.199, −0.0075a2+0.5156a+41.801), and
point W (0.0, 100.0-a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W);

if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:

point G (0.0135a2−1.4068a+69.727, −0.0135a2+0.4068a+30.273, 0.0),
point I (0.0135a2−1.4068a+69.727, 0.0, −0.0135a2+0.4068a+30.273),
point A (0.0107a2−1.9142a+68.305, 0.0, −0.0107a2+0.9142a+31.695),
point B (0.0, 0.009a2−1.6045a+59.318, −0.009a2+0.6045a+40.682), and
point W (0.0, 100.0-a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W);

if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:

point G (0.0111a2−1.3152a+68.986, −0.0111a2+0.3152a+31.014, 0.0),
point I (0.0111a2−1.3152a+68.986, 0.0, −0.0111a2+0.3152a+31.014),
point A (0.0103a2−1.9225a+68.793, 0.0, −0.0103a2+0.9225a+31.207),
point B (0.0, 0.0046a2−1.41a+57.286, −0.0046a2+0.41a+42.714), and
point W (0.0, 100.0-a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W); and

if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:

point G (0.0061a2−0.9918a+63.902, −0.0061a2−0.0082a+36.098, 0.0),
point I (0.0061a2−0.9918a+63.902, 0.0, −0.0061a2−0.0082a+36.098),
point A (0.0085a2−1.8102a+67.1, 0.0, −0.0085a2+0.8102a+32.9),
point B (0.0, 0.0012a2−1.1659a+52.95, −0.0012a2+0.1659a+47.05), and
point W (0.0, 100.0-a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W).

In this compressor, an induction motor is employed, and thus high power at comparatively low costs can also be achieved when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to those of R410A is used.

A compressor according to a nineteenth aspect is the compressor according to any of the first through seventh aspects, wherein, the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123), 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (R1234yf), and difluoromethane (R32), wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a,

if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is (100-a) mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BD′, D′C, and CJ that connect the following 5 points:

point J (0.0049a2−0.9645a+47.1, −0.0049a2−0.0355a+52.9, 0.0),
point K′ (0.0514a2−2.4353a+61.7, −0.0323a2+0.4122a+5.9, −0.0191a2+1.0231a+32.4),
point B (0.0, 0.0144a2−1.6377a+58.7, −0.0144a2+0.6377a+41.3),
point D′ (0.0, 0.0224a2+0.968a+75.4, −0.0224a2−1.968a+24.6), and
point C (−0.2304a2−0.4062a+32.9, 0.2304a2−0.5938a+67.1, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′, K′B, and D′C (excluding point J, point B, point D′, and point C);

if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BW, and WJ that connect the following 4 points:

point J (0.0243a2−1.4161a+49.725, −0.0243a2+0.4161a+50.275, 0.0),
point K′ (0.0341a2−2.1977a+61.187, −0.0236a2+0.34a+5.636, −0.0105a2+0.8577a+33.177),
point B (0.0, 0.0075a2−1.5156a+58.199, −0.0075a2+0.5156a+41.801), and
point W (0.0, 100.0-a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′ and K′B (excluding point J, point B, and point W);

if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BW, and WJ that connect the following 4 points:

point J (0.0246a2−1.4476a+50.184, −0.0246a2+0.4476a+49.816, 0.0),
point K′ (0.0196a2−1.7863a+58.515, −0.0079a2−0.1136a+8.702, −0.0117a2+0.8999a+32.783),
point B (0.0, 0.009a2−1.6045a+59.318, −0.009a2+0.6045a+40.682), and
point W (0.0, 100.0-a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′ and K′B (excluding point J, point B, and point W);

if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′A, AB, BW, and WJ that connect the following 5 points:

point J (0.0183a2−1.1399a+46.493, −0.0183a2+0.1399a+53.507, 0.0),
point K′ (−0.0051a2+0.0929a+25.95, 0.0, 0.0051a2−1.0929a+74.05),
point A (0.0103a2−1.9225a+68.793, 0.0, −0.0103a2+0.9225a+31.207),
point B (0.0, 0.0046a2−1.41a+57.286, −0.0046a2+0.41a+42.714), and
point W (0.0, 100.0-a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′, K′A, and AB (excluding point J, point B, and point W); and if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′A, AB, BW, and WJ that connect the following 5 points:
point J (−0.0134a2+1.0956a+7.13, 0.0134a2−2.0956a+92.87, 0.0),
point K′ (−1.892a+29.443, 0.0, 0.892a+70.557),
point A (0.0085a2−1.8102a+67.1, 0.0, −0.0085a2+0.8102a+32.9),
point B (0.0, 0.0012a2−1.1659a+52.95, −0.0012a2+0.1659a+47.05), and
point W (0.0, 100.0-a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′, K′A, and AB (excluding point J, point B, and point W).

In this compressor, an induction motor is employed, and thus high power at comparatively low costs can also be achieved when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to those of R410A is used.

A compressor according to a twentieth aspect is the compressor according to any of the first through seventh aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), difluoromethane(R32), and 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (R1234yf), wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IJ, JN, NE, and EI that connect the following 4 points:

point I (72.0, 0.0, 28.0),
point J (48.5, 18.3, 33.2),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and
point E (58.3, 0.0, 41.7),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment EI;

the line segment IJ is represented by coordinates (0.0236y2−1.7616y+72.0, y, −0.0236y2+0.7616y+28.0);

the line segment NE is represented by coordinates (0.012y2−1.9003y+58.3, y, −0.012y2+0.9003y+41.7); and

the line segments JN and EI are straight lines.

In this compressor, an induction motor is employed, and thus high power at comparatively low costs can also be achieved when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) equal to those of R410A and classified with lower flammability (Class 2L) in the standard of The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is used.

A compressor according to a twenty-first aspect is the compressor according to any of the first through seventh aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf,

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MM′, M′N, NV, VG, and GM that connect the following 5 points:

point M (52.6, 0.0, 47.4),
point M′ (39.2, 5.0, 55.8),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1),
point V (11.0, 18.1, 70.9), and
point G (39.6, 0.0, 60.4),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GM);

the line segment MM′ is represented by coordinates (0.132y2−3.34y+52.6, y, −0.132y2+2.34y+47.4);

the line segment M′N is represented by coordinates (0.0596y2−2.2541y+48.98, y, −0.0596y2+1.2541y+51.02);

the line segment VG is represented by coordinates (0.0123y2−1.8033y+39.6, y, −0.0123y2+0.8033y+60.4); and

the line segments NV and GM are straight lines.

In this compressor, an induction motor is employed, and thus high power at comparatively low costs can also be achieved when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) equal to those of R410A and classified with lower flammability (Class 2L) in the standard of The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is used.

A compressor according to a twenty-second aspect is the compressor according to any of the first through seventh aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf, wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments ON, NU, and UO that connect the following 3 points:

point O (22.6, 36.8, 40.6),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and
point U (3.9, 36.7, 59.4),
or on these line segments;

the line segment ON is represented by coordinates (0.0072y2−0.6701y+37.512, y, −0.0072y2−0.3299y+62.488);

the line segment NU is represented by coordinates (0.0083y2−1.7403y+56.635, y, −0.0083y2+0.7403y+43.365); and

the line segment UO is a straight line.

In this compressor, an induction motor is employed, and thus high power at comparatively low costs can also be achieved when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) equal to those of R410A and classified with lower flammability (Class 2L) in the standard of The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is used.

A compressor according to a twenty-third aspect is the compressor according to any of the first through seventh aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf,

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QR, RT, TL, LK, and KQ that connect the following 5 points:

point Q (44.6, 23.0, 32.4),
point R (25.5, 36.8, 37.7),
point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8),
point L (28.9, 51.7, 19.4), and
point K (35.6, 36.8, 27.6),
or on these line segments;

the line segment QR is represented by coordinates (0.0099y2−1.975y+84.765, y, −0.0099y2+0.975y+15.235);

the line segment RT is represented by coordinates (0.0082y2−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y2+0.8683y+16.874);

the line segment LK is represented by coordinates (0.0049y2−0.8842y+61.488, y, −0.0049y2−0.1158y+38.512);

the line segment KQ is represented by coordinates (0.0095y2−1.2222y+67.676, y, −0.0095y2+0.2222y+32.324); and

the line segment TL is a straight line.

In this compressor, an induction motor is employed, and thus high power at comparatively low costs can also be achieved when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) equal to those of R410A and classified with lower flammability (Class 2L) in the standard of The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is used.

A compressor according to a twenty-fourth aspect is the compressor according to any of the first through seventh aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf,

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:

point P (20.5, 51.7, 27.8),
point S (21.9, 39.7, 38.4), and
point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8),
or on these line segments;

the line segment PS is represented by coordinates (0.0064y2−0.7103y+40.1, y, −0.0064y2−0.2897y+59.9);

the line segment ST is represented by coordinates (0.0082y2−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y2+0.8683y+16.874); and

the line segment TP is a straight line.

In this compressor, an induction motor is employed, and thus high power at comparatively low costs can also be achieved when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, a refrigeration capacity (may also be referred to as a cooling capacity or a capacity) equal to those of R410A and classified with lower flammability (Class 2L) in the standard of The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) is used.

A compressor according to a twenty-fifth aspect is the compressor according to any of the first through seventh aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (UFO-1123), and difluoromethane (R32), wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IK, KB′, B′H, HR, RG, and GI that connect the following 6 points:

point I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0),
point K (48.4, 33.2, 18.4),
point B′ (0.0, 81.6, 18.4),
point H (0.0, 84.2, 15.8),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segments B′H and GI);

the line segment IK is represented by coordinates (0.025z2−1.7429z+72.00, −0.025z2+0.7429z+28.0, z),

the line segment HR is represented by coordinates (−0.3123z2+4.234z+11.06, 0.3123z2−5.234z+88.94, z),

the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z), and

the line segments KB′ and GI are straight lines.

In this compressor, an induction motor is employed, and thus high power at comparatively low costs can also be achieved when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to that of R410A is used.

A compressor according to a twenty-sixth aspect is the compressor according to any of the first through seventh aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32, wherein when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IJ, JR, RG, and GI that connect the following 4 points:

point I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0),
point J (57.7, 32.8, 9.5),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GI);

the line segment IJ is represented by coordinates (0.025z2−1.7429z+72.0, −0.025z2+0.7429z+28.0, z),

the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z), and

the line segments JR and GI are straight lines.

In this compressor, an induction motor is employed, and thus high power at comparatively low costs can also be achieved when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to that of R410A is used.

A compressor according to a twenty-seventh aspect is the compressor according to any of the first through seventh aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32,

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MP, PB′, B′H, HR, RG, and GM that connect the following 6 points:

point M (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (31.8, 49.8, 18.4),
point B′ (0.0, 81.6, 18.4),
point H (0.0, 84.2, 15.8),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segments B′H and GM);

the line segment MP is represented by coordinates (0.0083z2−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z2−0.016z+52.9, z),

the line segment HR is represented by coordinates (−0.3123z2+4.234z+11.06, 0.3123z2−5.234z+88.94, z),

the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z), and

the line segments PB′ and GM are straight lines.

In this compressor, an induction motor is employed, and thus high power at comparatively low costs can also be achieved when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to that of R410A is used.

A compressor according to a twenty-eighth aspect is the compressor according to any of the first through seventh aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32,

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MN, NR, RG, and GM that connect the following 4 points:

point M (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point N (38.5, 52.1, 9.5),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GM);

the line segment MN is represented by coordinates (0.0083z2−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z2−0.016z+52.9, z),

the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z), and

the line segments JR and GI are straight lines.

In this compressor, an induction motor is employed, and thus high power at comparatively low costs can also be achieved when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to that of R410A is used.

A compressor according to a twenty-nineth aspect is the compressor according to any of the first through seventh aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32,

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:

point P (31.8, 49.8, 18.4),
point S (25.4, 56.2, 18.4), and
point T (34.8, 51.0, 14.2),
or on these line segments;

the line segment ST is represented by coordinates (−0.0982z2+0.9622z+40.931, 0.0982z2−1.9622z+59.069, z),

the line segment TP is represented by coordinates (0.0083z2−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z2−0.016z+52.9, z), and

the line segment PS is a straight line.

In this compressor, an induction motor is employed, and thus high power at comparatively low costs can also be achieved when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to that of R410A is used.

A compressor according to a thirtieth aspect is the compressor according to any of the first through seventh aspects, wherein the refrigerant comprises HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32,

wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QB″, B″D, DU, and UQ that connect the following 4 points:

point Q (28.6, 34.4, 37.0),
point B″ (0.0, 63.0, 37.0),
point D (0.0, 67.0, 33.0), and
point U (28.7, 41.2, 30.1),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment B″D);

the line segment DU is represented by coordinates (−3.4962z2+210.71z−3146.1, 3.4962z2−211.71z+3246.1, z),

the line segment UQ is represented by coordinates (0.0135z2−0.9181z+44.133, −0.0135z2−0.0819z+55.867, z), and

the line segments QB″ and B″D are straight lines.

In this compressor, an induction motor is employed, and thus high power at comparatively low costs can also be achieved when a refrigerant having a sufficiently low GWP, and a coefficient of performance (COP) equal to that of R410A is used.

A refrigeration cycle apparatus according to a thirty-first aspect is a refrigeration cycle apparatus including any one of the compressors according to the first aspect to the thirtieth aspect.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a schematic view of an instrument used for a flammability test.

FIG. 2 is a diagram showing points A to T and line segments that connect these points in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass %.

FIG. 3 is a diagram showing points A to C, D′, G, I, J, and K′, and line segments that connect these points to each other in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is (100-a) mass %.

FIG. 4 is a diagram showing points A to C, D′, G, I, J, and K′, and line segments that connect these points to each other in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 92.9 mass % (the content of R32 is 7.1 mass %).

FIG. 5 is a diagram showing points A to C, D′, G, I, J, K′, and W, and line segments that connect these points to each other in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 88.9 mass % (the content of R32 is 11.1 mass %).

FIG. 6 is a diagram showing points A, B, G, I, J, K′, and W, and line segments that connect these points to each other in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 85.5 mass % (the content of R32 is 14.5 mass %).

FIG. 7 is a diagram showing points A, B, G, I, J, K′, and W, and line segments that connect these points to each other in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 81.8 mass % (the content of R32 is 18.2 mass %).

FIG. 8 is a diagram showing points A, B, G, I, J, K′, and W, and line segments that connect these points to each other in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 78.1 mass % (the content of R32 is 21.9 mass %).

FIG. 9 is a diagram showing points A, B, G, I, J, K′, and W, and line segments that connect these points to each other in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 73.3 mass % (the content of R32 is 26.7 mass %).

FIG. 10 is a diagram showing points A, B, G, I, J, K′, and W, and line segments that connect these points to each other in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 70.7 mass % (the content of R32 is 29.3 mass %).

FIG. 11 is a diagram showing points A, B, G, I, J, K′, and W, and line segments that connect these points to each other in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 63.3 mass % (the content of R32 is 36.7 mass %).

FIG. 12 is a diagram showing points A, B, G, I, J, K′, and W, and line segments that connect these points to each other in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 55.9 mass % (the content of R32 is 44.1 mass %).

FIG. 13 is a diagram showing points A, B, G, I, J, K′, and W, and line segments that connect these points to each other in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 52.2 mass % (the content of R32 is 47.8 mass %).

FIG. 14 is a view showing points A to C, E, G, and I to W; and line segments that connect points A to C, E, G, and I to W in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass %.

FIG. 15 is a view showing points A to U; and line segments that connect the points in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass %.

FIG. 16 is a refrigeration circuit diagram of an air conditioner in which a compressor according to an embodiment of the present disclosure is utilized.

FIG. 17 is a longitudinal sectional view of the compressor according to an embodiment of the present disclosure.

FIG. 18 is a sectional view of a motor sectioned along a plane perpendicular to an axis.

FIG. 19 is a sectional view of a rotor sectioned along a plane perpendicular to an axis.

FIG. 20 is a perspective view of the rotor.

FIG. 21 is a perspective view of a rotor 71 used in an induction motor of a compressor according to a second modification.

FIG. 22 is a refrigerant circuit diagram of an air conditioner in which a compressor according to a third modification is utilized.

FIG. 23 is a longitudinal sectional view of a compressor according to a second embodiment of the present disclosure.

DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS (1) Definition of Terms

In the present specification, the term “refrigerant” includes at least compounds that are specified in ISO 817 (International Organization for Standardization), and that are given a refrigerant number (ASHRAE number) representing the type of refrigerant with “R” at the beginning; and further includes refrigerants that have properties equivalent to those of such refrigerants, even though a refrigerant number is not yet given. Refrigerants are broadly divided into fluorocarbon compounds and non-fluorocarbon compounds in terms of the structure of the compounds. Fluorocarbon compounds include chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFC). Non-fluorocarbon compounds include propane (R290), propylene (R1270), butane (R600), isobutane (R600a), carbon dioxide (R744), ammonia (R717), and the like.

In the present specification, the phrase “composition comprising a refrigerant” at least includes (1) a refrigerant itself (including a mixture of refrigerants), (2) a composition that further comprises other components and that can be mixed with at least a refrigeration oil to obtain a working fluid for a refrigerating machine, and (3) a working fluid for a refrigerating machine containing a refrigeration oil. In the present specification, of these three embodiments, the composition (2) is referred to as a “refrigerant composition” so as to distinguish it from a refrigerant itself (including a mixture of refrigerants). Further, the working fluid for a refrigerating machine (3) is referred to as a “refrigeration oil-containing working fluid” so as to distinguish it from the “refrigerant composition.”

In the present specification, when the term “alternative” is used in a context in which the first refrigerant is replaced with the second refrigerant, the first type of “alternative” means that equipment designed for operation using the first refrigerant can b e operated using the second refrigerant under optimum conditions, optionally with changes of only a few parts (at least one of the following: refrigeration oil, gasket, packing, expansion valve, dryer, and other parts) and equipment adjustment. In other words, this type of alternative means that the same equipment is operated with an alternative refrigerant. Embodiments of this type of “alternative” include “drop-in alternative,” “nearly drop-in alternative,” and “retrofit,” in the order in which the extent of changes and adjustment necessary for replacing the first refrigerant with the second refrigerant is smaller.

The term “alternative” also includes a second type of “alternative,” which means that equipment designed for operation using the second refrigerant is operated for the same use as the existing use with the first refrigerant by using the second refrigerant. This type of alternative means that the same use is achieved with an alternative refrigerant.

In the present specification, the term “refrigerating machine” refers to machines in general that draw heat from an object or space to make its temperature lower than the temperature of ambient air, and maintain a low temperature. In other words, refrigerating machines refer to conversion machines that gain energy from the outside to do work, and that perform energy conversion, in order to transfer heat from where the temperature is lower to where the temperature is higher.

In the present specification, a refrigerant having a “WCF lower flammability” means that the most flammable composition (worst case of formulation for flammability: WCF) has a burning velocity of 10 cm/s or less according to the US ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 34-2013. Further, in the present specification, a refrigerant having “ASHRAE lower flammability” means that the burning velocity of WCF is 10 cm/s or less, that the most flammable fraction composition (worst case of fractionation for flammability: WCFF), which is specified by performing a leakage test during storage, shipping, or use based on ANSI/ASHRAE 34-2013 using WCF, has a burning velocity of 10 cm/s or less, and that flammability classification according to the US ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 34-2013 is determined to classified as be “Class 2L.”

In the present specification, a refrigerant having an “RCL of x % or more” means that the refrigerant has a refrigerant concentration limit (RCL), calculated in accordance with the US ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 34-2013, of x % or more. RCL refers to a concentration limit in the air in consideration of safety factors. RCL is an index for reducing the risk of acute toxicity, suffocation, and flammability in a closed space where humans are present. RCL is determined in accordance with the ASHRAE Standard. More specifically, RCL is the lowest concentration among the acute toxicity exposure limit (ATEL), the oxygen deprivation limit (ODL), and the flammable concentration limit (FCL), which are respectively calculated in accordance with sections 7.1.1, 7.1.2, and 7.1.3 of the ASHRAE Standard.

In the present specification, temperature glide refers to an absolute value of the difference between the initial temperature and the end temperature in the phase change process of a composition containing the refrigerant of the present disclosure in the heat exchanger of a refrigerant system.

(2) Refrigerant (2-1) Refrigerant Component

Any one of various refrigerants such as refrigerant A, refrigerant B, refrigerant C, refrigerant D, and refrigerant E, details of these refrigerant are to be mentioned later, can be used as the refrigerant.

(2-2) Use of Refrigerant

The refrigerant according to the present disclosure can be preferably used as a working fluid in a refrigerating machine.

The composition according to the present disclosure is suitable for use as an alternative refrigerant for HFC refrigerant such as R410A, R407C and R404 etc, or HCFC refrigerant such as R22 etc.

(3) Refrigerant Composition

The refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure comprises at least the refrigerant according to the present disclosure, and can be used for the same use as the refrigerant according to the present disclosure. Moreover, the refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure can be further mixed with at least a refrigeration oil to thereby obtain a working fluid for a refrigerating machine.

The refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure further comprises at least one other component in addition to the refrigerant according to the present disclosure. The refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure may comprise at least one of the following other components, if necessary. As described above, when the refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure is used as a working fluid in a refrigerating machine, it is generally used as a mixture with at least a refrigeration oil. Therefore, it is preferable that the refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure does not substantially comprise a refrigeration oil. Specifically, in the refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure, the content of the refrigeration oil based on the entire refrigerant composition is preferably 0 to 1 mass %, and more preferably 0 to 0.1 mass %.

(3-1) Water

The refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure may contain a small amount of water. The water content of the refrigerant composition is preferably 0.1 mass % or less based on the entire refrigerant. A small amount of water contained in the refrigerant composition stabilizes double bonds in the molecules of unsaturated fluorocarbon compounds that can be present in the refrigerant, and makes it less likely that the unsaturated fluorocarbon compounds will be oxidized, thus increasing the stability of the refrigerant composition.

(3-2) Tracer

A tracer is added to the refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure at a detectable concentration such that when the refrigerant composition has been diluted, contaminated, or undergone other changes, the tracer can trace the changes.

The refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure may comprise a single tracer, or two or more tracers.

The tracer is not limited, and can be suitably selected from commonly used tracers. Preferably, a compound that cannot be an impurity inevitably mixed in the refrigerant of the present disclosure is selected as the tracer.

Examples of tracers include hydrofluorocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons, chlorofluorocarbons, hydrochlorocarbons, fluorocarbons, deuterated hydrocarbons, deuterated hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, fluoroethers, brominated compounds, iodinated compounds, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and nitrous oxide (N2O). The tracer is particularly preferably a hydrofluorocarbon, a hydrochlorofluorocarbon, a chlorofluorocarbon, a fluorocarbon, a hydrochlorocarbon, a fluorocarbon, or a fluoroether.

The following compounds are preferable as the tracer.

FC-14 (tetrafluoromethane, CF4)
HCC-40 (chloromethane, CH3Cl)
HFC-23 (trifluoromethane, CHF3)
HFC-41 (fluoromethane, CH3Cl)
HFC-125 (pentafluoroethane, CF3CHF2)
HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, CF3CH2F)
HFC-134 (1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, CHF2CHF2)
HFC-143a (1,1,1-trifluoroethane, CF3CH3)
HFC-143 (1,1,2-trifluoroethane, CHF2CH2F)
HFC-152a (1,1-difluoroethane, CHF2CH3)
HFC-152 (1,2-difluoroethane, CH2FCH2F)
HFC-161 (fluoroethane, CH3CH2F)
HFC-245fa (1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane, CF3CH2CHF2)
HFC-236fa (1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropane, CF3CH2CF3)
HFC-236ea (1,1,1,2,3,3-hexafluoropropane, CF3CHFCHF2)
HFC-227ea (1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane, CF3CHFCF3)
HCFC-22 (chlorodifluoromethane, CHClF2)
HCFC-31 (chlorofluoromethane, CH2ClF)
CFC-1113 (chlorotrifluoroethylene, CF2═CClF)
HFE-125 (trifluoromethyl-difluoromethyl ether, CF3OCHF2)
HFE-134a (trifluoromethyl-fluoromethyl ether, CF3OCH2F)
HFE-143a (trifluoromethyl-methyl ether, CF3OCH3)
HFE-227ea (trifluoromethyl-tetrafluoroethyl ether, CF3OCHFCF3)
HFE-236fa (trifluoromethyl-trifluoroethyl ether, CF3OCH2CF3)

The tracer compound may be present in the refrigerant composition at a total concentration of about 10 parts per million (ppm) to about 1000 ppm. Preferably, the tracer compound is present in the refrigerant composition at a total concentration of about 30 ppm to about 500 ppm, and most preferably, the tracer compound is present at a total concentration of about 50 ppm to about 300 ppm.

(3-3) Ultraviolet Fluorescent Dye

The refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure may comprise a single ultraviolet fluorescent dye, or two or more ultraviolet fluorescent dyes.

The ultraviolet fluorescent dye is not limited, and can be suitably selected from commonly used ultraviolet fluorescent dyes.

Examples of ultraviolet fluorescent dyes include naphthalimide, coumarin, anthracene, phenanthrene, xanthene, thioxanthene, naphthoxanthene, fluorescein, and derivatives thereof. The ultraviolet fluorescent dye is particularly preferably either naphthalimide or coumarin, or both.

(3-4) Stabilizer

The refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure may comprise a single stabilizer, or two or more stabilizers.

The stabilizer is not limited, and can be suitably selected from commonly used stabilizers.

Examples of stabilizers include nitro compounds, ethers, and amines.

Examples of nitro compounds include aliphatic nitro compounds, such as nitromethane and nitroethane; and aromatic nitro compounds, such as nitro benzene and nitro styrene.

Examples of ethers include 1,4-dioxane.

Examples of amines include 2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropylamine and diphenylamine.

Examples of stabilizers also include butylhydroxyxylene and benzotriazole.

The content of the stabilizer is not limited. Generally, the content of the stabilizer is preferably 0.01 to 5 mass %, and more preferably 0.05 to 2 mass %, based on the entire refrigerant.

(3-5) Polymerization Inhibitor

The refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure may comprise a single polymerization inhibitor, or two or more polymerization inhibitors.

The polymerization inhibitor is not limited, and can be suitably selected from commonly used polymerization inhibitors.

Examples of polymerization inhibitors include 4-methoxy-1-naphthol, hydroquinone, hydroquinone methyl ether, dimethyl-t-butylphenol, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol, and benzotriazole.

The content of the polymerization inhibitor is not limited. Generally, the content of the polymerization inhibitor is preferably 0.01 to 5 mass %, and more preferably 0.05 to 2 mass %, based on the entire refrigerant.

(4) Refrigeration Oil-Containing Working Fluid

The refrigeration oil-containing working fluid according to the present disclosure comprises at least the refrigerant or refrigerant composition according to the present disclosure and a refrigeration oil, for use as a working fluid in a refrigerating machine. Specifically, the refrigeration oil-containing working fluid according to the present disclosure is obtained by mixing a refrigeration oil used in a compressor of a refrigerating machine with the refrigerant or the refrigerant composition. The refrigeration oil-containing working fluid generally comprises 10 to 50 mass % of refrigeration oil.

(4-1) Refrigeration Oil

The refrigeration oil is not limited, and can be suitably selected from commonly used refrigeration oils. In this case, refrigeration oils that are superior in the action of increasing the miscibility with the mixture and the stability of the mixture, for example, are suitably selected as necessary.

The base oil of the refrigeration oil is preferably, for example, at least one member selected from the group consisting of polyalkylene glycols (PAG), polyol esters (POE), and polyvinyl ethers (PVE).

The refrigeration oil may further contain additives in addition to the base oil. The additive may be at least one member selected from the group consisting of antioxidants, extreme-pressure agents, acid scavengers, oxygen scavengers, copper deactivators, rust inhibitors, oil agents, and antifoaming agents.

A refrigeration oil with a kinematic viscosity of 5 to 400 cSt at 40° C. is preferable from the standpoint of lubrication.

The refrigeration oil-containing working fluid according to the present disclosure may further optionally contain at least one additive. Examples of additives include compatibilizing agents described below.

(4-2) Compatibilizing Agent

The refrigeration oil-containing working fluid according to the present disclosure may comprise a single compatibilizing agent, or two or more compatibilizing agents.

The compatibilizing agent is not limited, and can be suitably selected from commonly used compatibilizing agents.

Examples of compatibilizing agents include polyoxyalkylene glycol ethers, amides, nitriles, ketones, chlorocarbons, esters, lactones, aryl ethers, fluoroethers, and 1,1,1-trifluoroalkanes. The compatibilizing agent is particularly preferably a polyoxyalkylene glycol ether.

(5) Various Refrigerants

Hereinafter, the refrigerants A to E, which are the refrigerants used in the present embodiment, will be described in detail.

In addition, each description of the following refrigerant A, refrigerant B, refrigerant C, refrigerant D, and refrigerant E is each independent. The alphabet which shows a point or a line segment, the number of an Examples, and the number of a comparative examples are all independent of each other among the refrigerant A, the refrigerant B, the refrigerant C, the refrigerant D, and the refrigerant E. For example, the first embodiment of the refrigerant A and the first embodiment of the refrigerant B are different embodiment from each other.

(5-1) Refrigerant A

The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is a mixed refrigerant comprising trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123), and 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (R1234yf).

The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure has various properties that are desirable as an R410A-alternative refrigerant, i.e., a refrigerating capacity and a coefficient of performance that are equivalent to those of R410A, and a sufficiently low GWP.

The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is a composition comprising HFO-1132(E) and R1234yf, and optionally further comprising HFO-1123, and may further satisfy the following requirements. This refrigerant also has various properties desirable as an alternative refrigerant for R410A; i.e., it has a refrigerating capacity and a coefficient of performance that are equivalent to those of R410A, and a sufficiently low GWP.

Requirements

Preferable refrigerant A is as follows:

When the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments AA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, CO, and OA that connect the following 7 points:

point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0),
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0), and
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line CO);

the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),

the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3,

the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),

the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and

the line segments BD, CO, and OA are straight lines.

When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A.

When the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf, based on their sum in the refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is respectively represented by x, y, and z, the refrigerant is preferably a refrigerant wherein coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within a figure surrounded by line segments GI, IA, AA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CG that connect the following 8 points:

point G (72.0, 28.0, 0.0),
point I (72.0, 0.0, 28.0),
point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segment CG);

the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),

the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),

the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),

the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and

the line segments GI, IA, BD, and CG are straight lines.

When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant A according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A; furthermore, the refrigerant A has a WCF lower flammability according to the ASHRAE Standard (the WCF composition has a burning velocity of 10 cm/s or less).

When the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant according to the present disclosure is respectively represented by x, y, and z, the refrigerant is preferably a refrigerant wherein coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments JP, PN, NK, KA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CJ that connect the following 9 points:

point J (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point N (68.6, 16.3, 15.1),
point K (61.3, 5.4, 33.3),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segment CJ);

the line segment PN is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43),

the line segment NK is represented by coordinates (x, 0.2421x2−29.955x+931.91, −0.2421x2+28.955x−831.91),

the line segment KA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),

the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),

the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),

the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and

the line segments JP, BD, and CG are straight lines.

When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant A according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A; furthermore, the refrigerant exhibits a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE Standard (the WCF composition and the WCFF composition have a burning velocity of 10 cm/s or less).

When the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant according to the present disclosure is respectively represented by x, y, and z, the refrigerant is preferably a refrigerant wherein coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments JP, PL, LM, MA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CJ that connect the following 9 points:

point J (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0),
point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and
point (32.9, 67.1, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segment CJ);

the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43),

the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),

the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),

the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),

the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and

the line segments JP, LM, BD, and CG are straight lines.

When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A; furthermore, the refrigerant has an RCL of 40 g/m3 or more.

When the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is respectively represented by x, y, and z, the refrigerant is preferably a refrigerant wherein coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PL, LM, MA′, A′B, BF, FT, and TP that connect the following 7 points:

point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0),
point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point F (0.0, 61.8, 38.2), and
point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segment BF);

the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43),

the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),

the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),

the line segment FT is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0078x2−0.7501x+61.8, −0.0078x2−0.2499x+38.2),

the line segment TP is represented by coordinates (x, 0.00672x2−0.7607x+63.525, −0.00672x2−0.2393x+36.475), and

the line segments LM and BF are straight lines.

When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP of 95% or more relative to that of R410A; furthermore, the refrigerant has an RCL of 40 g/m3 or more.

The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PL, LQ, QR, and RP that connect the following 4 points:

point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0),
point Q (62.8, 29.6, 7.6), and
point R (49.8, 42.3, 7.9),
or on the above line segments;

the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43),

the line segment RP is represented by coordinates (x, 0.00672x2−0.7607x+63.525, −0.00672x2−0.2393x+36.475), and

the line segments LQ and QR are straight lines.

When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a COP of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, and an RCL of 40 g/m3 or more, furthermore, the refrigerant has a condensation temperature glide of 1° C. or less.

The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments SM, MA′, A′B, BF, FT, and TS that connect the following 6 points:

point S (62.6, 28.3, 9.1),
point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5),
point A′(30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point F (0.0, 61.8, 38.2), and
point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3),
or on the above line segments,

the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),

the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),

the line segment FT is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0078x2−0.7501x+61.8, −0.0078x2−0.2499x+38.2),

the line segment TS is represented by coordinates (x, −0.0017x2−0.7869x+70.888, −0.0017x2−0.2131x+29.112), and

the line segments SM and BF are straight lines.

When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, a COP of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, and an RCL of 40 g/m3 or more furthermore, the refrigerant has a discharge pressure of 105% or more relative to that of R410A.

The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Od, dg, gh, and hO that connect the following 4 points:

point d (87.6, 0.0, 12.4),
point g (18.2, 55.1, 26.7),
point h (56.7, 43.3, 0.0), and
point o (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the line segments Od, dg, gh, and hO (excluding the points O and h);

the line segment dg is represented by coordinates (0.0047y2−1.5177y+87.598, y, −0.0047y2+0.5177y+12.402),

the line segment gh is represented by coordinates (−0.0134z2−1.0825z+56.692, 0.0134z2+0.0825z+43.308, z), and

the line segments hO and Od are straight lines.

When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A.

The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf, based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments lg, gh, hi, and il that connect the following 4 points:

point l (72.5, 10.2, 17.3),
point g (18.2, 55.1, 26.7),
point h (56.7, 43.3, 0.0), and
point i (72.5, 27.5, 0.0) or
on the line segments lg, gh, and il (excluding the points h and i);

the line segment lg is represented by coordinates (0.0047y2−1.5177y+87.598, y, −0.0047y2+0.5177y+12.402),

the line gh is represented by coordinates (−0.0134z2−1.0825z+56.692, 0.0134z2+0.0825z+43.308, z), and

the line segments hi and il are straight lines.

When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A; furthermore, the refrigerant has a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE Standard.

The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Od, de, ef, and fO that connect the following 4 points:

point d (87.6, 0.0, 12.4),
point e (31.1, 42.9, 26.0),
point f (65.5, 34.5, 0.0), and
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the line segments Od, de, and ef (excluding the points O and f);

the line segment de is represented by coordinates (0.0047y2−1.5177y+87.598, y, −0.0047y2+0.5177y+12.402),

the line segment ef is represented by coordinates (−0.0064z2−1.1565z+65.501, 0.0064z2+0.1565z+34.499, z), and

the line segments fO and Od are straight lines.

When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 93.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 93.5% or more relative to that of R410A.

The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z,

coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments le, ef, fi, and il that connect the following 4 points:

point l (72.5, 10.2, 17.3),
point e (31.1, 42.9, 26.0),
point f (65.5, 34.5, 0.0), and
point i (72.5, 27.5, 0.0),
or on the line segments le, ef, and il (excluding the points f and i);

the line segment le is represented by coordinates (0.0047y2−1.5177y+87.598, y, −0.0047y2+0.5177y+12.402),

the line segment ef is represented by coordinates (−0.0134z2−1.0825z+56.692, 0.0134z2+0.0825z+43.308, z), and

the line segments fi and il are straight lines.

When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 93.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 93.5% or more relative to that of R410A; furthermore, the refrigerant has a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE Standard.

The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z,

coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Oa, ab, bc, and cO that connect the following 4 points:

point a (93.4, 0.0, 6.6),
point b (55.6, 26.6, 17.8),
point c (77.6, 22.4, 0.0), and
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the line segments Oa, ab, and bc (excluding the points O and c);

the line segment ab is represented by coordinates (0.0052y2−1.5588y+93.385, y, −0.0052y2+0.5588y+6.615),

the line segment bc is represented by coordinates (−0.0032z2−1.1791z+77.593, 0.0032z2+0.1791z+22.407, z), and

the line segments cO and Oa are straight lines.

When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A.

The refrigerant A according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z,

coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments kb, bj, and jk that connect the following 3 points:

point k (72.5, 14.1, 13.4),
point b (55.6, 26.6, 17.8), and
point j (72.5, 23.2, 4.3),
or on the line segments kb, bj, and jk;

the line segment kb is represented by coordinates (0.0052y2−1.5588y+93.385, y, and −0.0052y2+0.5588y+6.615),

the line segment bj is represented by coordinates (−0.0032z2−1.1791z+77.593, 0.0032z2+0.1791z+22.407, z), and

the line segment jk is a straight line.

When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A; furthermore, the refrigerant has a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE Standard.

The refrigerant according to the present disclosure may further comprise other additional refrigerants in addition to HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf, as long as the above properties and effects are not impaired. In this respect, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure preferably comprises HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more, more preferably 99.75 mass % or more, and still more preferably 99.9 mass % or more, based on the entire refrigerant.

The refrigerant according to the present disclosure may comprise HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more, 99.75 mass % or more, or 99.9 mass % or more, based on the entire refrigerant.

Additional refrigerants are not particularly limited and can be widely selected. The mixed refrigerant may contain one additional refrigerant, or two or more additional refrigerants.

Examples of Refrigerant A

The present disclosure is described in more detail below with reference to Examples of refrigerant A. However, refrigerant A is not limited to the Examples.

The GWP of R1234yf and a composition consisting of a mixed refrigerant R410A (R32=50%/R125=50%) was evaluated based on the values stated in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), fourth report. The GWP of HFO-1132(E), which was not stated therein, was assumed to be 1 from HFO-1132a (GWP=1 or less) and HFO-1123 (GWP=0.3, described in WO2015/141678). The refrigerating capacity of R410A and compositions each comprising a mixture of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf was determined by performing theoretical refrigeration cycle calculations for the mixed refrigerants using the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) and Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties Database (Refprop 9.0) under the following conditions.

Further, the RCL of the mixture was calculated with the LFL of HFO-1132(E) being 4.7 vol. %, the LFL of HFO-1123 being 10 vol. %, and the LFL of R1234yf being 6.2 vol. %, in accordance with the ASHRAE Standard 34-2013.

Evaporating temperature: 5° C.
Condensation temperature: 45° C.
Degree of superheating: 5 K
Degree of subcooling: 5 K
Compressor efficiency: 70%

Tables 1 to 34 show these values together with the GWP of each mixed refrigerant.

TABLE 1 Comp. Comp. Example Comp. Comp. Ex. 2 Ex. 3 Example 2 Example Ex. 4 Item Unit Ex. 1 O A 1 A′ 3 B HFO-1132(E) mass % R410A 100.0 68.6 49.0 30.6 14.1 0.0 HFO-1123 mass % 0.0 0.0 14.9 30.0 44.8 58.7 R1234yf mass % 0.0 31.4 36.1 39.4 41.1 41.3 GWP 2088 1 2 2 2 2 2 COP ratio % (relative 100 99.7 100.0 98.6 97.3 96.3 95.5 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 100 98.3 85.0 85.0 85.0 85.0 85.0 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C. 0.1 0.00 1.98 3.36 4.46 5.15 5.35 glide Discharge % (relative 100.0 99.3 87.1 88.9 90.6 92.1 93.2 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 30.7 37.5 44.0 52.7 64.0 78.6

TABLE 2 Comp. Example Comp. Comp. Example Comp. Ex. 5 Example 5 Example Ex. 6 Ex. 7 7 Ex. 8 Item Unit C 4 C′ 6 D E E′ F HFO-1132(E) mass % 32.9 26.6 19.5 10.9 0.0 58.0 23.4 0.0 HFO-1123 mass % 67.1 68.4 70.5 74.1 80.4 42.0 48.5 61.8 R1234yf mass % 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 19.6 0.0 28.1 38.2 GWP 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 COP ratio % (relative 92.5 92.5 92.5 92.5 92.5 95.0 95.0 95.0 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 107.4 105.2 102.9 100.5 97.9 105.0 92.5 86.9 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C. 0.16 0.52 0.94 1.42 1.90 0.42 3.16 4.80 glide Discharge % (relative 119.5 117.4 115.3 113.0 115.9 112.7 101.0 95.8 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 53.5 57.1 62.0 69.1 81.3 41.9 46.3 79.0

TABLE 3 Comp. Example Example Example Example Example Ex. 9 8 9 10 11 12 Item Unit J P L N N′ K HFO-1132(E) mass % 47.1 55.8 63.1 68.6 65.0 61.3 HFO-1123 mass % 52.9 42.0 31.9 16.3 7.7 5.4 R1234yf mass % 0.0 2.2 5.0 15.1 27.3 33.3 GWP 1 1 1 1 2 2 COP ratio % (relative 93.8 95.0 96.1 97.9 99.1 99.5 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 106.2 104.1 101.6 95.0 88.2 85.0 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C. 0.31 0.57 0.81 1.41 2.11 2.51 glide Discharge % (relative 115.8 111.9 107.8 99.0 91.2 87.7 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 46.2 42.6 40.0 38.0 38.7 39.7

TABLE 4 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Item Unit L M Q R S S′ T HFO-1132(E) mass % 63.1 60.3 62.8 49.8 62.6 50.0 35.8 HFO-1123 mass % 31.9 6.2 29.6 42.3 28.3 35.8 44.9 R1234yf mass % 5.0 33.5 7.6 7.9 9.1 14.2 19.3 GWP 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 COP ratio % (relative to 96.1 99.4 96.4 95.0 96.6 95.8 95.0 410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 101.6 85.0 100.2 101.7 99.4 98.1 96.7 capacity ratio 410A) Condensation ° C. 0.81 2.58 1.00 1.00 1.10 1.55 2.07 glide Discharge pressure % (relative to 107.8 87.9 106.0 109.6 105.0 105.0 105.0 410A) RCL g/m3 40.0 40.0 40.0 44.8 40.0 44.4 50.8

TABLE 5 Comp. Ex. Example Example 10 20 21 Item Unit G H I HFO-1132(E) mass % 72.0 72.0 72.0 HFO-1123 mass % 28.0 14.0 0.0 R1234yf mass % 0.0 14.0 28.0 GWP 1 1 2 COP ratio % (relative 96.6 98.2 99.9 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 103.1 95.1 86.6 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C. 0.46 1.27 1.71 glide Discharge % (relative 108.4 98.7 88.6 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 37.4 37.0 36.6

TABLE 6 Comp. Comp. Example Example Example Example Example Comp. Item Unit Ex. 11 Ex. 12 22 23 24 25 26 Ex. 13 HFO-1132(E) mass % 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 HFO-1123 mass % 85.0 75.0 65.0 55.0 45.0 35.0 25.0 15.0 R1234yf mass % 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 GWP 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COP ratio % (relative 91.4 92.0 92.8 93.7 94.7 95.8 96.9 98.0 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 105.7 105.5 105.0 104.3 103.3 102.0 100.6 99.1 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C. 0.40 0.46 0.55 0.66 0.75 0.80 0.79 0.67 glide Discharge % (relative 120.1 118.7 116.7 114.3 111.6 108.7 105.6 102.5 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 71.0 61.9 54.9 49.3 44.8 41.0 37.8 35.1

TABLE 7 Comp. Example Example Example Example Example Example Comp. Item Unit Ex. 14 27 28 29 30 31 32 Ex. 15 HFO-1132(E) mass % 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 HFO-1123 mass % 80.0 70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 R1234yf mass % 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 GWP 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COP ratio % (relative 91.9 92.5 93.3 94.3 95.3 96.4 97.5 98.6 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 103.2 102.9 102.4 101.5 100.5 99.2 97.8 96.2 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C. 0.87 0.94 1.03 1.12 1.18 1.18 1.09 0.88 glide Discharge % (relative 116.7 115.2 113.2 110.8 108.1 105.2 102.1 99.0 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 70.5 61.6 54.6 49.1 44.6 40.8 37.7 35.0

TABLE 8 Comp. Example Example Example Example Example Example Comp. Item Unit Ex. 16 33 34 35 36 37 38 Ex. 17 HFO-1132(E) mass % 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 HFO-1123 mass % 75.0 65.0 55.0 45.0 35.0 25.0 15.0 5.0 R1234yf mass % 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 GWP 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COP ratio % (relative 92.4 93.1 93.9 94.8 95.9 97.0 98.1 99.2 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 100.5 100.2 99.6 98.7 97.7 96.4 94.9 93.2 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C. 1.41 1.49 1.56 1.62 1.63 1.55 1.37 1.05 glide Discharge % (relative 113.1 111.6 109.6 107.2 104.5 101.6 98.6 95.5 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 70.0 61.2 54.4 48.9 44.4 40.7 37.5 34.8

TABLE 9 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 HFO-1132(E) mass % 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 HFO-1123 mass % 70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 R1234yf mass % 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 GWP 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 COP ratio % (relative to 93.0 93.7 94.5 95.5 96.5 97.6 98.7 410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 97.7 97.4 96.8 95.9 94.7 93.4 91.9 capacity ratio 410A) Condensation ° C. 2.03 2.09 2.13 2.14 2.07 1.91 1.61 glide Discharge pressure % (relative to 109.4 107.9 105.9 103.5 100.8 98.0 95.0 410A) RCL g/m3 69.6 60.9 54.1 48.7 44.2 40.5 37.4

TABLE 10 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 HFO-1132(E) mass % 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 HFO-1123 mass % 65.0 55.0 45.0 35.0 25.0 15.0 5.0 R1234yf mass % 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 GWP 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 COP ratio % (relative 93.6 94.3 95.2 96.1 97.2 98.2 99.3 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 94.8 94.5 93.8 92.9 91.8 90.4 88.8 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C. 2.71 2.74 2.73 2.66 2.50 2.22 1.78 glide Discharge % (relative 105.5 104.0 102.1 99.7 97.1 94.3 91.4 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 69.1 60.5 53.8 48.4 44.0 40.4 37.3

TABLE 11 Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 53 54 55 56 57 58 HFO-1132(E) mass % 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 HFO-1123 mass % 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 R1234yf mass % 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 GWP 2 2 2 2 2 2 COP ratio % (relative to 94.3 95.0 95.9 96.8 97.8 98.9 410A) Refrigerating % (relative to capacity ratio 410A) 91.9 91.5 90.8 89.9 88.7 87.3 Condensation ° C. 3.46 3.43 3.35 3.18 2.90 2.47 glide Discharge % (relative to 101.6 100.1 98.2 95.9 93.3 90.6 pressure 410A) RCL g/m3 68.7 60.2 53.5 48.2 43.9 40.2

TABLE 12 Example Example Example Example Example Comp. Item Unit 59 60 61 62 63 Ex. 18 HFO-1132(E) mass % 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 HFO-1123 mass % 55.0 45.0 35.0 25.0 15.0 5.0 R1234yf mass % 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 GWP 2 2 2 2 2 2 COP ratio % (relative to 95.0 95.8 96.6 97.5 98.5 99.6 410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 88.9 88.5 87.8 86.8 85.6 84.1 capacity ratio 410A) Condensation ° C. 4.24 4.15 3.96 3.67 3.24 2.64 glide Discharge % (relative to 97.6 96.1 94.2 92.0 89.5 86.8 pressure 410A) RCL g/m3 68.2 59.8 53.2 48.0 43.7 40.1

TABLE 13 Example Example Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Item Unit 64 65 19 20 21 HFO-1132(E) mass % 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 HFO-1123 mass % 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 R1234yf mass % 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 GWP 2 2 2 2 2 COP ratio % (relative to 95.9 96.6 97.4 98.3 99.2 410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 85.8 85.4 84.7 83.6 82.4 capacity ratio 410A) Condensation glide ° C. 5.05 4.85 4.55 4.10 3.50 Discharge pressure % (relative to 93.5 92.1 90.3 88.1 85.6 410A) RCL g/m3 67.8 59.5 53.0 47.8 43.5

TABLE 14 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 HFO-1132(E) mass % 54.0 56.0 58.0 62.0 52.0 54.0 56.0 58.0 HFO-1123 mass % 41.0 39.0 37.0 33.0 41.0 39.0 37.0 35.0 R1234yf mass % 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 GWP 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COP ratio % (relative 95.1 95.3 95.6 96.0 95.1 95.4 95.6 95.8 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 102.8 102.6 102.3 101.8 101.9 101.7 101.5 101.2 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C. 0.78 0.79 0.80 0.81 0.93 0.94 0.95 0.95 glide Discharge % (relative 110.5 109.9 109.3 108.1 109.7 109.1 108.5 107.9 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 43.2 42.4 41.7 40.3 43.9 43.1 42.4 41.6

TABLE 15 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 HFO-1132(E) mass % 60.0 62.0 61.0 58.0 60.0 62.0 52.0 54.0 HFO-1123 mass % 33.0 31.0 29.0 30.0 28.0 26.0 34.0 32.0 R1234yf mass % 7.0 7.0 10.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 14.0 14.0 GWP 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COP ratio % (relative 96.0 96.2 96.5 96.4 96.6 96.8 96.0 96.2 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 100.9 100.7 99.1 98.4 98.1 97.8 98.0 97.7 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C. 0.95 0.95 1.18 1.34 1.33 1.32 1.53 1.53 glide Discharge % (relative 107.3 106.7 104.9 104.4 103.8 103.2 104.7 104.1 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 40.9 40.3 40.5 41.5 40.8 40.1 43.6 42.9

TABLE 16 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 HFO-1132(E) mass % 56.0 58.0 60.0 48.0 50.0 52.0 54.0 56.0 HFO-1123 mass % 30.0 28.0 26.0 36.0 34.0 32.0 30.0 28.0 R1234yf mass % 14.0 14.0 14.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 GWP 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COP ratio % (relative 96.4 96.6 96.9 95.8 96.0 96.2 96.4 96.7 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 97.5 97.2 96.9 97.3 97.1 96.8 96.6 96.3 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C. 1.51 1.50 1.48 1.72 1.72 1.71 1.69 1.67 glide Discharge % (relative 103.5 102.9 102.3 104.3 103.8 103.2 102.7 102.1 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 42.1 41.4 40.7 45.2 44.4 43.6 42.8 42.1

TABLE 17 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 HFO-1132(E) mass % 58.0 60.0 42.0 44.0 46.0 48.0 50.0 52.0 HFO-1123 mass % 26.0 24.0 40.0 38.0 36.0 34.0 32.0 30.0 R1234yf mass % 16.0 16.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 GWP 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 COP ratio % (relative 96.9 97.1 95.4 95.6 95.8 96.0 96.3 96.5 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 96.1 95.8 96.8 96.6 96.4 96.2 95.9 95.7 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C. 1.65 1.63 1.93 1.92 1.92 1.91 1.89 1.88 glide Discharge % (relative 101.5 100.9 104.5 103.9 103.4 102.9 102.3 101.8 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 41.4 40.7 47.8 46.9 46.0 45.1 44.3 43.5

TABLE 18 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 HFO-1132(E) mass % 54.0 56.0 58.0 60.0 36.0 38.0 42.0 44.0 HFO-1123 mass % 28.0 26.0 24.0 22.0 44.0 42.0 38.0 36.0 R1234yf mass % 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 GWP 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 COP ratio % (relative 96.7 96.9 97.1 97.3 95.1 95.3 95.7 95.9 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 95.4 95.2 94.9 94.6 96.3 96.1 95.7 95.4 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C. 1.86 1.83 1.80 1.77 2.14 2.14 2.13 2.12 glide Discharge % (relative 101.2 100.6 100.0 99.5 104.5 104.0 103.0 102.5 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 42.7 42.0 41.3 40.6 50.7 49.7 47.7 46.8

TABLE 19 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 HFO-1132(E) mass % 46.0 48.0 52.0 54.0 56.0 58.0 34.0 36.0 HFO-1123 mass % 34.0 32.0 28.0 26.0 24.0 22.0 44.0 42.0 R1234yf mass % 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 22.0 22.0 GWP 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 COP ratio % (relative 96.1 96.3 96.7 96.9 97.2 97.4 95.1 95.3 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 95.2 95.0 94.5 94.2 94.0 93.7 95.3 95.1 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C. 2.11 2.09 2.05 2.02 1.99 1.95 2.37 2.36 glide Discharge % (relative 101.9 101.4 100.3 99.7 99.2 98.6 103.4 103.0 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 45.9 45.0 43.4 42.7 41.9 41.2 51.7 50.6

TABLE 20 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 HFO-1132 (E) mass % 38.0 40.0 42.0 44.0 46.0 48.0 50.0 52.0 HFO-1123 mass % 40.0 38.0 36.0 34.0 32.0 30.0 28.0 26.0 R1234yf mass % 22.0 22.0 22.0 22.0 22.0 22.0 22.0 22.0 GWP 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 COP ratio % (relative 95.5 95.7 95.9 96.1 96.4 96.6 96.8 97.0 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 94.9 94.7 94.5 94.3 94.0 93.8 93.6 93.3 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation °C. 2.36 2.35 2.33 2.32 2.30 2.27 2.25 2.21 glide Discharge % (relative 102.5 102.0 101.5 101.0 100.4 99.9 99.4 98.8 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 49.6 48.6 47.6 46.7 45.8 45.0 44.1 43.4

TABLE 21 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 HFO-1132 (E) mass % 54.0 56.0 58.0 60.0 32.0 34.0 36.0 38.0 HFO-1123 mass % 24.0 22.0 20.0 18.0 44.0 42.0 40.0 38.0 R1234yf mass % 22.0 22.0 22.0 22.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 GWP 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 COP ratio % (relative 97.2 97.4 97.6 97.9 95.2 95.4 95.6 95.8 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 93.0 92.8 92.5 92.2 94.3 94.1 93.9 93.7 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation °C. 2.18 2.14 2.09 2.04 2.61 2.60 2.59 2.58 glide Discharge % (relative 98.2 97.7 97.1 96.5 102.4 101.9 101.5 101.0 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 42.6 41.9 41.2 40.5 52.7 51.6 50.5 49.5

TABLE 22 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 HFO-1132 (E) mass % 40.0 42.0 44.0 46.0 48.0 50.0 52.0 54.0 HFO-1123 mass % 36.0 34.0 32.0 30.0 28.0 26.0 24.0 22.0 R1234yf mass % 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 GWP 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 COP ratio % (relative 96.0 96.2 96.4 96.6 96.8 97.0 97.2 97.5 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 93.5 93.3 93.1 92.8 92.6 92.4 92.1 91.8 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation °C. 2.56 2.54 2.51 2.49 2.45 2.42 2.38 2.33 glide Discharge % (relative 100.5 100.0 99.5 98.9 98.4 97.9 97.3 96.8 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 48.5 47.5 46.6 45.7 44.9 44.1 43.3 42.5

TABLE 23 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 HFO-1132 (E) mass % 56.0 58.0 60.0 30.0 32.0 34.0 36.0 38.0 HFO-1123 mass % 20.0 18.0 16.0 44.0 42.0 40.0 38.0 36.0 R1234yf mass % 24.0 24.0 24.0 26.0 26.0 26.0 26.0 26.0 GWP 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 COP ratio % (relative 97.7 97.9 98.1 95.3 95.5 95.7 95.9 96.1 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 91.6 91.3 91.0 93.2 93.1 92.9 92.7 92.5 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation °C. 2.28 2.22 2.16 2.86 2.85 2.83 2.81 2.79 glide Discharge % (relative 96.2 95.6 95.1 101.3 100.8 100.4 99.9 99.4 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 41.8 41.1 40.4 53.7 52.6 51.5 50.4 49.4

TABLE 24 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 HFO-1132 (E) mass % 40.0 42.0 44.0 46.0 48.0 50.0 52.0 54.0 HFO-1123 mass % 34.0 32.0 30.0 28.0 26.0 24.0 22.0 20.0 R1234yf mass % 26.0 26.0 26.0 26.0 26.0 26.0 26.0 26.0 GWP 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 COP ratio % (relative 96.3 96.5 96.7 96.9 97.1 97.3 97.5 97.7 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 92.3 92.1 91.9 91.6 91.4 91.2 90.9 90.6 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation °C. 2.77 2.74 2.71 2.67 2.63 2.59 2.53 2.48 glide Discharge % (relative 99.0 98.5 97.9 97.4 96.9 96.4 95.8 95.3 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 48.4 47.4 46.5 45.7 44.8 44.0 43.2 42.5

TABLE 25 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 HFO-1132 (E) mass % 56.0 58.0 60.0 30.0 32.0 34.0 36.0 38.0 HFO-1123 mass % 18.0 16.0 14.0 42.0 40.0 38.0 36.0 34.0 R1234yf mass % 26.0 26.0 26.0 28.0 28.0 28.0 28.0 28.0 GWP 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 COP ratio % (relative 97.9 98.2 98.4 95.6 95.8 96.0 96.2 96.3 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 90.3 90.1 89.8 92.1 91.9 91.7 91.5 91.3 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation °C. 2.42 2.35 2.27 3.10 3.09 3.06 3.04 3.01 glide Discharge % (relative 94.7 94.1 93.6 99.7 99.3 98.8 98.4 97.9 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 41.7 41.0 40.3 53.6 52.5 51.4 50.3 49.3

TABLE 26 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 HFO-1132 (E) mass % 40.0 42.0 44.0 46.0 48.0 50.0 52.0 54.0 HFO-1123 mass % 32.0 30.0 28.0 26.0 24.0 22.0 20.0 18.0 R1234yf mass % 28.0 28.0 28.0 28.0 28.0 28.0 28.0 28.0 GWP 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 COP ratio % (relative 96.5 96.7 96.9 97.2 97.4 97.6 97.8 98.0 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 91.1 90.9 90.7 90.4 90.2 89.9 89.7 89.4 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation °C. 2.98 2.94 2.90 2.85 2.80 2.75 2.68 2.62 glide Discharge % (relative 97.4 96.9 96.4 95.9 95.4 94.9 94.3 93.8 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 48.3 47.4 46.4 45.6 44.7 43.9 43.1 42.4

TABLE 27 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 HFO-1132 (E) mass % 56.0 58.0 60.0 32.0 34.0 36.0 38.0 42.0 HFO-1123 mass % 16.0 14.0 12.0 38.0 36.0 34.0 32.0 28.0 R1234yf mass % 28.0 28.0 28.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 GWP 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 COP ratio % (relative 98.2 98.4 98.6 96.1 96.2 96.4 96.6 97.0 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 89.1 88.8 88.5 90.7 90.5 90.3 90.1 89.7 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation °C. 2.54 2.46 2.38 3.32 3.30 3.26 3.22 3.14 glide Discharge % (relative 93.2 92.6 92.1 97.7 97.3 96.8 96.4 95.4 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 41.7 41.0 40.3 52.4 51.3 50.2 49.2 47.3

TABLE 28 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 HFO-1132 (E) mass % 44.0 46.0 48.0 50.0 52.0 54.0 56.0 58.0 HFO-1123 mass % 26.0 24.0 22.0 20.0 18.0 16.0 14.0 12.0 R1234yf mass % 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 GWP 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 COP ratio % (relative 97.2 97.4 97.6 97.8 98.0 98.3 98.5 98.7 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 89.4 89.2 89.0 88.7 88.4 88.2 87.9 87.6 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation °C. 3.08 3.03 2.97 2.90 2.83 2.75 2.66 2.57 glide Discharge % (relative 94.9 94.4 93.9 93.3 92.8 92.3 91.7 91.1 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 46.4 45.5 44.7 43.9 43.1 42.3 41.6 40.9

TABLE 29 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 HFO-1132 (E) mass % 30.0 32.0 34.0 36.0 38.0 40.0 42.0 44.0 HFO-1123 mass % 38.0 36.0 34.0 32.0 30.0 28.0 26.0 24.0 R1234yf mass % 32.0 32.0 32.0 32.0 32.0 32.0 32.0 32.0 GWP 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 COP ratio % (relative 96.2 96.3 96.5 96.7 96.9 97.1 97.3 97.5 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 89.6 89.5 89.3 89.1 88.9 88.7 88.4 88.2 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation °C. 3.60 3.56 3.52 3.48 3.43 3.38 3.33 3.26 glide Discharge % (relative 96.6 96.2 95.7 95.3 94.8 94.3 93.9 93.4 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 53.4 52.3 51.2 50.1 49.1 48.1 47.2 46.3

TABLE 30 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 HFO-1132 (E) mass % 46.0 48.0 50.0 52.0 54.0 56.0 58.0 60.0 HFO-1123 mass % 22.0 20.0 18.0 16.0 14.0 12.0 10.0 8.0 R1234yf mass % 32.0 32.0 32.0 32.0 32.0 32.0 32.0 32.0 GWP 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 COP ratio % (relative 97.7 97.9 98.1 98.3 98.5 98.7 98.9 99.2 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 88.0 87.7 87.5 87.2 86.9 86.6 86.3 86.0 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation °C. 3.20 3.12 3.04 2.96 2.87 2.77 2.66 2.55 glide Discharge % (relative 92.8 92.3 91.8 91.3 90.7 90.2 89.6 89.1 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 45.4 44.6 43.8 43.0 42.3 41.5 40.8 40.2

TABLE 31 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 HFO-1132 (E) mass % 30.0 32.0 34.0 36.0 38.0 40.0 42.0 44.0 HFO-1123 mass % 36.0 34.0 32.0 30.0 28.0 26.0 24.0 22.0 R1234yf mass % 34.0 34.0 34.0 34.0 34.0 34.0 34.0 34.0 GWP 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 COP ratio % (relative 96.5 96.6 96.8 97.0 97.2 97.4 97.6 97.8 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 88.4 88.2 88.0 87.8 87.6 87.4 87.2 87.0 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation °C. 3.84 3.80 3.75 3.70 3.64 3.58 3.51 3.43 glide Discharge % (relative 95.0 94.6 94.2 93.7 93.3 92.8 92.3 91.8 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 53.3 52.2 51.1 50.0 49.0 48.0 47.1 46.2

TABLE 32 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 HFO-1132 (E) mass % 46.0 48.0 50.0 52.0 54.0 30.0 32.0 34.0 HFO-1123 mass % 20.0 18.0 16.0 14.0 12.0 34.0 32.0 30.0 R1234yf mass % 34.0 34.0 34.0 34.0 34.0 36.0 36.0 36.0 GWP 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 COP ratio % (relative 98.0 98.2 98.4 98.6 98.8 96.8 96.9 97.1 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 86.7 86.5 86.2 85.9 85.6 87.2 87.0 86.8 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation °C. 3.36 3.27 3.18 3.08 2.97 4.08 4.03 3.97 glide Discharge % (relative 91.3 90.8 90.3 89.7 89.2 93.4 93.0 92.6 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 45.3 44.5 43.7 42.9 42.2 53.2 52.1 51.0

TABLE 33 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 HFO-1132 (E) mass % 36.0 38.0 40.0 42.0 44.0 46.0 30.0 32.0 HFO-1123 mass % 28.0 26.0 24.0 22.0 20.0 18.0 32.0 30.0 R1234yf mass % 36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0 38.0 38.0 GWP 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 COP ratio % (relative 97.3 97.5 97.7 97.9 98.1 98.3 97.1 97.2 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 86.6 86.4 86.2 85.9 85.7 85.5 85.9 85.7 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation °C. 3.91 3.84 3.76 3.68 3.60 3.50 4.32 4.25 glide Discharge % (relative 92.1 91.7 91.2 90.7 90.3 89.8 91.9 91.4 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 49.9 48.9 47.9 47.0 46.1 45.3 53.1 52.0

TABLE 34 Example Example Item Unit 226 227 HFO-1132(E) mass % 34.0 36.0 HFO-1123 mass % 28.0 26.0 R1234yf mass % 38.0 38.0 GWP 2 2 COP ratio % (relative 97.4 97.6 to 410A) Refrigerating % (relative 85.6 85.3 capacity ratio to 410A) Condensation ° C. 4.18 4.11 glide Discharge % (relative 91.0 90.6 pressure to 410A) RCL g/m3 50.9 49.8

These results indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments AA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, CO, and OA that connect the following 7 points:

point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4),
point A′(30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6),
point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0),
point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0), and
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segment CO);
the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3,
the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),
the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and
the line segments BD, CO, and OA are straight lines, the refrigerant has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A.

The point on the line segment AA′ was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting point A, Example 1, and point A′ by the least square method.

The point on the line segment A′B was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting point A′, Example 3, and point B by the least square method.

The point on the line segment DC′ was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting point D, Example 6, and point C′ by the least square method.

The point on the line segment C′C was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting point C′, Example 4, and point C by the least square method.

Likewise, the results indicate that when coordinates (x,y,z) are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments AA′, A′B, BF, FT, TE, EO, and OA that connect the following 7 points:

point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4),
point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4),
point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3),
point F (0.0, 61.8, 38.2),
point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3),
point E (58.0, 42.0, 0.0) and
point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line EO);
the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment FT is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0078x2−0.7501x+61.8, −0.0078x2−0.2499x+38.2), and
the line segment TE is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.7607x+63.525, −0.0067x2−0.2393x+36.475), and
the line segments BF, FO, and OA are straight lines,
the refrigerant has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP of 95% or more relative to that of R410A.

The point on the line segment FT was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting three points, i.e., points T, E′, and F, by the least square method.

The point on the line segment TE was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting three points, i.e., points E, R, and T, by the least square method.

The results in Tables 1 to 34 clearly indicate that in a ternary composition diagram of the mixed refrigerant of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf in which the sum of these components is 100 mass %, a line segment connecting a point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is the base, the point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) is on the left side, and the point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is on the right side, when coordinates (x,y,z) are on or below the line segment LM connecting point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0) and point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5), the refrigerant has an RCL of 40 g/m3 or more.

The results in Tables 1 to 34 clearly indicate that in a ternary composition diagram of the mixed refrigerant of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123 and R1234yf in which their sum is 100 mass %, a line segment connecting a point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is the base, the point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) is on the left side, and the point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is on the right side, when coordinates (x,y,z) are on the line segment QR connecting point Q (62.8, 29.6, 7.6) and point R (49.8, 42.3, 7.9) or on the left side of the line segment, the refrigerant has a temperature glide of 1° C. or less.

The results in Tables 1 to 34 clearly indicate that in a ternary composition diagram of the mixed refrigerant of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf in which their sum is 100 mass %, a line segment connecting a point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is the base, the point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) is on the left side, and the point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is on the right side, when coordinates (x,y,z) are on the line segment ST connecting point S (62.6, 28.3, 9.1) and point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3) or on the right side of the line segment, the refrigerant has a discharge pressure of 105% or less relative to that of 410A.

In these compositions, R1234yf contributes to reducing flammability, and suppressing deterioration of polymerization etc. Therefore, the composition preferably contains R1234yf.

Further, the burning velocity of these mixed refrigerants whose mixed formulations were adjusted to WCF concentrations was measured according to the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 34-2013. Compositions having a burning velocity of 10 cm/s or less were determined to be classified as “Class 2L (lower flammability).”

A burning velocity test was performed using the apparatus shown in FIG. 1 in the following manner. In FIG. 1, reference numeral 901 refers to a sample cell, 902 refers to a high-speed camera, 903 refers to a xenon lamp, 904 refers to a collimating lens, 905 refers to a collimating lens, and 906 refers to a ring filter. First, the mixed refrigerants used had a purity of 99.5% or more, and were degassed by repeating a cycle of freezing, pumping, and thawing until no traces of air were observed on the vacuum gauge. The burning velocity was measured by the closed method. The initial temperature was ambient temperature. Ignition was performed by generating an electric spark between the electrodes in the center of a sample cell. The duration of the discharge was 1.0 to 9.9 ms, and the ignition energy was typically about 0.1 to 1.0 J. The spread of the flame was visualized using schlieren photographs. A cylindrical container (inner diameter: 155 mm, length: 198 mm) equipped with two light transmission acrylic windows was used as the sample cell, and a xenon lamp was used as the light source. Schlieren images of the flame were recorded by a high-speed digital video camera at a frame rate of 600 fps and stored on a PC.

Each WCFF concentration was obtained by using the WCF concentration as the initial concentration and performing a leak simulation using NIST Standard Reference Database REFLEAK Version 4.0.

Tables 35 and 36 show the results.

TABLE 35 Item Unit G H I WCF HFO-1132(E) mass % 72.0 72.0 72.0 HFO-1123 mass % 28.0 9.6 0.0 R1234yf mass % 0.0 18.4 28.0 Burning velocity (WCF) cm/s 10 10 10

TABLE 36 Item Unit J P L N N′ K WCF HFO- mass % 47.1 55.8 63.1 68.6 65.0 61.3 1132 (E) HFO- mass % 52.9 42.0 31.9 16.3 7.7 5.4 1123 R1234yf mass % 0.0 2.2 5.0 15.1 27.3 33.3 Leak condition Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ that results Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping, in WCFF −40° C. −40° C. −40° C. −40° C. −40° C. −40° C. 92% 90% 90% 66% 12% 0% release, release, release, release, release, release, liquid liquid gas gas gas gas phase phase phase phase phase phase side side side side side side WCFF HFO- mass % 72.0 72.0 72.0 72.0 72.0 72.0 1132 (E) HFO- mass % 28.0 17.8 17.4 13.6 12.3 9.8 1123 R1234yf mass %  0.0 10.2 10.6 14.4 15.7 18.2 Burning cm/s 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less 9 9 8 or less velocity (WCF) Burning cm/s 10 10 10 10 10 10 velocity (WCFF)

The results in Table 35 clearly indicate that when a mixed refrigerant of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf contains HFO-1132(E) in a proportion of 72.0 mass % or less based on their sum, the refrigerant can be determined to have a WCF lower flammability.

The results in Tables 36 clearly indicate that in a ternary composition diagram of a mixed refrigerant of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf in which their sum is 100 mass %, and a line segment connecting a point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is the base, when coordinates (x,y,z) are on or below the line segments JP, PN, and NK connecting the following 6 points:

point J (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2),
point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0)
point N (68.6, 16.3, 15.1)
point N′ (65.0, 7.7, 27.3) and
point K (61.3, 5.4, 33.3),
the refrigerant can be determined to have a WCF lower flammability, and a WCFF lower flammability.
In the diagram, the line segment PN is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43),
and the line segment NK is represented by coordinates (x, 0.2421x2−29.955x+931.91, −0.2421x2+28.955x−831.91).

The point on the line segment PN was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting three points, i.e., points P, L, and N, by the least square method.

The point on the line segment NK was determined by obtaining an approximate curve connecting three points, i.e., points N, N′, and K, by the least square method.

(5-2) Refrigerant B

The refrigerant B according to the present disclosure is

a mixed refrigerant comprising trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)) and trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123) in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more based on the entire refrigerant, and the refrigerant comprising 62.0 mass % to 72.0 mass % or 45.1 mass % to 47.1 mass % of HFO-1132(E) based on the entire refrigerant, or

a mixed refrigerant comprising HFO-1132(E) and HFO-1123 in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more based on the entire refrigerant, and the refrigerant comprising 45.1 mass % to 47.1 mass % of HFO-1132(E) based on the entire refrigerant.

The refrigerant B according to the present disclosure has various properties that are desirable as an R410A-alternative refrigerant, i.e., (1) a coefficient of performance equivalent to that of R410A, (2) a refrigerating capacity equivalent to that of R410A, (3) a sufficiently low GWP, and (4) a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE standard.

When the refrigerant B according to the present disclosure is a mixed refrigerant comprising 72.0 mass % or less of HFO-1132(E), it has WCF lower flammability. When the refrigerant B according to the present disclosure is a composition comprising 47.1% or less of HFO-1132(E), it has WCF lower flammability and WCFF lower flammability, and is determined to be “Class 2L,” which is a lower flammable refrigerant according to the ASHRAE standard, and which is further easier to handle.

When the refrigerant B according to the present disclosure comprises 62.0 mass % or more of HFO-1132(E), it becomes superior with a coefficient of performance of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, the polymerization reaction of HFO-1132(E) and/or HFO-1123 is further suppressed, and the stability is further improved. When the refrigerant B according to the present disclosure comprises 45.1 mass % or more of HFO-1132(E), it becomes superior with a coefficient of performance of 93% or more relative to that of R410A, the polymerization reaction of HFO-1132(E) and/or HFO-1123 is further suppressed, and the stability is further improved.

The refrigerant B according to the present disclosure may further comprise other additional refrigerants in addition to HFO-1132(E) and HFO-1123, as long as the above properties and effects are not impaired. In this respect, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure preferably comprises HFO-1132(E) and HFO-1123 in a total amount of 99.75 mass % or more, and more preferably 99.9 mass % or more, based on the entire refrigerant.

Such additional refrigerants are not limited, and can be selected from a wide range of refrigerants. The mixed refrigerant may comprise a single additional refrigerant, or two or more additional refrigerants.

Examples of Refrigerant B

The present disclosure is described in more detail below with reference to Examples of refrigerant B. However, the refrigerant B is not limited to the Examples.

Mixed refrigerants were prepared by mixing HFO-1132(E) and HFO-1123 at mass % based on their sum shown in Tables 37 and 38.

The GWP of compositions each comprising a mixture of R410A (R32=50%/R125=50%) was evaluated based on the values stated in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), fourth report. The GWP of HFO-1132(E), which was not stated therein, was assumed to be 1 from HFO-1132a (GWP=1 or less) and HFO-1123 (GWP=0.3, described in WO2015/141678). The refrigerating capacity of compositions each comprising R410A and a mixture of HFO-1132(E) and HFO-1123 was determined by performing theoretical refrigeration cycle calculations for the mixed refrigerants using the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) and Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties Database (Refprop 9.0) under the following conditions.

Evaporating temperature: 5° C.
Condensation temperature: 45° C.
Superheating temperature: 5 K
Subcooling temperature: 5 K
Compressor efficiency: 70%

The composition of each mixture was defined as WCF. A leak simulation was performed using NIST Standard Reference Data Base Refleak Version 4.0 under the conditions of Equipment, Storage, Shipping, Leak, and Recharge according to the ASHRAE Standard 34-2013. The most flammable fraction was defined as WCFF.

Tables 1 and 2 show GWP, COP, and refrigerating capacity, which were calculated based on these results. The COP and refrigerating capacity are ratios relative to R410A.

The coefficient of performance (COP) was determined by the following formula.


COP=(refrigerating capacity or heating capacity)/power consumption

For the flammability, the burning velocity was measured according to the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 34-2013. Both WCF and WCFF having a burning velocity of 10 cm/s or less were determined to be “Class 2L (lower flammability).”

A burning velocity test was performed using the apparatus shown in FIG. 1 in the following manner. First, the mixed refrigerants used had a purity of 99.5% or more, and were degassed by repeating a cycle of freezing, pumping, and thawing until no traces of air were observed on the vacuum gauge. The burning velocity was measured by the closed method. The initial temperature was ambient temperature. Ignition was performed by generating an electric spark between the electrodes in the center of a sample cell. The duration of the discharge was 1.0 to 9.9 ms, and the ignition energy was typically about 0.1 to 1.0 J. The spread of the flame was visualized using schlieren photographs. A cylindrical container (inner diameter: 155 mm, length: 198 mm) equipped with two light transmission acrylic windows was used as the sample cell, and a xenon lamp was used as the light source. Schlieren images of the flame were recorded by a high-speed digital video camera at a frame rate of 600 fps and stored on a PC.

TABLE 37 Comparative Comparative Example 1 Example 2 Comparative Example Example Example Example Example Comparative Item Unit R410A HFO-1132E Example 3 1 2 3 4 5 Example 4 HFO-1132E mass % 100 80 72 70 68 65 62 60 (WCF) HFO-1123 mass % 0 20 28 30 32 35 38 40 (WCF) GWP 2088 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COP ratio % (relative 100 99.7 97.5 96.6 96.3 96.1 95.8 95.4 95.2 to R410A) Refrigerating 100 98.3 101.9 103.1 103.4 103.8 104.1 104.5 104.8 capacity ratio Discharge Mpa 2.73 2.71 2.89 2.96 2.98 3.00 3.02 3.04 3.06 pressure Burning velocity cm/sec Non- 20 13 10 9 9 8 8 or less 8 or less (WCF) flammable

TABLE 38 Com- Com- Comparative parative parative Comparative Comparative Comparative Example 10 Item Unit Example 5 Example 6 Example 7 Example 8 Example 9 Example 7 Example 8 Example 9 HFO-1123 HFO-1132E mass % 50 48 47.1 46.1 45.1 43 20 25 0 (WCF) HFO-1123 mass % 50 52 52.9 53.9 54.9 57 60 75 100 (WCF) GWP 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 COP ratio % 94.1 93.9 93.8 93.7 93.6 93.4 93.1 91.9 90.6 (relative to R410A) Refrigerating % 105.9 106.1 106.2 106.3 106.4 106.6 106.9 107.9 108.0 capacity ratio (relative to R410A) Discharge Mpa 3.14 3.16 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.20 3.21 3.31 3.39 pressure Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping −40 °C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., 92% 92% 92% 92% 92% 92% 92% 90% release, release, release, release, release, release, release, release, liquid liquid liquid liquid liquid liquid liquid liquid Leakage test phase phase phase phase phase phase phase phase conditions (WCFF) side side side side side side side side HFO-1132E mass % 74 73 72 71 70 67 63 38 (WCFF) HFO-1123 mss % 26 27 28 29 30 33 37 62 (WCFF) Burning cm/sec 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less 5 velocity (WCF) Burning cm/sec 11 10.5 10.0 9.5 9.5 8.5 8 or less 8 or less velocity (WCFF) ASHRAE 2 2 2L 2L 2L 2L 2L 2L 2L flammability classification

The compositions each comprising 62.0 mass % to 72.0 mass % of HFO-1132(E) based on the entire composition are stable while having a low GWP (GWP=1), and they ensure WCF lower flammability. Further, surprisingly, they can ensure performance equivalent to that of R410A. Moreover, compositions each comprising 45.1 mass % to 47.1 mass % of HFO-1132(E) based on the entire composition are stable while having a low GWP (GWP=1), and they ensure WCFF lower flammability. Further, surprisingly, they can ensure performance equivalent to that of R410A.

(5-3) Refrigerant C

The refrigerant C according to the present disclosure is a composition comprising trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123), 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (R1234yf), and difluoromethane (R32), and satisfies the following requirements. The refrigerant C according to the present disclosure has various properties that are desirable as an alternative refrigerant for R410A; i.e. it has a coefficient of performance and a refrigerating capacity that are equivalent to those of R410A, and a sufficiently low GWP.

Requirements

Preferable refrigerant C is as follows:

When the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a,

if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is (100-a) mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BD′, D′C, and CG that connect the following 6 points:

point G (0.026a2−1.7478a+72.0, −0.026a2+0.7478a+28.0, 0.0),
point I (0.026a2−1.7478a+72.0, 0.0, −0.026a2+0.7478a+28.0),
point A (0.0134a2−1.9681a+68.6, 0.0, −0.0134a2+0.9681a+31.4),
point B (0.0, 0.0144a2−1.6377a+58.7, −0.0144a2+0.6377a+41.3),
point D′ (0.0, 0.0224a2+0.968a+75.4, −0.0224a2−1.968a+24.6), and
point C (−0.2304a2−0.4062a+32.9, 0.2304a2−0.5938a+67.1, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI, AB, and D′C (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, point D′, and point C);

if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:

point G (0.02a2−1.6013a+71.105, −0.02a2+0.6013a+28.895, 0.0),
point I (0.02a2−1.6013a+71.105, 0.0, −0.02a2+0.6013a+28.895),
point A (0.0112a2−1.9337a+68.484, 0.0, −0.0112a2+0.9337a+31.516),
point B (0.0, 0.0075a2−1.5156a+58.199, −0.0075a2+0.5156a+41.801) and
point W (0.0, 100.0-a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W);

if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:

point G (0.0135a2−1.4068a+69.727, −0.0135a2+0.4068a+30.273, 0.0),
point I (0.0135a2−1.4068a+69.727, 0.0, −0.0135a2+0.4068a+30.273),
point A (0.0107a2−1.9142a+68.305, 0.0, −0.0107a2+0.9142a+31.695),
point B (0.0, 0.009a2−1.6045a+59.318, −0.009a2+0.6045a+40.682) and
point W (0.0, 100.0-a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W);

if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:

point G (0.0111a2−1.3152a+68.986, −0.0111a2+0.3152a+31.014, 0.0),
point I (0.0111a2−1.3152a+68.986, 0.0, −0.0111a2+0.3152a+31.014),
point A (0.0103a2−1.9225a+68.793, 0.0, −0.0103a2+0.9225a+31.207),
point B (0.0, 0.0046a2−1.41a+57.286, −0.0046a2+0.41a+42.714) and
point W (0.0, 100.0-a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W); and

if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:

point G (0.0061a2−0.9918a+63.902, −0.0061a2−0.0082a+36.098, 0.0),
point I (0.0061a2−0.9918a+63.902, 0.0, −0.0061a2−0.0082a+36.098),
point A (0.0085a2−1.8102a+67.1, 0.0, −0.0085a2+0.8102a+32.9),
point B (0.0, 0.0012a2−1.1659a+52.95, −0.0012a2+0.1659a+47.05) and
point W (0.0, 100.0-a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, and point W). When the refrigerant according to the present disclosure satisfies the above requirements, it has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and further ensures a WCF lower flammability.

The refrigerant C according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z,

if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is (100-a) mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BD′, D′C, and CJ that connect the following 5 points:

point J (0.0049a2−0.9645a+47.1, −0.0049a2−0.0355a+52.9, 0.0),
point K′ (0.0514a2−2.4353a+61.7, −0.0323a2+0.4122a+5.9, −0.0191a2+1.0231a+32.4),
point B (0.0, 0.0144a2−1.6377a+58.7, −0.0144a2+0.6377a+41.3),
point D′ (0.0, 0.0224a2+0.968a+75.4, −0.0224a2−1.968a+24.6), and
point C (−0.2304a2−0.4062a+32.9, 0.2304a2−0.5938a+67.1, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′, K′B, and D′C (excluding point J, point B, point D′, and point C);

if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BW, and WJ that connect the following 4 points:

point J (0.0243a2−1.4161a+49.725, −0.0243a2+0.4161a+50.275, 0.0),
point K′ (0.0341a2−2.1977a+61.187, −0.0236a2+0.34a+5.636, −0.0105a2+0.8577a+33.177),
point B (0.0, 0.0075a2−1.5156a+58.199, −0.0075a2+0.5156a+41.801) and
point W (0.0, 100.0-a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′ and K′B (excluding point J, point B, and point W);

if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BW, and WJ that connect the following 4 points:

point J (0.0246a2−1.4476a+50.184, −0.0246a2+0.4476a+49.816, 0.0),
point K′ (0.0196a2−1.7863a+58.515, −0.0079a2−0.1136a+8.702, −
0.0117a2+0.8999a+32.783),
point B (0.0, 0.009a2−1.6045a+59.318, −0.009a2+0.6045a+40.682) and
point W (0.0, 100.0-a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′ and K′B (excluding point J, point B, and point W);

if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′A, AB, BW, and WJ that connect the following 5 points:

point J (0.0183a2−1.1399a+46.493, −0.0183a2+0.1399a+53.507, 0.0),
point K′ (−0.0051a2+0.0929a+25.95, 0.0, 0.0051a2−1.0929a+74.05),
point A (0.0103a2−1.9225a+68.793, 0.0, −0.0103a2+0.9225a+31.207),
point B (0.0, 0.0046a2−1.41a+57.286, −0.0046a2+0.41a+42.714) and
point W (0.0, 100.0-a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′, K′A, and AB (excluding point J, point B, and point W); and

if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′A, AB, BW, and WJ that connect the following 5 points:

point J (−0.0134a2+1.0956a+7.13, 0.0134a2−2.0956a+92.87, 0.0),
point K′ (−1.892a+29.443, 0.0, 0.892a+70.557),
point A (0.0085a2−1.8102a+67.1, 0.0, −0.0085a2+0.8102a+32.9),
point B (0.0, 0.0012a2−1.1659a+52.95, −0.0012a2+0.1659a+47.05) and
point W (0.0, 100.0-a, 0.0),
or on the straight lines JK′, K′A, and AB (excluding point J, point B, and point W). When the refrigerant according to the present disclosure satisfies the above requirements, it has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A. Additionally, the refrigerant has a WCF lower flammability and a WCFF lower flammability, and is classified as “Class 2L,” which is a lower flammable refrigerant according to the ASHRAE standard.

When the refrigerant C according to the present disclosure further contains R32 in addition to HFO-1132 (E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf, the refrigerant may be a refrigerant wherein when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a,

if 0<a≤10.0, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is (100-a) mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines that connect the following 4 points:

point a (0.02a2−2.46a+93.4, 0, −0.02a2+2.46a+6.6),
point b′ (−0.008a2−1.38a+56, 0.018a2−0.53a+26.3, −0.01a2+1.91a+17.7),
point c (−0.016a2+1.02a+77.6, 0.016a2−1.02a+22.4, 0), and
point o (100.0-a, 0.0, 0.0)
or on the straight lines oa, ab′, and b′c (excluding point o and point c);

if 10.0<a≤16.5, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines that connect the following 4 points:

point a (0.0244a2−2.5695a+94.056, 0, −0.0244a2+2.5695a+5.944),
point b′ (0.1161a2−1.9959a+59.749, 0.014a2−0.3399a+24.8, −0.1301a2+2.3358a+15.451),
point c (−0.0161a2+1.02a+77.6, 0.0161a2−1.02a+22.4, 0), and
point o (100.0-a, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the straight lines oa, ab′, and b′c (excluding point o and point c); or

if 16.5<a≤21.8, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines that connect the following 4 points:

point a (0.0161a2−2.3535a+92.742, 0, −0.0161a2+2.3535a+7.258),
point b′ (−0.0435a2−0.0435a+50.406, 0.0304a2+1.8991a−0.0661, 0.0739a2−1.8556a+49.6601),
point c (−0.0161a2+0.9959a+77.851, 0.0161a2−0.9959a+22.149, 0), and
point o (100.0-a, 0.0, 0.0),
or on the straight lines oa, ab′, and b′c (excluding point o and point c). Note that when point b in the ternary composition diagram is defined as a point where a refrigerating capacity ratio of 95% relative to that of R410A and a COP ratio of 95% relative to that of R410A are both achieved, point b′ is the intersection of straight line ab and an approximate line formed by connecting the points where the COP ratio relative to that of R410A is 95%. When the refrigerant according to the present disclosure meets the above requirements, the refrigerant has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, and a COP ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A.

The refrigerant C according to the present disclosure may further comprise other additional refrigerants in addition to HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, R1234yf, and R32 as long as the above properties and effects are not impaired. In this respect, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure preferably comprises HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, R1234yf, and R32 in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more, more preferably 99.75 mass % or more, and still more preferably 99.9 mass % or more, based on the entire refrigerant.

The refrigerant C according to the present disclosure may comprise HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, R1234yf, and R32 in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more, 99.75 mass % or more, or 99.9 mass % or more, based on the entire refrigerant.

Additional refrigerants are not particularly limited and can be widely selected. The mixed refrigerant may contain one additional refrigerant, or two or more additional refrigerants.

Examples of Refrigerant C

The present disclosure is described in more detail below with reference to Examples of refrigerant C. However, the refrigerant C is not limited to the Examples.

Mixed refrigerants were prepared by mixing HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, R1234yf, and R32 at mass % based on their sum shown in Tables 39 to 96.

The GWP of compositions each comprising a mixture of R410A (R32=50%/R125=50%) was evaluated based on the values stated in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), fourth report. The GWP of HFO-1132(E), which was not stated therein, was assumed to be 1 from HFO-1132a (GWP=1 or less) and HFO-1123 (GWP=0.3, described in WO2015/141678). The refrigerating capacity of compositions each comprising R410A and a mixture of HFO-1132(E) and HFO-1123 was determined by performing theoretical refrigeration cycle calculations for the mixed refrigerants using the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) and Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties Database (Refprop 9.0) under the following conditions.

For each of these mixed refrigerants, the COP ratio and the refrigerating capacity ratio relative to those of R410 were obtained. Calculation was conducted under the following conditions.

Evaporating temperature: 5° C.

Condensation temperature: 45° C.

Superheating temperature: 5 K

Subcooling temperature: 5 K

Compressor efficiency: 70%

Tables 39 to 96 show the resulting values together with the GWP of each mixed refrigerant. The COP and refrigerating capacity are ratios relative to R410A.

The coefficient of performance (COP) was determined by the following formula.


COP=(refrigerating capacity or heating capacity)/power consumption

TABLE 39 Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Ex. 2 Ex. 3 Ex. 4 Ex. 5 Ex. 6 Ex. 7 Ex. 8 Ex. 1 Item Unit Ex. 1 A B C D′ G I J K′ HFO1132(E) Mass % R410A 68.6 0.0 32.9 0.0 72.0 72.0 47.1 61.7 HFO-1123 Mass % 0.0 58.7 67.1 75.4 28.0 0.0 52.9 5.9 R1234yf Mass % 31.4 41.3 0.0 24.6 0.0 28.0 0.0 32.4 R32 Mass % 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 GWP 2088 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 COP ratio % (relative to R410A) 100 100.0 95.5 92.5 93.1 96.6 99.9 93.8 99.4 Refrigerating % (relative to R410A) 100 85.0 85.0 107.4 95.0 103.1 86.6 106.2 85.5 capacity ratio

TABLE 40 Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Ex. 9 Ex. 10 Ex. 11 Ex. 12 Ex. 13 Ex. 14 Ex. 15 Ex. 2 Item Unit A B C D′ G I J K′ HFO-1132 (E) Mass % 55.3 0.0 18.4 0.0 60.9 60.9 40.5 47.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 0.0 47.8 74.5 83.4 32.0 0.0 52.4 7.2 R1234yf Mass % 37.6 45.1 0.0 9.5 0.0 32.0 0.0 38.7 R32 Mass % 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 GWP 50 50 49 49 49 50 49 50 COP ratio % (relative to R410A) 99.8 96.9 92.5 92.5 95.9 99.6 94.0 99.2 Refrigerating % (relative to R410A) 85.0 85.0 110.5 106.0 106.5 87.7 108.9 85.5 capacity ratio

TABLE 41 Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Ex. 16 Ex. 17 Ex. 18 Ex. 19 Ex. 20 Ex. 21 Ex. 3 Item Unit A B C = D′ G I J K′ HFO-1132(E) Mass % 48.4 0.0 0.0 55.8 55.8 37.0 41.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 0.0 42.3 88.9 33.1 0.0 51.9 6.5 R1234yf Mass % 40.5 46.6 0.0 0.0 33.1 0.0 41.4 R32 Mass % 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 GWP 77 77 76 76 77 76 77 COP ratio % (relative to R410A) 99.8 97.6 92.5 95.8 99.5 94.2 99.3 Refrigerating % (relative to R410A) 85.0 85.0 112.0 108.0 88.6 110.2 85.4 capacity ratio

TABLE 42 Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. 22 23 24 25 26 Ex. 4 Item Unit A B G I J K′ HFO-1132(E) Mass % 42.8 0.0 52.1 52.1 34.3 36.5 HFO-1123 Mass % 0.0 37.8 33.4 0.0 51.2 5.6 R1234yf Mass % 42.7 47.7 0.0 33.4 0.0 43.4 R32 Mass % 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 GWP 100 100 99 100 99 100 COP ratio % (relative to R410A) 99.9 98.1 95.8 99.5 94.4 99.5 Refrigerating % (relative to R410A) 85.0 85.0 109.1 89.6 111.1 85.3 capacity ratio

TABLE 43 Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. 27 28 29 30 31 Ex. 5 Item Unit A B G I J K′ HFO-1132(E) Mass % 37.0 0.0 48.6 48.6 32.0 32.5 HFO-1123 Mass % 0.0 33.1 33.2 0.0 49.8 4.0 R1234yf Mass % 44.8 48.7 0.0 33.2 0.0 45.3 R32 Mass % 18.2 18.2 18.2 18.2 18.2 18.2 GWP 125 125 124 125 124 125 COP ratio % (relative to R410A) 100.0 98.6 95.9 99.4 94.7 99.8 Refrigerating % (relative to R410A) 85.0 85.0 110.1 90.8 111.9 85.2 capacity ratio

TABLE 44 Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. 32 33 34 35 36 Ex. 6 Item Unit A B G I J K′ HFO-1132(E) Mass % 31.5 0.0 45.4 45.4 30.3 28.8 HFO-1123 Mass % 0.0 28.5 32.7 0.0 47.8 2.4 R1234yf Mass % 46.6 49.6 0.0 32.7 0.0 46.9 R32 Mass % 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 GWP 150 150 149 150 149 150 COP ratio % (relative to R410A) 100.2 99.1 96.0 99.4 95.1 100.0 Refrigerating % (relative to R410A) 85.0 85.0 111.0 92.1 112.6 85.1 capacity ratio

TABLE 45 Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. 37 38 39 40 41 42 Item Unit A B G I J K′ HFO-1132(E) Mass % 24.8 0.0 41.8 41.8 29.1 24.8 HFO-1123 Mass % 0.0 22.9 31.5 0.0 44.2 0.0 R1234yf Mass % 48.5 50.4 0.0 31.5 0.0 48.5 R32 Mass % 26.7 26.7 26.7 26.7 26.7 26.7 GWP 182 182 181 182 181 182 COP ratio % (relative to R410A) 100.4 99.8 96.3 99.4 95.6 100.4 Refrigerating % (relative to R410A) 85.0 85.0 111.9 93.8 113.2 85.0 capacity ratio

TABLE 46 Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. 43 44 45 46 47 48 Item Unit A B G I J K′ HFO-1132(E) Mass % 21.3 0.0 40.0 40.0 28.8 24.3 HFO-1123 Mass % 0.0 19.9 30.7 0.0 41.9 0.0 R1234yf Mass % 49.4 50.8 0.0 30.7 0.0 46.4 R32 Mass % 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 GWP 200 200 198 199 198 200 COP ratio % (relative to R410A) 100.6 100.1 96.6 99.5 96.1 100.4 Refrigerating % (relative to R410A) 85.0 85.0 112.4 94.8 113.6 86.7 capacity ratio

TABLE 47 Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. 49 50 51 52 53 54 Item Unit A B G I J K′ HFO-1132(E) Mass % 12.1 0.0 35.7 35.7 29.3 22.5 HFO-1123 Mass % 0.0 11.7 27.6 0.0 34.0 0.0 R1234yf Mass % 51.2 51.6 0.0 27.6 0.0 40.8 R32 Mass % 36.7 36.7 36.7 36.7 36.7 36.7 GWP 250 250 248 249 248 250 COP ratio % (relative to R410A) 101.2 101.0 96.4 99.6 97.0 100.4 Refrigerating % (relative to R410A) 85.0 85.0 113.2 97.6 113.9 90.9 capacity ratio

TABLE 48 Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. 55 56 57 58 59 60 Item Unit A B G I J K′ HFO-1132 (E) Mass % 3.8 0.0 32.0 32.0 29.4 21.1 HFO-1123 Mass % 0.0 3.9 23.9 0.0 26.5 0.0 R1234yf Mass % 52.1 52.0 0.0 23.9 0.0 34.8 R32 Mass % 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 GWP 300 300 298 299 298 299 COP ratio % (relative to R410A) 101.8 101.8 97.9 99.8 97.8 100.5 Refrigerating % (relative to R410A) 85.0 85.0 113.7 100.4 113.9 94.9 capacity ratio

TABLE 49 Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. 61 62 63 64 65 Item Unit A = B G I J K′ HFO-1132(E) Mass % 0.0 30.4 30.4 28.9 20.4 HFO-1123 Mass % 0.0 21.8 0.0 23.3 0.0 R1234yf Mass % 52.2 0.0 21.8 0.0 31.8 R32 Mass % 47.8 47.8 47.8 47.8 47.8 GWP 325 323 324 323 324 COP ratio % (relative to R410A) 102.1 98.2 100.0 98.2 100.6 Refrigerating % (relative to R410A) 85.0 113.8 101.8 113.9 96.8 capacity ratio

TABLE 50 Comp. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 66 Ex. 7 Ex. 8 Ex. 9 10 11 12 13 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 82.9 77.9 72.9 67.9 62.9 57.9 52.9 47.9 R1234yf Mass % 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 R32 Mass % 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 GWP 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 COP ratio % (relative to R410A) 92.4 92.6 92.8 93.1 93.4 93.7 94.1 94.5 Refrigerating % (relative to R410A) 108.4 108.3 108.2 107.9 107.6 107.2 106.8 106.3 capacity ratio

TABLE 51 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Comp. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 14 15 16 17 67 18 19 20 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 45.0 50.0 55.0 60.0 65.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 42.9 37.9 32.9 27.9 22.9 72.9 67.9 62.9 R1234yf Mass % 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 R32 Mass % 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 GWP 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 COP ratio % (relative to R410A) 95.0 95.4 95.9 96.4 96.9 93.0 93.3 93.6 Refrigerating % (relative to R410A) 105.8 105.2 104.5 103.9 103.1 105.7 105.5 105.2 capacity ratio

TABLE 52 Item Unit Ex. 21 Ex. 22 Ex. 23 Ex. 24 Ex. 25 Ex. 26 Ex. 27 Ex. 28 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 55.0 60.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 57.9 52.9 47.9 42.9 37.9 32.9 27.9 22.9 R1234yf Mass % 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 R32 Mass % 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 GWP 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 COP ratio % (relative to R410A) 93.9 94.2 94.6 95.0 95.5 96.0 96.4 96.9 Refrigerating capacity ratio % (relative to R410A) 104.9 104.5 104.1 103.6 103.0 102.4 101.7 101.0

TABLE 53 Comp. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 68 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 65.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 17.9 67.9 62.9 57.9 52.9 47.9 42.9 37.9 R1234yf Mass % 10.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 R32 Mass % 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 GWP 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 COP ratio % (relative to 97.4 93.5 93.8 94.1 94.4 94.8 95.2 95.6 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 100.3 102.9 102.7 102.5 102.1 101.7 101.2 100.7 ratio R410A)

TABLE 54 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Comp. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 36 37 38 39 69 40 41 42 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 45.0 50.0 55.0 60.0 65.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 32.9 27.9 22.9 17.9 12.9 62.9 57.9 52.9 R1234yf Mass % 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 R32 Mass % 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 GWP 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 COP ratio % (relative to 96.0 96.5 97.0 97.5 98.0 94.0 94.3 94.6 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 100.1 99.5 98.9 98.1 97.4 100.1 99.9 99.6 ratio R410A)

TABLE 55 Item Unit Ex. 43 Ex. 44 Ex. 45 Ex. 46 Ex. 47 Ex. 48 Ex. 49 Ex. 50 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 55.0 60.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 47.9 42.9 37.9 32.9 27.9 22.9 17.9 12.9 R1234yf Mass % 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 R32 Mass % 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 GWP 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 49 COP ratio % (relative to R410A) 95.0 95.3 95.7 96.2 96.6 97.1 97.6 98.1 Refrigerating capacity ratio % (relative to R410A) 99.2 98.8 98.3 97.8 97.2 96.6 95.9 95.2

TABLE 56 Comp. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 70 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 65.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 7.9 57.9 52.9 47.9 42.9 37.9 32.9 27.9 R1234yf Mass % 20.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 R32 Mass % 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 GWP 49 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 COP ratio % (relative to 98.6 94.6 94.9 95.2 95.5 95.9 96.3 96.8 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 94.4 97.1 96.9 96.7 96.3 95.9 95.4 94.8 ratio R410A)

TABLE 57 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Comp. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 58 59 60 61 71 62 63 64 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 45.0 50.0 55.0 60.0 65.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 R1234yf Mass % 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 R32 Mass % 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 GWP 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 COP ratio % (relative to 97.2 97.7 98.2 98.7 99.2 95.2 95.5 95.8 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 94.2 93.6 92.9 92.2 91.4 94.2 93.9 93.7 ratio R410A)

TABLE 58 Item Unit Ex. 65 Ex. 66 Ex. 67 Ex. 68 Ex. 69 Ex. 70 Ex. 71 Ex. 72 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 55.0 60.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 37.9 32.9 27.9 22.9 17.9 12.9 7.9 2.9 R1234yf Mass % 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 R32 Mass % 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 GWP 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 COP ratio % (relative to R410A) 96.2 96.6 97.0 97.4 97.9 98.3 98.8 99.3 Refrigerating capacity ratio % (relative to R410A) 93.3 92.9 92.4 91.8 91.2 90.5 89.8 89.1

TABLE 59 Item Unit Ex. 73 Ex. 74 Ex. 75 Ex. 76 Ex. 77 Ex. 78 Ex. 79 Ex. 80 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 47.9 42.9 37.9 32.9 27.9 22.9 17.9 12.9 R1234yf Mass % 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 R32 Mass % 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 GWP 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 COP ratio % (relative to R410A) 95.9 96.2 96.5 96.9 97.2 97.7 98.1 98.5 Refrigerating capacity ratio % (relative to R410A) 91.1 90.9 90.6 90.2 89.8 89.3 88.7 88.1

TABLE 60 Item Unit Ex. 81 Ex. 82 Ex. 83 Ex. 84 Ex. 85 Ex. 86 Ex. 87 Ex. 88 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 50.0 55.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 7.9 2.9 42.9 37.9 32.9 27.9 22.9 17.9 R1234yf Mass % 35.0 35.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 R32 Mass % 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 GWP 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 COP ratio % (relative to R410A) 99.0 99.4 96.6 96.9 97.2 97.6 98.0 98.4 Refrigerating capacity ratio % (relative to R410A) 87.4 86.7 88.0 87.8 87.5 87.1 86.6 86.1

TABLE 61 Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Item Unit Ex. 72 Ex. 73 Ex. 74 Ex. 75 Ex. 76 Ex. 77 Ex. 78 Ex. 79 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 40.0 45.0 50.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 12.9 7.9 2.9 37.9 32.9 27.9 22.9 17.9 R1234yf Mass % 40.0 40.0 40.0 45.0 45.0 45.0 45.0 45.0 R32 Mass % 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 GWP 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 COP ratio % (relative to 98.8 99.2 99.6 97.4 97.7 98.0 98.3 98.7 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 85.5 84.9 84.2 84.9 84.6 84.3 83.9 83.5 capacity ratio R410A)

TABLE 62 Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Item Unit 80 81 82 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 35.0 40.0 45.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 12.9 7.9 2.9 R1234yf Mass % 45.0 45.0 45.0 R32 Mass % 7.1 7.1 7.1 GWP 50 50 50 COP ratio % (relative 99.1 99.5 99.9 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 82.9 82.3 81.7 capacity ratio to R410A)

TABLE 63 Item Unit Ex. 89 Ex. 90 Ex. 91 Ex. 92 Ex. 93 Ex. 94 Ex. 95 Ex. 96 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 70.5 65.5 60.5 55.5 50.5 45.5 40.5 35.5 R1234yf Mass % 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 R32 Mass % 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 GWP 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 COP ratio % (relative to R410A) 93.7 93.9 94.1 94.4 94.7 95.0 95.4 95.8 Refrigerating capacity ratio % (relative to R410A) 110.2 110.0 109.7 109.3 108.9 108.4 107.9 107.3

TABLE 64 Ex. Comp. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 97 83 98 99 100 101 102 103 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 50.0 55.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 35.0 25.5 65.5 60.5 55.5 50.5 45.5 40.5 R1234yf Mass % 5.0 5.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 R32 Mass % 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 GWP 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 COP ratio % (relative to 96.2 96.6 94.2 94.4 94.6 94.9 95.2 95.5 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 106.6 106.0 107.5 107.3 107.0 106.6 106.1 105.6 ratio R410A)

TABLE 65 Ex. Ex. Ex. Comp. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 104 105 106 84 107 108 109 110 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 40.0 45.0 50.0 55.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 35.5 30.5 25.5 20.5 60.5 55.5 50.5 45.5 R1234yf Mass % 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 R32 Mass % 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 GWP 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 COP ratio % (relative to 95.9 96.3 96.7 97.1 94.6 94.8 95.1 95.4 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 105.1 104.5 103.8 103.1 104.7 104.5 104.1 103.7 ratio R410A)

TABLE 66 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Comp. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 111 112 113 114 115 85 116 117 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 55.0 10.0 15.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 40.5 35.5 30.5 25.5 20.5 15.5 55.5 50.5 R1234yf Mass % 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 20.0 20.0 R32 Mass % 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 GWP 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 COP ratio % (relative to 95.7 96.0 96.4 96.8 97.2 97.6 95.1 95.3 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 103.3 102.8 102.2 101.6 101.0 100.3 101.8 101.6 ratio R410A)

TABLE 67 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Comp. Ex. Item Unit 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 86 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 55.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 45.5 40.5 35.5 30.5 25.5 20.5 15.5 10.5 R1234yf Mass % 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 R32 Mass % 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 GWP 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 COP ratio % (relative to 95.6 95.9 96.2 96.5 96.9 97.3 97.7 98.2 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 101.2 100.8 100.4 99.9 99.3 98.7 98.0 97.3 ratio R410A)

TABLE 68 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 50.5 45.5 40.5 35.5 30.5 25.5 20.5 15.5 R1234yf Mass % 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 R32 Mass % 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 GWP 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 COP ratio % (relative to 95.6 95.9 96.1 96.4 96.7 97.1 97.5 97.9 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 98.9 98.6 98.3 97.9 97.4 96.9 96.3 95.7 ratio R410A)

TABLE 69 Ex. Comp. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 133 87 134 135 136 137 138 139 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 50.0 55.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 10.5 5.5 45.5 40.5 35.5 30.5 25.5 20.5 R1234yf Mass % 25.0 25.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 R32 Mass % 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 GWP 99 99 100 100 100 100 100 100 COP ratio % (relative to 98.3 98.7 96.2 96.4 96.7 97.0 97.3 97.7 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 95.0 94.3 95.8 95.6 95.2 94.8 94.4 93.8 ratio R410A)

TABLE 70 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 40.0 45.0 50.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 15.5 10.5 5.5 40.5 35.5 30.5 25.5 20.5 R1234yf Mass % 30.0 30.0 30.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 R32 Mass % 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 GWP 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 COP ratio % (relative to 98.1 98.5 98.9 96.8 97.0 97.3 97.6 97.9 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 93.3 92.6 92.0 92.8 92.5 92.2 91.8 91.3 ratio R410A)

TABLE 71 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 35.0 40.0 45.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 15.5 10.5 5.5 35.5 30.5 25.5 20.5 15.5 R1234yf Mass % 35.0 35.0 35.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 R32 Mass % 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 GWP 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 COP ratio % (relative to 98.3 98.7 99.1 97.4 97.7 98.0 98.3 98.6 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 90.8 90.2 89.6 89.6 89.4 89.0 88.6 88.2 ratio R410A)

TABLE 72 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Item Unit 156 157 158 159 160 88 89 90 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 35.0 40.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 10.5 5.5 30.5 25.5 20.5 15.5 10.5 5.5 R1234yf Mass % 40.0 40.0 45.0 45.0 45.0 45.0 45.0 45.0 R32 Mass % 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 GWP 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 COP ratio % (relative to 98.9 99.3 98.1 98.4 98.7 98.9 99.3 99.6 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 87.6 87.1 86.5 86.2 85.9 85.5 85.0 84.5 capacity ratio R410A)

TABLE 73 Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Item Unit 91 92 93 94 95 HFO-1132 (E) Mass % 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 25.5 20.5 15.5 10.5 5.5 R1234yf Mass % 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 R32 Mass % 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 GWP 100 100 100 100 100 COP ratio % (relative to 98.9 99.1 99.4 99.7 100.0 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 83.3 83.0 82.7 82.2 81.8 ratio R410A)

TABLE 74 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 63.1 58.1 53.1 48.1 43.1 38.1 33.1 28.1 R1234yf Mass % 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 R32 Mass % 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 GWP 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 COP ratio % (relative to 94.8 95.0 95.2 95.4 95.7 95.9 96.2 96.6 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 111.5 111.2 110.9 110.5 110.0 109.5 108.9 108.3 ratio R410A)

TABLE 75 Comp. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 96 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 50.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 23.1 58.1 53.1 48.1 43.1 38.1 33.1 28.1 R1234yf Mass % 5.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 R32 Mass % 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 GWP 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 COP ratio % (relative to 96.9 95.3 95.4 95.6 95.8 96.1 96.4 96.7 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 107.7 108.7 108.5 108.1 107.7 107.2 106.7 106.1 ratio R410A)

TABLE 76 Ex. Comp. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 176 97 177 178 179 180 181 182 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 45.0 50.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 23.1 18.1 53.1 48.1 43.1 38.1 33.1 28.1 R1234yf Mass % 10.0 10.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 R32 Mass % 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 GWP 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 COP ratio % (relative to 97.0 97.4 95.7 95.9 96.1 96.3 96.6 96.9 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 105.5 104.9 105.9 105.6 105.3 104.8 104.4 103.8 ratio R410A)

TABLE 77 Ex. Ex. Comp. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 183 184 98 185 186 187 188 189 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 40.0 45.0 50.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 23.1 18.1 13.1 48.1 43.1 38.1 33.1 28.1 R1234yf Mass % 15.0 15.0 15.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 R32 Mass % 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 GWP 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 COP ratio % (relative to 97.2 97.5 97.9 96.1 96.3 96.5 96.8 97.1 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 103.3 102.6 102.0 103.0 102.7 102.3 101.9 101.4 ratio R410A)

TABLE 78 Ex. Ex. Ex. Comp. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 190 191 192 99 193 194 195 196 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 23.1 18.1 13.1 8.1 43.1 38.1 33.1 28.1 R1234yf Mass % 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 R32 Mass % 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 GWP 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 COP ratio % (relative to 97.4 97.7 98.0 98.4 96.6 96.8 97.0 97.3 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 100.9 100.3 99.7 99.1 100.0 99.7 99.4 98.9 ratio R410A)

TABLE 79 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Comp. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 197 198 199 200 100 201 202 203 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 23.1 18.1 13.1 8.1 3.1 38.1 33.1 28.1 R1234yf Mass % 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 R32 Mass % 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 GWP 149 149 149 149 149 150 150 150 COP ratio % (relative to 97.6 97.9 98.2 98.5 98.9 97.1 97.3 97.6 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 98.5 97.9 97.4 96.8 96.1 97.0 96.7 96.3 ratio R410A)

TABLE 80 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 23.1 18.1 13.1 8.1 3.1 33.1 28.1 23.1 R1234yf Mass % 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 R32 Mass % 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 GWP 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 COP ratio % (relative to 97.8 98.1 98.4 98.7 99.1 97.7 97.9 98.1 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 95.9 95.4 94.9 94.4 93.8 93.9 93.6 93.3 ratio R410A)

TABLE 81 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 18.1 13.1 8.1 3.1 28.1 23.1 18.1 13.1 R1234yf Mass % 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 R32 Mass % 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 GWP 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 COP ratio % (relative to 98.4 98.7 99.0 99.3 98.3 98.5 98.7 99.0 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 92.9 92.4 91.9 91.3 90.8 90.5 90.2 89.7 ratio R410A)

TABLE 82 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Comp. Ex. Item Unit 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 101 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 30.0 35.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 10.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 8.1 3.1 23.1 18.1 13.1 8.1 3.1 18.1 R1234yf Mass % 40.0 40.0 45.0 45.0 45.0 45.0 45.0 50.0 R32 Mass % 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 GWP 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 COP ratio % (relative to 99.3 99.6 98.9 99.1 99.3 99.6 99.9 99.6 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 89.3 88.8 87.6 87.3 87.0 86.6 86.2 84.4 ratio R410A)

TABLE 83 Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Item Unit 102 103 104 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 15.0 20.0 25.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 13.1 8.1 3.1 R1234yf Mass % 50.0 50.0 50.0 R32 Mass % 21.9 21.9 21.9 GWP 150 150 150 COP ratio % (relative 99.8 100.0 100.2 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 84.1 83.8 83.4 capacity ratio to R410A)

TABLE 84 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Comp. Ex. Item Unit 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 105 HFO-1132 (E) Mass % 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 55.7 50.7 45.7 40.7 35.7 30.7 25.7 20.7 R1234yf Mass % 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 R32 Mass % 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 GWP 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 COP ratio % (relative to 95.9 96.0 96.2 96.3 96.6 96.8 97.1 97.3 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 112.2 111.9 111.6 111.2 110.7 110.2 109.6 109.0 capacity ratio R410A)

TABLE 85 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Comp. Ex. Item Unit 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 106 HFO-1132 (E) Mass % 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 50.7 45.7 40.7 35.7 30.7 25.7 20.7 15.7 R1234yf Mass % 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 R32 Mass % 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 GWP 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 COP ratio % (relative to 96.3 96.4 96.6 96.8 97.0 97.2 97.5 97.8 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 109.4 109.2 108.8 108.4 107.9 107.4 106.8 106.2 capacity ratio R410A)

TABLE 86 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Comp. Ex. Item Unit 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 107 HFO-1132 (E) Mass % 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 45.7 40.7 35.7 30.7 25.7 20.7 15.7 10.7 R1234yf Mass % 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 R32 Mass % 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 GWP 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 COP ratio % (relative to 96.7 96.8 97.0 97.2 97.4 97.7 97.9 98.2 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 106.6 106.3 106.0 105.5 105.1 104.5 104.0 103.4 capacity ratio R410A)

TABLE 87 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Comp. Ex. Item Unit 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 108 HFO-1132 (E) Mass % 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 40.7 35.7 30.7 25.7 20.7 15.7 10.7 5.7 R1234yf Mass % 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 R32 Mass % 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 GWP 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 COP ratio % (relative to 97.1 97.3 97.5 97.7 97.9 98.1 98.4 98.7 R410A) Refrigerating capacity % (relative to 103.7 103.4 103.0 102.6 102.2 101.6 101.1 100.5 ratio R410A)

TABLE 88 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 HFO-1132 (E) Mass % 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 10.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 35.7 30.7 25.7 20.7 15.7 10.7 5.7 30.7 R1234yf Mass % 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 30.0 R32 Mass % 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 GWP 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 COP ratio % (relative to 97.6 97.7 97.9 98.1 98.4 98.6 98.9 98.1 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 100.7 100.4 100.1 99.7 99.2 98.7 98.2 97.7 capacity ratio R410A)

TABLE 89 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 HFO-1132 (E) Mass % 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 25.7 20.7 15.7 10.7 5.7 25.7 20.7 15.7 R1234yf Mass % 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 R32 Mass % 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 GWP 199 199 199 199 199 200 200 200 COP ratio % (relative to 98.2 98.4 98.6 98.9 99.1 98.6 98.7 98.9 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 97.4 97.1 96.7 96.2 95.7 94.7 94.4 94.0 capacity ratio R410A)

TABLE 90 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 HFO-1132 (E) Mass % 25.0 30.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 10.0 15.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 10.7 5.7 20.7 15.7 10.7 5.7 15.7 10.7 R1234yf Mass % 35.0 35.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 45.0 45.0 R32 Mass % 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 GWP 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 COP ratio % (relative to 99.2 99.4 99.1 99.3 99.5 99.7 99.7 99.8 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 93.6 93.2 91.5 91.3 90.9 90.6 88.4 88.1 capacity ratio R410A)

TABLE 91 Ex. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Item Unit 279 280 109 110 HFO- Mass % 20.0 10.0 15.0 10.0 1132(E) HFO-1123 Mass % 5.7 10.7 5.7 5.7 R1234yf Mass % 45.0 50.0 50.0 55.0 R32 Mass % 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 GWP 200 200 200 200 COP ratio % (relative 100.0 100.3 100.4 100.9 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 87.8 85.2 85.0 82.0 capacity ratio to R410A)

TABLE 92 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Comp. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 281 282 283 284 285 111 286 287 HFO-1132 (E) Mass % 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 10.0 15.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 40.9 35.9 30.9 25.9 20.9 15.9 35.9 30.9 R1234yf Mass % 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 10.0 10.0 R32 Mass % 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 GWP 298 298 298 298 298 298 299 299 COP ratio % (relative to 97.8 97.9 97.9 98.1 98.2 98.4 98.2 98.2 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 112.5 112.3 111.9 111.6 111.2 110.7 109.8 109.5 capacity ratio R410A)

TABLE 93 Ex. Ex. Ex. Comp. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 288 289 290 112 291 292 293 294 HFO-1132 (E) Mass % 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 25.9 20.9 15.9 10.9 30.9 25.9 20.9 15.9 R1234yf Mass % 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 R32 Mass % 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 GWP 299 299 299 299 299 299 299 299 COP ratio % (relative to 98.3 98.5 98.6 98.8 98.6 98.6 98.7 98.9 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 109.2 108.8 108.4 108.0 107.0 106.7 106.4 106.0 capacity ratio R410A)

TABLE 94 Ex. Comp. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 295 113 296 297 298 299 300 301 HFO-1132 (E) Mass % 30.0 35.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 10.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 10.9 5.9 25.9 20.9 15.9 10.9 5.9 20.9 R1234yf Mass % 15.0 15.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 25.0 R32 Mass % 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 GWP 299 299 299 299 299 299 299 299 COP ratio % (relative to 99.0 99.2 99.0 99.0 99.2 99.3 99.4 99.4 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 105.6 105.2 104.1 103.9 103.6 103.2 102.8 101.2 capacity ratio R410A)

TABLE 95 Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Ex. Item Unit 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 HFO-1132 (E) Mass % 15.0 20.0 25.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 10.0 15.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 15.9 10.9 5.9 15.9 10.9 5.9 10.9 5.9 R1234yf Mass % 25.0 25.0 25.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 35.0 35.0 R32 Mass % 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 44.1 GWP 299 299 299 299 299 299 299 299 COP ratio % (relative to R410A) 99.5 99.6 99.7 99.8 99.9 100.0 100.3 100.4 Refrigerating % (relative to 101.0 100.7 100.3 98.3 98.0 97.8 95.3 95.1 capacity ratio R410A)

TABLE 96 Ex. Item Unit 400 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 10.0 HFO-1123 Mass % 5.9 R1234yf Mass % 40.0 R32 Mass % 44.1 GWP 299 COP ratio % (relative 100.7 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 92.3 capacity ratio to R410A)

The above results indicate that the refrigerating capacity ratio relative to R410A is 85% or more in the following cases:

When the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a, in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is (100-a) mass %, a straight line connecting a point (0.0, 100.0-a, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0-a) is the base, and the point (0.0, 100.0-a, 0.0) is on the left side, if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on, or on the left side of, a straight line AB that connects point A (0.0134a2−1.9681a+68.6, 0.0, −0.0134a2+0.9681a+31.4) and point B (0.0, 0.0144a2−1.6377a+58.7, −0.0144a2+0.6377a+41.3);

if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on, or on the left side of, a straight line AB that connects point A (0.0112a2−1.9337a+68.484, 0.0, −0.0112a2+0.9337a+31.516) and point B (0.0, 0.0075a2−1.5156a+58.199, −0.0075a2+0.5156a+41.801);

if 18.2a<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on, or on the left side of, a straight line AB that connects point A (0.0107a2−1.9142a+68.305, 0.0, −0.0107a2+0.9142a+31.695) and point B (0.0, 0.009a2−1.6045a+59.318, −0.009a2+0.6045a+40.682);

if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on, or on the left side of, a straight line AB that connects point A (0.0103a2−1.9225a+68.793, 0.0, −0.0103a2+0.9225a+31.207) and point B (0.0, 0.0046a2−1.41a+57.286, −0.0046a2+0.41a+42.714); and

if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on, or on the left side of, a straight line AB that connects point A (0.0085a2−1.8102a+67.1, 0.0, −0.0085a2+0.8102a+32.9) and point B (0.0, 0.0012a2−1.1659a+52.95, −0.0012a2+0.1659a+47.05).

Actual points having a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more form a curved line that connects point A and point B in FIG. 3, and that extends toward the 1234yf side. Accordingly, when coordinates are on, or on the left side of, the straight line AB, the refrigerating capacity ratio relative to R410A is 85% or more.

Similarly, it was also found that in the ternary composition diagram, if 0<a≤11.1, when coordinates (x,y,z) are on, or on the left side of, a straight line D′C that connects point D′ (0.0, 0.0224a2+0.968a+75.4, −0.0224a2−1.968a+24.6) and point C (−0.2304a2−0.4062a+32.9, 0.2304a2−0.5938a+67.1, 0.0); or if 11.1<a≤46.7, when coordinates are in the entire region, the COP ratio relative to that of R410A is 92.5% or more.

In FIG. 3, the COP ratio of 92.5% or more forms a curved line CD. In FIG. 3, an approximate line formed by connecting three points: point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0) and points (26.6, 68.4, 5) (19.5, 70.5, 10) where the COP ratio is 92.5% when the concentration of R1234yf is 5 mass % and 10 mass was obtained, and a straight line that connects point C and point D′ (0, 75.4, 24.6), which is the intersection of the approximate line and a point where the concentration of HFO-1132(E) is 0.0 mass % was defined as a line segment D′C. In FIG. 4, point D′(0, 83.4, 9.5) was similarly obtained from an approximate curve formed by connecting point C (18.4, 74.5, 0) and points (13.9, 76.5, 2.5) (8.7, 79.2, 5) where the COP ratio is 92.5%, and a straight line that connects point C and point D′ was defined as the straight line D′C.

The composition of each mixture was defined as WCF. A leak simulation was performed using NIST Standard Reference Database REFLEAK Version 4.0 under the conditions of Equipment, Storage, Shipping, Leak, and Recharge according to the ASHRAE Standard 34-2013. The most flammable fraction was defined as WCFF.

For the flammability, the burning velocity was measured according to the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 34-2013. Both WCF and WCFF having a burning velocity of 10 cm/s or less were determined to be classified as “Class 2L (lower flammability).”

A burning velocity test was performed using the apparatus shown in FIG. 1 in the following manner. First, the mixed refrigerants used had a purity of 99.5% or more, and were degassed by repeating a cycle of freezing, pumping, and thawing until no traces of air were observed on the vacuum gauge. The burning velocity was measured by the closed method. The initial temperature was ambient temperature. Ignition was performed by generating an electric spark between the electrodes in the center of a sample cell. The duration of the discharge was 1.0 to 9.9 ms, and the ignition energy was typically about 0.1 to 1.0 J. The spread of the flame was visualized using schlieren photographs. A cylindrical container (inner diameter: 155 mm, length: 198 mm) equipped with two light transmission acrylic windows was used as the sample cell, and a xenon lamp was used as the light source. Schlieren images of the flame were recorded by a high-speed digital video camera at a frame rate of 600 fps and stored on a PC.

The results are shown in Tables 97 to 104.

TABLE 97 Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Item Ex. 6 Ex. 13 Ex. 19 Ex. 24 Ex. 29 Ex. 34 WCF HFO-1132 (E) Mass % 72.0 60.9 55.8 52.1 48.6 45.4 HFO-1123 Mass % 28.0 32.0 33.1 33.4 33.2 32.7 R1234yf Mass % 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0 R32 Mass % 0.0 7.1 11.1 14.5 18.2 21.9 Burning velocity (WCF) cm/s 10 10 10 10 10 10

TABLE 98 Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Item Ex. 39 Ex. 45 Ex. 51 Ex. 57 Ex. 62 WCF HFO-1132 Mass % 41.8 40 35.7 32 30.4 (E) HFO-1123 Mass % 31.5 30.7 23.6 23.9 21.8 R1234yf Mass % 0 0 0 0 0 R32 Mass % 26.7 29.3 36.7 44.1 47.8 Burning velocity cm/s 10 10 10 10 10 (WCF)

TABLE 99 Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Item Ex. 7 Ex. 14 Ex. 20 Ex. 25 Ex. 30 Ex. 35 WCF HFO-1132 (E) Mass % 72.0 60.9 55.8 52.1 48.6 45.4 HFO-1123 Mass % 0.0 0.0 0.0 0 0 0 R1234yf Mass % 28.0 32.0 33.1 33.4 33.2 32.7 R32 Mass % 0.0 7.1 11.1 14.5 18.2 21.9 Burning velocity (WCF) cm/s 10 10 10 10 10 10

TABLE 100 Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Item Ex. 40 Ex. 46 Ex. 52 Ex. 58 Ex. 63 WCF HFO-1132 Mass % 41.8 40 35.7 32 30.4 (E) HFO-1123 Mass % 0 0 0 0 0 R1234yf Mass % 31.5 30.7 23.6 23.9 21.8 R32 Mass % 26.7 29.3 36.7 44.1 47.8 Burning velocity cm/s 10 10 10 10 10 (WCF)

TABLE 101 Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Comp. Item Ex. 8 Ex. 15 Ex. 21 Ex. 26 Ex. 31 Ex. 36 WCF HFO-1132 Mass % 47.1 40.5 37.0 34.3 32.0 30.3 (E) HFO-1123 Mass % 52.9 52.4 51.9 51.2 49.8 47.8 R1234yf Mass % 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 R32 Mass % 0.0 7.1 11.1 14.5 18.2 21.9 Leak condition that Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ results in WCFF Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., 92% 92% 92% 92% 92% 92% release, release, release, release, release, release, liquid liquid liquid liquid liquid liquid phase side phase side phase side phase side phase side phase side WCFF HFO-1132 Mass % 72.0 62.4 56.2 50.6 45.1 40.0 (E) HFO-1123 Mass % 28.0 31.6 33.0 33.4 32.5 30.5 R1234yf Mass % 0.0 0.0 0.0 20.4 0.0 0.0 R32 Mass % 0.0 50.9 10.8 16.0 22.4 29.5 Burning velocity cm/s 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less (WCF) Burning velocity cm/s 10 10 10 10 10 10 (WCFF)

TABLE 102 Item Comp. Ex. 41 Comp. Ex. 47 Comp. Ex. 53 Comp. Ex. 59 Comp. Ex. 64 WCF HFO-1132 Mass 29.1 28.8 29.3 29.4 28.9 (E) % HFO-1123 Mass 44.2 41.9 34.0 26.5 23.3 % R1234yf Mass 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 % R32 Mass 26.7 29.3 36.7 44.1 47.8 % Leak condition that Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ results in WCFF Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., 92% 92% 92% 90% 86% release, release, release, release, release, liquid phase liquid phase liquid phase gas phase gas phase side side side side side WCFF HFO-1132(E) Mass 34.6 32.2 27.7 28.3 27.5 % HFO-1123 Mass 26.5 23.9 17.5 18.2 16.7 % R1234yf Mass 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 % R32 Mass 38.9 43.9 54.8 53.5 55.8 % Burning velocity (WCF) cm/s 8 or less 8 or less 8.3 9.3 9.6 Burning velocity cm/s 10 10 10 10 10 (WCFF)

TABLE 103 Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Comp. Ex. Item 9 16 22 27 32 37 WCF HFO-1132(E) Mass 61.7 47.0 41.0 36.5 32.5 28.8 % HFO-1123 Mass 5.9 7.2 6.5 5.6 4.0 2.4 % R1234yf Mass 32.4 38.7 41.4 43.4 45.3 46.9 % R32 Mass 0.0 7.1 11.1 14.5 18.2 21.9 % Leak condition that Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ results in WCFF Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., 0% 0% 0% 92% 0% 0% release, release, release, release, release, release, gas phase gas phase gas phase liquid gas phase gas phase side side side phase side side side WCFF HFO-1132(E) Mass 72.0 56.2 50.4 46.0 42.4 39.1 % HFO-1123 Mass 10.5 12.6 11.4 10.1 7.4 4.4 % R1234yf Mass 17.5 20.4 21.8 22.9 24.3 25.7 % R32 Mass 0.0 10.8 16.3 21.0 25.9 30.8 % Burning velocity (WCF) cm/s 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less Burning velocity (WCFF) cm/s 10 10 10 10 10 10

TABLE 104 Item Comp. Ex. 42 Comp. Ex. 48 Comp. Ex. 54 Comp. Ex. 60 Comp. Ex. 65 WCF HFO-1132 Mass 24.8 24.3 22.5 21.1 20.4 (E) % HFO-1123 Mass 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 % R1234yf Mass 48.5 46.4 40.8 34.8 31.8 % R32 Mass 26.7 29.3 36.7 44.1 47.8 % Leak condition that Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ Storage/ results in WCFF Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping Shipping −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% release, release, release, release, release, gas phase side gas phase side gas phase side gas phase side gas phase side WCFF HFO-1132(E) Mass 35.3 34.3 31.3 29.1 28.1 % HFO-1123 Mass 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 % R1234yf Mass 27.4 26.2 23.1 19.8 18.2 % R32 Mass 37.3 39.6 45.6 51.1 53.7 % Burning velocity cm/s 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less (WCF) Burning velocity cm/s 10 10 10 10 10 (WCFF)

The results in Tables 97 to 100 indicate that the refrigerant has a WCF lower flammability in the following cases:

When the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum in the mixed refrigerant of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, R1234yf, and R32 is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is (100-a) mass % and a straight line connecting a point (0.0, 100.0-a, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0-a) is the base, if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on or below a straight line GI that connects point G (0.026a2−1.7478a+72.0, −0.026a2+0.7478a+28.0, 0.0) and point I (0.026a2−1.7478a+72.0, 0.0, −0.026a2+0.7478a+28.0);

if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on or below a straight line GI that connects point G (0.02a2−1.6013a+71.105, −0.02a2+0.6013a+28.895, 0.0) and point I (0.02a2−1.6013a+71.105, 0.0, −0.02a2+0.6013a+28.895); if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on or below a straight line GI that connects point G (0.0135a2−1.4068a+69.727, −0.0135a2+0.4068a+30.273, 0.0) and point I (0.0135a2−1.4068a+69.727, 0.0, −0.0135a2+0.4068a+30.273); if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on or below a straight line GI that connects point G (0.0111a2−1.3152a+68.986, −0.0111a2+0.3152a+31.014, 0.0) and point I (0.0111a2−1.3152a+68.986, 0.0, −0.0111a2+0.3152a+31.014); and if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on or below a straight line GI that connects point G (0.0061a2−0.9918a+63.902, −0.0061a2−0.0082a+36.098, 0.0) and point I (0.0061a2−0.9918a+63.902, 0.0, −0.0061a2−0.0082a+36.098).

Three points corresponding to point G (Table 105) and point I (Table 106) were individually obtained in each of the following five ranges by calculation, and their approximate expressions were obtained.

TABLE 105 Item 11.1 ≥ R32 > 0 18.2 ≥ R32 ≥ 11.1 26.7 ≥ R32 ≥ 18.2 R32 0 7.1 11.1 11.1 14.5 18.2 18.2 21.9 26.7 HFO-1132 (E) 72.0 60.9 55.8 55.8 52.1 48.6 48.6 45.4 41.8 HFO-1123 28.0 32.0 33.1 33.1 33.4 33.2 33.2 32.7 31.5 R1234yf 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 R32 a a a HFO-1132 (E) 0.026a2 − 1.7478a + 72.0 0.02a2 − 1.6013a + 71.105 0.0135a2 − 1.4068a + 69.727 Approximate expression HFO-1123 −0.026a2 + 0..7478a + 28.0 −0.02a2 + 0..6013a + 28.895 −0.0135a2 + 0.4068a + 30.273 Approximate expression R1234yf 0 0 0 Approximate expression Item 36.7 ≥ R32 ≥ 26.7 46.7 ≥ R32 ≥ 36.7 R32 26.7 29.3 36.7 36.7 44.1 47.8 HFO-1132 (E) 41.8 40.0 35.7 35.7 32.0 30.4 HFO-1123 31.5 30.7 27.6 27.6 23.9 21.8 R1234yf 0 0 0 0 0 0 R32 a a HFO-1132 (E) 0.0111a2 − 1.3152a + 68.986 0.0061a2 − 0.9918a + 63.902 Approximate expression HFO-1123 −0.0111a2 + 0.3152a + 31.014 −0.0061a2 − 0.0082a + 36.098 Approximate expression R1234yf 0 0 Approximate expression

TABLE 106 Item 11.1 ≥ R32 > 0 18.2 ≥ R32 ≥ 11.1 26.7 ≥ R32 ≥ 18.2 R32 0 7.1 11.1 11.1 14.5 18.2 18.2 21.9 26.7 HFO-1132 (E) 72.0 60.9 55.8 55.8 52.1 48.6 48.6 45.4 41.8 HFO-1123 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 R1234yf 28.0 32.0 33.1 33.1 33.4 33.2 33.2 32.7 31.5 R32 a a a HFO-1132 (E) 0.026a2 − 1.7478a + 72.0 0.02a2 − 1.6013a + 71.105 0.0135a2 − 1.4068a + 69.727 Approximate expression HFO-1123 0 0 0 Approximate expression R1234yf −0.026a2 + 0.7478a + 28.0 −0.02a2 + 0.6013a + 28.895 −0.0135a2 + 0.4068a + 30.273 Approximate expression Item 36.7 ≥ R32 ≥ 26.7 46.7 ≥ R32 ≥ 36.7 R32 26.7 29.3 36.7 36.7 44.1 47.8 HFO-1132 (E) 41.8 40.0 35.7 35.7 32.0 30.4 HFO-1123 0 0 0 0 0 0 R1234yf 31.5 30.7 23.6 23.6 23.5 21.8 R32 x x HFO-1132 (E) 0.0111a2 − 1.3152a + 68.986 0.0061a2 − 0.9918a + 63.902 Approximate expression HFO-1123 0 0 Approximate expression R1234yf −0.0111a2 + 0.3152a + 31.014 −0.0061a2 − 0.0082a + 36.098 Approximate expression

The results in Tables 101 to 104 indicate that the refrigerant is determined to have a WCFF lower flammability, and the flammability classification according to the ASHRAE Standard is “2L (flammability)” in the following cases:

When the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum in the mixed refrigerant of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, R1234yf, and R32 is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a, in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is (100-a) mass % and a straight line connecting a point (0.0, 100.0-a, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0-a) is the base, if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are on or below a straight line JK′ that connects point J (0.0049a2−0.9645a+47.1, −0.0049a2−0.0355a+52.9, 0.0) and point K′(0.0514a2−2.4353a+61.7, −0.0323a2+0.4122a+5.9, −0.0191a2+1.0231a+32.4); if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates are on a straight line JK′ that connects point J (0.0243a2−1.4161a+49.725, −0.0243a2+0.4161a+50.275, 0.0) and point K′(0.0341a2−2.1977a+61.187, −0.0236a2+0.34a+5.636, −0.0105a2+0.8577a+33.177); if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates are on or below a straight line JK′ that connects point J (0.0246a2−1.4476a+50.184, −0.0246a2+0.4476a+49.816, 0.0) and point K′ (0.0196a2−1.7863a+58.515, −0.0079a2−0.1136a+8.702, −0.0117a2+0.8999a+32.783); if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates are on or below a straight line JK′ that connects point J (0.0183a2−1.1399a+46.493, −0.0183a2+0.1399a+53.507, 0.0) and point K′ (−0.0051a2+0.0929a+25.95, 0.0, 0.0051a2−1.0929a+74.05); and if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates are on or below a straight line JK′ that connects point J (−0.0134a2+1.0956a+7.13, 0.0134a2−2.0956a+92.87, 0.0) and point K′(−1.892a+29.443, 0.0, 0.892a+70.557).

Actual points having a WCFF lower flammability form a curved line that connects point J and point K′ (on the straight line AB) in FIG. 3 and extends toward the HFO-1132(E) side. Accordingly, when coordinates are on or below the straight line JK′, WCFF lower flammability is achieved.

Three points corresponding to point J (Table 107) and point K′ (Table 108) were individually obtained in each of the following five ranges by calculation, and their approximate expressions were obtained.

TABLE 107 Item 11.1 ≥ R32 > 0 18.2 ≥ R32 ≥ 11.1 26.7 ≥ R32 ≥ 18.2 R32 0 7.1 11.1 11.1 14.5 18.2 18.2 21.9 26.7 HFO-1132 (E) 47.1 40.5 37 37.0 34.3 32.0 32.0 30.3 29.1 HFO-1123 52.9 52.4 51.9 51.9 51.2 49.8 49.8 47.8 44.2 R1234yf 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 R32 a a a HFO-1132 (E) 0.049a2 − 0.9645a + 47.1 0.0243a2 − 1.4161a + 49.725 0.0246a2 − 1.4476a + 50.184 Approximate expression HFO-1123 −0.0049a2 − 0.0355a + 52.9 −0.02432 + 0.4161a + 50.275 −0.0246a2 + 0.4476a + 49.816 Approximate expression R1234yf 0 0 0 Approximate expression Item 36.7 ≥ R32 ≥ 26.7 47.8 ≥ R32 ≥ 36.7 R32 26.7 29.3 36.7 36.7 44.1 47.8 HFO-1132 (E) 29.1 28.8 29.3 29.3 29.4 28.9 HFO-1123 44.2 41.9 34.0 34.0 26.5 23.3 R1234yf 0 0 0 0 0 0 R32 a a HFO-1132 (E) 0.0183a2 − 1.1399a + 46.493 −0.0134a2 + 1.0956a + 7.13 Approximate expression HFO-1123 −0.0183a2 + 0.1399a + 53.507 0.0134a2 − 2.0956a + 92.87 Approximate expression R1234yf 0 0 Approximate expression

TABLE 108 Item 11.1 ≥ R32 > 0 18.2 ≥ R32 ≥ 11.1 26.7 ≥ R32 ≥ 18.2 R32 0 7.1 11.1 11.1 14.5 18.2 18.2 21.9 26.7 HFO-1132 (E) 61.7 47.0 41.0 41.0 36.5 32.5 32.5 28.8 24.8 HFO-1123 5.9 7.2 6.5 6.5 5.6 4.0 4.0 2.4 0 R1234yf 32.4 38.7 41.4 41.4 43.4 45.3 45.3 46.9 48.5 R32 x x x HFO-1132 (E) 0.0514a2 − 2.4353a + 61.7 0.0341a2 − 2.1977a + 61.187 0.0196a2 − 1.7863a + 58.515 Approximate expression HFO-1123 −0.0323a2 + 0.4122a + 5.9 −0.0236a2 + 0.34a + 5.636 −0.0079a2 − 0.1136a + 8.702 Approximate expression R1234yf −0.0191a2 + 1.0231a + 32.4 −0.0105a2 + 0.8577a + 33.177 −0.0117a2 + 0.8999a + 32.783 Approximate expression Item 36.7 ≥ R32 ≥ 26.7 47.8 ≥ R32 ≥ 36.7 R32 26.7 29.3 36.7 36.7 44.1 47.8 HFO-1132 (E) 24.8 24.3 22.5 22.5 21.1 20.4 HFO-1123 0 0 0 0 0 0 R1234yf 48.5 46.4 40.8 40.8 34.8 31.8 R32 x x HFO-1132 (E) −0.0051a2 + 0.0929a + 25.95 −1.892a + 29.443 Approximate expression HFO-1123 0 0 Approximate expression R1234yf 0.0051a2 − 1.0929a + 74.05 0.892a + 70.557 Approximate expression

FIGS. 3 to 13 show compositions whose R32 content a (mass %) is 0 mass %, 7.1 mass %, 11.1 mass %, 14.5 mass %, 18.2 mass %, 21.9 mass %, 26.7 mass %, 29.3 mass %, 36.7 mass %, 44.1 mass %, and 47.8 mass %, respectively.

Points A, B, C, and D′ were obtained in the following manner according to approximate calculation.

Point A is a point where the content of HFO-1123 is 0 mass %, and a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% relative to that of R410A is achieved. Three points corresponding to point A were obtained in each of the following five ranges by calculation, and their approximate expressions were obtained (Table 109).

TABLE 109 Item 11.1 ≥ R32 > 0 18.2 ≥ R32 ≥ 11.1 26.7 ≥ R32 ≥ 18.2 R32 0 7.1 11.1 11.1 14.5 18.2 18.2 21.9 26.7 HFO-1132 (E) 68.6 55.3 48.4 48.4 42.8 37 37 31.5 24.8 HFO-1123 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 R1234yf 31.4 37.6 40.5 40.5 42.7 44.8 44.8 46.6 48.5 R32 a a a HFO-1132 (E) 0.0134a2 − 1.9681a + 68.6 0.0112a2 − 1.9337a + 68.484 0.0107a2 − 1.9142a + 68.305 Approximate expression HFO-1123 0 0 0 Approximate expression R1234yf −0.0134a2 + 0.9681a + 31.4 −0.0112a2 + 0.9337a + 31.516 −0.0107a2 + 0.9142a + 31.695 Approximate expression Item 36.7 ≥ R32 ≥ 26.7 46.7 ≥ R32 ≥ 36.7 R32 26.7 29.3 36.7 36.7 44.1 47.8 HFO-1132 (E) 24.8 21.3 12.1 12.1 3.8 0 HFO-1123 0 0 0 0 0 0 R1234yf 48.5 49.4 51.2 51.2 52.1 52.2 R32 a a HFO-1132 (E) 0.0103a2 − 1.9225a + 68.73 0.0085a2 − 1.8102a + 67.1 Approximate expression HFO-1123 0 0 Approximate expression R1234yf −0.0103a2 + 0.9225a + 31..207 −0.0085a2 + 0.8102a + 32.9 Approximate expression

Point B is a point where the content of HFO-1132(E) is 0 mass %, and a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% relative to that of R410A is achieved.

Three points corresponding to point B were obtained in each of the following five ranges by calculation, and their approximate expressions were obtained (Table 110).

TABLE 110 Item 11.1 ≥ R32 > 0 18.2 ≥ R32 ≥ 11.1 26.7 ≥ R32 ≥ 18.2 R32 0 7.1 11.1 11.1 14.5 18.2 18.2 21.9 26.7 HFO-1132 (E) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 HFO-1123 58.7 47.8 42.3 42.3 37.8 33.1 33.1 28.5 22.9 R1234yf 41.3 45.1 46.6 46.6 47.7 48.7 48.7 49.6 50.4 R32 a a a HFO-1132 (E) 0 0 0 Approximate expression HFO-1123 0.0144a2 − 1.6377a + 58.7 0.0075a2 − 1.5156a + 58.199 0.009a2 − 1.6045a + 59.318 Approximate expression R1234yf −0.0144a2 + 0.6377a + 41.3 −0.0075a2 + 0.5156a + 41.801 −0.009a2 + 0.6045a + 40.682 Approximate expression Item 36.7 ≥ R32 ≥ 26.7 46.7 ≥ R32 ≥ 36.7 R32 26.7 29.3 36.7 36.7 44.1 47.8 HFO-1132 (E) 0 0 0 0 0 0 HFO-1123 22.9 19.9 11.7 11.8 3.9 0 R1234yf 50.4 50.8 51.6 51.5 52.0 52.2 R32 a a HFO-1132 (E) 0 0 Approximate expression HFO-1123 0.0046a2 − 1.41a + 57.286 0.0012a2 − 1.1659a + 52.95 Approximate expression R1234yf −0.0046a2 + 0.41a + 42.714 −0.0012a2 + 0.1659a + 47.05 Approximate expression

Point D′ is a point where the content of HFO-1132(E) is 0 mass %, and a COP ratio of 95.5% relative to that of R410A is achieved.

Three points corresponding to point D′ were obtained in each of the following by calculation, and their approximate expressions were obtained (Table 111).

TABLE 111 Item 11.1 ≥ R32 > 0 R32 0 7.1 11.1 HFO-1132(E) 0 0 0 HFO-1123 75.4 83.4 88.9 R1234yf 24.6 9.5 0 R32 a HFO-1132(E) 0 Approximate expression HFO-1123  0.0224a2 + 0.968a + 75.4 Approximate expression R1234yf −0.0224a2 − 1.968a + 24.6 Approximate expression

Point C is a point where the content of R1234yf is 0 mass %, and a COP ratio of 95.5% relative to that of R410A is achieved.

Three points corresponding to point C were obtained in each of the following by calculation, and their approximate expressions were obtained (Table 112).

TABLE 112 Item 11.1 ≥ R32 > 0 R32 0 7.1 11.1 HFO-1132(E) 32.9 18.4 0 HFO-1123 67.1 74.5 88.9 R1234yf 0 0 0 R32 a HFO-1132(E) −0.2304a2 − 0.4062a + 32.9 Approximate expression HFO-1123  0.2304a2 − 0.5938a + 67.1 Approximate expression R1234yf 0 Approximate expression

(5-4) Refrigerant D

The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is a mixed refrigerant comprising trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), difluoromethane (R32), and 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (R1234yf).

The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure has various properties that are desirable as an R410A-alternative refrigerant; i.e., a refrigerating capacity equivalent to that of R410A, a sufficiently low GWP, and a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE standard.

The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IJ, JN, NE, and EI that connect the following 4 points:

point I (72.0, 0.0, 28.0),
point J (48.5, 18.3, 33.2),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and
point E (58.3, 0.0, 41.7),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment EI);

the line segment IJ is represented by coordinates (0.0236y2−1.7616y+72.0, y, −0.0236y2+0.7616y+28.0);

the line segment NE is represented by coordinates (0.012y2−1.9003y+58.3, y, −0.012y2+0.9003y+41.7); and

the line segments JN and EI are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 80% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 125 or less, and a WCF lower flammability.

The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MM′, M′N, NV, VG, and GM that connect the following 5 points:

point M (52.6, 0.0, 47.4),
point M′ (39.2, 5.0, 55.8),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1),
point V (11.0, 18.1, 70.9), and
point G (39.6, 0.0, 60.4),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GM);

the line segment MM′ is represented by coordinates (0.132y2−3.34y+52.6, y, −0.132y2+2.34y+47.4);

the line segment M′N is represented by coordinates (0.0596y2−2.2541y+48.98, y, −0.0596y2+1.2541y+51.02);

the line segment VG is represented by coordinates (0.0123y2−1.8033y+39.6, y, −0.0123y2+0.8033y+60.4); and

the line segments NV and GM are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 70% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 125 or less, and an ASHRAE lower flammability.

The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments ON, NU, and UO that connect the following 3 points:

point O (22.6, 36.8, 40.6),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and
point U (3.9, 36.7, 59.4),
or on these line segments;

the line segment ON is represented by coordinates (0.0072y2−0.6701y+37.512, y, −0.0072y2−0.3299y+62.488);

the line segment NU is represented by coordinates (0.0083y2−1.7403y+56.635, y, −0.0083y2+0.7403y+43.365); and

the line segment UO is a straight line. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 80% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 250 or less, and an ASHRAE lower flammability.

The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QR, RT, TL, LK, and KQ that connect the following 5 points:

point Q (44.6, 23.0, 32.4),
point R (25.5, 36.8, 37.7),
point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8),
point L (28.9, 51.7, 19.4), and
point K (35.6, 36.8, 27.6),
or on these line segments;

the line segment QR is represented by coordinates (0.0099y2−1.975y+84.765, y, −0.0099y2+0.975y+15.235);

the line segment RT is represented by coordinates (0.0082y2−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y2+0.8683y+16.874);

the line segment LK is represented by coordinates (0.0049y2−0.8842y+61.488, y, −0.0049y2−0.1158y+38.512);

the line segment KQ is represented by coordinates (0.0095y2−1.2222y+67.676, y, −0.0095y2+0.2222y+32.324); and

the line segment TL is a straight line. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 92.5% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 350 or less, and a WCF lower flammability.

The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:

point P (20.5, 51.7, 27.8),
point S (21.9, 39.7, 38.4), and
point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8),
or on these line segments;

the line segment PS is represented by coordinates (0.0064y2−0.7103y+40.1, y, −0.0064y2−0.2897y+59.9);

the line segment ST is represented by coordinates (0.0082y2−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y2+0.8683y+16.874); and

the line segment TP is a straight line. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 92.5% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 350 or less, and an ASHRAE lower flammability.

The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments ac, cf, fd, and da that connect the following 4 points:

point a (71.1, 0.0, 28.9),
point c (36.5, 18.2, 45.3),
point f (47.6, 18.3, 34.1), and
point d (72.0, 0.0, 28.0),
or on these line segments;

the line segment ac is represented by coordinates (0.0181y2−2.2288y+71.096, y, −0.0181y2+1.2288y+28.904);

the line segment fd is represented by coordinates (0.02y2−1.7y+72, y, −0.02y2+0.7y+28); and

the line segments cf and da are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 125 or less, and a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE standard.

The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments ab, be, ed, and da that connect the following 4 points:

point a (71.1, 0.0, 28.9),
point b (42.6, 14.5, 42.9),
point e (51.4, 14.6, 34.0), and
point d (72.0, 0.0, 28.0),
or on these line segments;

the line segment ab is represented by coordinates (0.0181y2−2.2288y+71.096, y, −0.0181y2+1.2288y+28.904);

the line segment ed is represented by coordinates (0.02y2−1.7y+72, y, −0.02y2+0.7y+28); and

the line segments be and da are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 85% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 100 or less, and a lower flammability (Class 2L) according to the ASHRAE standard.

The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments gi, ij, and jg that connect the following 3 points:

point g (77.5, 6.9, 15.6),
point i (55.1, 18.3, 26.6), and
point j (77.5. 18.4, 4.1),
or on these line segments;

the line segment gi is represented by coordinates (0.02y2−2.4583y+93.396, y, −0.02y2+1.4583y+6.604); and

the line segments ij and jg are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 95% or more relative to R410A and a GWP of 100 or less, undergoes fewer or no changes such as polymerization or decomposition, and also has excellent stability.

The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments gh, hk, and kg that connect the following 3 points:

point g (77.5, 6.9, 15.6),
point h (61.8, 14.6, 23.6), and
point k (77.5, 14.6, 7.9),
or on these line segments;

the line segment gh is represented by coordinates (0.02y2−2.4583y+93.396, y, −0.02y2+1.4583y+6.604); and

the line segments hk and kg are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 95% or more relative to R410A and a GWP of 100 or less, undergoes fewer or no changes such as polymerization or decomposition, and also has excellent stability.

The refrigerant D according to the present disclosure may further comprise other additional refrigerants in addition to HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf, as long as the above properties and effects are not impaired. In this respect, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure preferably comprises HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more, more preferably 99.75 mass % or more, and still more preferably 99.9 mass % or more based on the entire refrigerant.

Such additional refrigerants are not limited, and can be selected from a wide range of refrigerants. The mixed refrigerant may comprise a single additional refrigerant, or two or more additional refrigerants.

Examples of Refrigerant D

The present disclosure is described in more detail below with reference to Examples of refrigerant D. However, the refrigerant D is not limited to the Examples.

The composition of each mixed refrigerant of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf was defined as WCF. A leak simulation was performed using the NIST Standard Reference Database REFLEAK Version 4.0 under the conditions of Equipment, Storage, Shipping, Leak, and Recharge according to the ASHRAE Standard 34-2013. The most flammable fraction was defined as WCFF.

A burning velocity test was performed using the apparatus shown in FIG. 1 in the following manner. First, the mixed refrigerants used had a purity of 99.5% or more, and were degassed by repeating a cycle of freezing, pumping, and thawing until no traces of air were observed on the vacuum gauge. The burning velocity was measured by the closed method. The initial temperature was ambient temperature. Ignition was performed by generating an electric spark between the electrodes in the center of a sample cell. The duration of the discharge was 1.0 to 9.9 ms, and the ignition energy was typically about 0.1 to 1.0 J. The spread of the flame was visualized using schlieren photographs. A cylindrical container (inner diameter: 155 mm, length: 198 mm) equipped with two light transmission acrylic windows was used as the sample cell, and a xenon lamp was used as the light source. Schlieren images of the flame were recorded by a high-speed digital video camera at a frame rate of 600 fps and stored on a PC. Tables 113 to 115 show the results.

TABLE 113 Comparative Example Example Example Example 13 Example 12 Example 14 Example 16 Item Unit I 11 J 13 K 15 L WCF HFO-1132 (E) Mass % 72 57.2 48.5 41.2 35.6 32 28.9 R32 Mass % 0 10 18.3 27.6 36.8 44.2 51.7 R1234yf Mass % 28 32.8 33.2 31.2 27.6 23.8 19.4 Burning Velocity cm/s 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 (WCF)

TABLE 114 Comparative Example Example Example Example 19 Example 21 Example Item Unit 14 M 18 W 20 N 22 WCF HFO-1132 Mass % 52.6 39.2 32.4 29.3 27.7 24.6 (E) R32 Mass % 0.0 5.0 10.0 14.5 18.2 27.6 R1234yf Mass % 47.4 55.8 57.6 56.2 54.1 47.8 Leak condition that Storage, Storage, Storage, Storage, Storage, Storage, results in WCFF Shipping, Shipping, Shipping, Shipping, Shipping, Shipping, −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., 0% release, 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% on the gas release, on release, on release, on release, on release, on phase side the gas the gas the gas the gas the gas phase side phase side phase side phase side phase side WCF HFO-1132 Mass % 72.0 57.8 48.7 43.6 40.6 34.9 (E) 1132 Mass % 0.0 9.5 17.9 24.2 28.7 38.1 111234yf Mass % 28.0 32.7 33.4 32.2 30.7 27.0 Burning Velocity cm/s 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less (WCF) Burning Velocity cm/s 10 10 10 10 10 10 (WCFF)

TABLE 115 Example Example 23 Example 25 Item Unit O 24 P WCF HFO- Mass % 22.6 21.2 20.5 1132 (E) HFO-1123 Mass % 36.8 44.2 51.7 R1234yf Mass % 40.6 34.6 27.8 Leak condition that Storage, Storage, Storage, results in WCFF Shipping, Shipping, Shipping, −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., 0% 0% 0% release, release, release, on the on the on the gas phase gas phase gas phase side side side WCFF HFO- Mass % 31.4 29.2 27.1 1132 (E) HFO-1123 Mass % 45.7 51.1 56.4 R1234yf Mass % 23.0 19.7 16.5 Burning Velocity cm/s 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less (WCF) Burning Velocity cm/s 10 10 10 (WCFF)

The results indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram shown in FIG. 14 in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are on the line segment that connects point I, point J, point K, and point L, or below these line segments, the refrigerant has a WCF lower flammability.

The results also indicate that when coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram shown in FIG. 14 are on the line segments that connect point M, point M′, point W, point J, point N, and point P, or below these line segments, the refrigerant has an ASHRAE lower flammability.

Mixed refrigerants were prepared by mixing HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf in amounts (mass %) shown in Tables 116 to 144 based on the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf. The coefficient of performance (COP) ratio and the refrigerating capacity ratio relative to R410 of the mixed refrigerants shown in Tables 116 to 144 were determined. The conditions for calculation were as described below.

Evaporating temperature: 5° C.

Condensation temperature: 45° C.

Degree of superheating: 5 K

Degree of subcooling: 5 K

Compressor efficiency: 70%

Tables 116 to 144 show these values together with the GWP of each mixed refrigerant.

TABLE 116 Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Example 2 Example 3 Example 4 Example 5 Example 6 Example 7 Item Unit Example 1 A B A′ B′ A″ B″ HFO-1132(E) Mass % R410A 81.6 0.0 63.1 0.0 48.2 0.0 R32 Mass % 18.4 18.1 36.9 36.7 51.8 51.5 R1234yf Mass % 0.0 81.9 0.0 63.3 0.0 48.5 GWP 2088 125 125 250 250 350 350 COP Ratio % (relative 100 98.7 103.6 98.7 102.3 99.2 102.2 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 100 105.3 62.5 109.9 77.5 112.1 87.3 Capacity R410A) Ratio

TABLE 117 Comparative Comparative Example Example Example 8 Comparative Example 10 Example 2 Example 4 Item Unit C Example 9 C′ 1 R 3 T HFO-1132(E) Mass % 85.5 66.1 52.1 37.8 25.5 16.6 8.6 R32 Mass % 0.0 10.0 18.2 27.6 36.8 44.2 51.6 R1234yf Mass % 14.5 23.9 29.7 34.6 37.7 39.2 39.8 GWP 1 69 125 188 250 300 350 COP Ratio % (relative to 99.8 99.3 99.3 99.6 100.2 100.8 101.4 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 92.5 92.5 92.5 92.5 92.5 92.5 92.5 Capacity R410A) Ratio

TABLE 118 Comparative Example Comparative Example 11 Example 6 Example 8 Example 12 Example Example 10 Item Unit E Example 5 N 7 U G 9 V HFO-1132(E) Mass % 58.3 40.5 27.7 14.9 3.9 39.6 22.8 11.0 R32 Mass % 0.0 10.0 18.2 27.6 36.7 0.0 10.0 18.1 R1234yf Mass % 41.7 49.5 54.1 57.5 59.4 60.4 67.2 70.9 GWP 2 70 125 189 250 3 70 125 COP Ratio % (relative to 100.3 100.3 100.7 101.2 101.9 101.4 101.8 102.3 R410A) Refrigerating % (relative to 80.0 80.0 80.0 80.0 80.0 70.0 70.0 70.0 Capacity R410A) Ratio

TABLE 119 Comparative Example Example Example Example Example 13 Example 12 Example 14 Example 16 17 Item Unit I 11 J 13 K 15 L Q HFO-1132(E) Mass % 72.0 57.2 48.5 41.2 35.6 32.0 28.9 44.6 R32 Mass % 0.0 10.0 18.3 27.6 36.8 44.2 51.7 23.0 R1234yf Mass % 28.0 32.8 33.2 31.2 27.6 23.8 19.4 32.4 GWP 2 69 125 188 250 300 350 157 COP Ratio % (relative 99.9 99.5 99.4 99.5 99.6 99.8 100.1 99.4 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 86.6 88.4 90.9 94.2 97.7 100.5 103.3 92.5 Capacity to R410A) Ratio

TABLE 120 Comparative Example Example Example 14 Example 19 Example 21 Example Item Unit M 18 W 20 N 22 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 52.6 39.2 32.4 29.3 27.7 24.5 R32 Mass % 0.0 5.0 10.0 14.5 18.2 27.6 R1234yf Mass % 47.4 55.8 57.6 56.2 54.1 47.9 GWP 2 36 70 100 125 188 COP Ratio % (relative 100.5 100.9 100.9 100.8 100.7 100.4 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 77.1 74.8 75.6 77.8 80.0 85.5 Capacity to R410A) Ratio

TABLE 121 Example Example Example 23 Example 25 26 Item Unit O 24 P S HFO- Mass % 22.6 21.2 20.5 21.9 1132(E) R32 Mass % 36.8 44.2 51.7 39.7 R1234yf Mass % 40.6 34.6 27.8 38.4 GWP 250 300 350 270 COP Ratio % (relative 100.4 100.5 100.6 100.4 to R410A) Refriger- % (relative 91.0 95.0 99.1 92.5 ating to R410A) Capacity Ratio

TABLE 122 Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 15 16 17 18 27 28 19 20 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 R32 Mass % 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 R1234yf Mass % 85.0 75.0 65.0 55.0 45.0 35.0 25.0 15.0 GWP 37 37 37 36 36 36 35 35 COP Ratio % (relative 103.4 102.6 101.6 100.8 100.2 99.8 99.6 99.4 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 56.4 63.3 69.5 75.2 80.5 85.4 90.1 94.4 Capacity to R410A) Ratio

TABLE 123 Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 21 22 29 23 30 24 25 26 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 R32 Mass % 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 R1234yf Mass % 80.0 70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 GWP 71 71 70 70 70 69 69 69 COP Ratio % (relative 103.1 102.1 101.1 100.4 99.8 99.5 99.2 99.1 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 61.8 68.3 74.3 79.7 84.9 89.7 94.2 98.4 Capacity to R410A) Ratio

TABLE 124 Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 27 31 28 32 33 29 30 31 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 R32 Mass % 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 R1234yf Mass % 75.0 65.0 55.0 45.0 35.0 25.0 15.0 5.0 GWP 104 104 104 103 103 103 103 102 COP Ratio % (relative 102.7 101.6 100.7 100.0 99.5 99.2 99.0 98.9 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 66.6 72.9 78.6 84.0 89.0 93.7 98.1 102.2 Capacity to R410A) Ratio

TABLE 125 Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 10.0 R32 Mass % 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 25.0 R1234yf Mass % 70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 65.0 GWP 138 138 137 137 137 136 136 171 COP Ratio % (relative 102.3 101.2 100.4 99.7 99.3 99.0 98.8 101.9 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 71.0 77.1 82.7 88.0 92.9 97.5 101.7 75.0 Capacity to R410A) Ratio

TABLE 126 Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 34 40 41 42 43 44 45 35 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 10.0 20.0 R32 Mass % 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 30.0 30.0 R1234yf Mass % 55.0 45.0 35.0 25.0 15.0 5.0 60.0 50.0 GWP 171 171 171 170 170 170 205 205 COP Ratio % (relative 100.9 100.1 99.6 99.2 98.9 98.7 101.6 100.7 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 81.0 86.6 91.7 96.5 101.0 105.2 78.9 84.8 Capacity to R410A) Ratio

TABLE 127 Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 46 47 48 49 36 37 38 50 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 R32 Mass % 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 R1234yf Mass % 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 55.0 45.0 35.0 25.0 GWP 204 204 204 204 239 238 238 238 COP Ratio % (relative 100.0 99.5 99.1 98.8 101.4 100.6 99.9 99.4 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 90.2 95.3 100.0 104.4 82.5 88.3 93.7 98.6 Capacity to R410A) Ratio

TABLE 128 Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 51 52 53 54 39 55 56 57 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 50.0 60.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 10.0 R32 Mass % 35.0 35.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 45.0 R1234yf Mass % 15.0 5.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 45.0 GWP 237 237 272 272 272 271 271 306 COP Ratio % (relative 99.0 98.8 101.3 100.6 99.9 99.4 99.0 101.3 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 103.2 107.5 86.0 91.7 96.9 101.8 106.3 89.3 Capacity to R410A) Ratio

TABLE 129 Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 40 41 58 59 60 42 61 62 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 R32 Mass % 45.0 45.0 45.0 45.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 R1234yf Mass % 35.0 25.0 15.0 5.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 GWP 305 305 305 304 339 339 339 338 COP Ratio % (relative 100.6 100.0 99.5 99.1 101.3 100.6 100.0 99.5 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 94.9 100.0 104.7 109.2 92.4 97.8 102.9 107.5 Capacity to R410A) Ratio

TABLE 130 Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 63 64 65 66 43 44 45 46 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 56.0 59.0 62.0 65.0 R32 Mass % 55.0 55.0 55.0 55.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 R1234yf Mass % 35.0 25.0 15.0 5.0 41.0 38.0 35.0 32.0 GWP 373 372 372 372 22 22 22 22 COP Ratio % (relative 101.4 100.7 100.1 99.6 100.1 100.0 99.9 99.8 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 95.3 100.6 105.6 110.2 81.7 83.2 84.6 86.0 Capacity to R410A) Ratio

TABLE 131 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 49.0 52.0 55.0 58.0 61.0 43.0 46.0 49.0 R32 Mass % 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 R1234yf Mass % 45.0 42.0 39.0 36.0 33.0 48.0 45.0 42.0 GWP 43 43 43 43 42 63 63 63 COP Ratio % (relative 100.2 100.0 99.9 99.8 99.7 100.3 100.1 99.9 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 80.9 82.4 83.9 85.4 86.8 80.4 82.0 83.5 Capacity to R410A) Ratio

TABLE 132 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 52.0 55.0 58.0 38.0 41.0 44.0 47.0 50.0 R32 Mass % 9.0 9.0 9.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 R1234yf Mass % 39.0 36.0 33.0 50.0 47.0 44.0 41.0 36.0 GWP 63 63 63 83 83 83 83 83 COP Ratio % (relative 99.8 99.7 99.6 100.3 100.1 100.0 99.8 99.7 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 85.0 86.5 87.9 80.4 82.0 83.5 85.1 86.6 Capacity to R410A) Ratio

TABLE 133 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 53.0 33.0 36.0 39.0 42.0 45.0 48.0 51.0 R32 Mass % 12.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 R1234yf Mass % 35.0 52.0 49.0 46.0 43.0 40.0 37.0 34.0 GWP 83 104 104 103 103 103 103 103 COP Ratio % (relative 99.6 100.5 100.3 100.1 99.9 99.7 99.6 99.5 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 88.0 80.3 81.9 83.5 85.0 86.5 88.0 89.5 Capacity to R410A) Ratio

TABLE 134 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 29.0 32.0 35.0 38.0 41.0 44.0 47.0 36.0 R32 Mass % 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 3.0 R1234yf Mass % 53.0 50.0 47.0 44.0 41.0 38.0 35.0 61.0 GWP 124 124 124 124 124 123 123 23 COP Ratio % (relative 100.6 100.3 100.1 99.9 99.8 99.6 99.5 101.3 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 80.6 82.2 83.8 85.4 86.9 88.4 89.9 71.0 Capacity to R410A) Ratio

TABLE 135 Item Unit Example 79 Example 80 Example 81 Example 82 Example 83 Example 84 Example 85 Example 86 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 39.0 42.0 30.0 33.0 36.0 26.0 29.0 32.0 R32 Mass % 3.0 3.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 R1234yf Mass % 58.0 55.0 64.0 61.0 58.0 65.0 62.0 59.0 GWP 23 23 43 43 43 64 64 63 COP Ratio % (relative 101.1 100.9 101.5 101.3 101.0 101.6 101.3 101.1 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 72.7 74.4 70.5 72.2 73.9 71.0 72.8 74.5 Capacity Ratio to R410A)

TABLE 136 Item Unit Example 87 Example 88 Example 89 Example 90 Example 91 Example 92 Example 93 Example 94 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 21.0 24.0 27.0 30.0 16.0 19.0 22.0 25.0 R32 Mass % 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 R1234yf Mass % 67.0 64.0 61.0 58.0 69.0 66.0 63.0 60.0 GWP 84 84 84 84 104 104 104 104 COP Ratio % (relative 101.8 101.5 101.2 101.0 102.1 101.8 101.4 101.2 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 70.8 72.6 74.3 76.0 70.4 72.3 74.0 75.8 Capacity Ratio to R410A)

TABLE 137 Item Unit Example 95 Example 96 Example 97 Example 98 Example 99 Example 100 Example 101 Example 102 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 28.0 12.0 15.0 18.0 21.0 24.0 27.0 25.0 R32 Mass % 15.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 21.0 R1234yf Mass % 57.0 70.0 67.0 64.0 61.0 58.0 55.0 54.0 GWP 104 124 124 124 124 124 124 144 COP Ratio % (relative 100.9 102.2 101.9 101.6 101.3 101.0 100.7 100.7 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 77.5 70.5 72.4 74.2 76.0 77.7 79.4 80.7 Capacity Ratio to R410A)

TABLE 138 Item Unit Example 103 Example 104 Example 105 Example 106 Example 107 Example 108 Example 109 Example 110 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 21.0 24.0 17.0 20.0 23.0 13.0 16.0 19.0 R32 Mass % 24.0 24.0 27.0 27.0 27.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 R1234yf Mass % 55.0 52.0 56.0 53.0 50.0 57.0 54.0 51.0 GWP 164 164 185 185 184 205 205 205 COP Ratio % (relative 100.9 100.6 101.1 100.8 100.6 101.3 101.0 100.8 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 80.8 82.5 80.8 82.5 84.2 80.7 82.5 84.2 Capacity Ratio to R410A)

TABLE 139 Item Unit Example 111 Example 112 Example 113 Example 114 Example 115 Example 116 Example 117 Example 118 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 22.0 9.0 12.0 15.0 18.0 21.0 8.0 12.0 R32 Mass % 30.0 33.0 33.0 33.0 33.0 33.0 36.0 36.0 R1234yf Mass % 48.0 58.0 55.0 52.0 49.0 46.0 56.0 52.0 GWP 205 225 225 225 225 225 245 245 COP Ratio % (relative 100.5 101.6 101.3 101.0 100.8 100.5 101.6 101.2 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 85.9 80.5 82.3 84.1 85.8 87.5 82.0 84.4 Capacity Ratio to R410A)

TABLE 140 Item Unit Example 119 Example 120 Example 121 Example 122 Example 123 Example 124 Example 125 Example 126 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 15.0 18.0 21.0 42.0 39.0 34.0 37.0 30.0 R32 Mass % 36.0 36.0 36.0 25.0 28.0 31.0 31.0 34.0 R1234yf Mass % 49.0 46.0 43.0 33.0 33.0 35.0 32.0 36.0 GWP 245 245 245 170 191 211 211 231 COP Ratio % (relative 101.0 100.7 100.5 99.5 99.5 99.8 99.6 99.9 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 86.2 87.9 89.6 92.7 93.4 93.0 94.5 93.0 Capacity Ratio to R410A)

TABLE 141 Item Unit Example 127 Example 128 Example 129 Example 130 Example 131 Example 132 Example 133 Example 134 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 33.0 36.0 24.0 27.0 30.0 33.0 23.0 26.0 R32 Mass % 34.0 34.0 37.0 37.0 37.0 37.0 40.0 40.0 R1234yf Mass % 33.0 30.0 39.0 36.0 33.0 30.0 37.0 34.0 GWP 231 231 252 251 251 251 272 272 COP Ratio % (relative 99.8 99.6 100.3 100.1 99.9 99.8 100.4 100.2 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 94.5 96.0 91.9 93.4 95.0 96.5 93.3 94.9 Capacity Ratio to R410A)

TABLE 142 Item Unit Example 135 Example 136 Example 137 Example 138 Example 139 Example 140 Example 141 Example 142 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 29.0 32.0 19.0 22.0 25.0 28.0 31.0 18.0 R32 Mass % 40.0 40.0 43.0 43.0 43.0 43.0 43.0 46.0 R1234yf Mass % 31.0 28.0 38.0 35.0 32.0 29.0 26.0 36.0 GWP 272 271 292 292 292 292 292 312 COP Ratio % (relative 100.0 99.8 100.6 100.4 100.2 100.1 99.9 100.7 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 96.4 97.9 93.1 94.7 96.2 97.8 99.3 94.4 Capacity Ratio to R410A)

TABLE 143 Item Unit Example 143 Example 144 Example 145 Example 146 Example 147 Example 148 Example 149 Example 150 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 21.0 23.0 26.0 29.0 13.0 16.0 19.0 22.0 R32 Mass % 46.0 46.0 46.0 46.0 49.0 49.0 49.0 49.0 R1234yf Mass % 33.0 31.0 28.0 25.0 38.0 35.0 32.0 29.0 GWP 312 312 312 312 332 332 332 332 COP Ratio % (relative to R410A) 100.5 100.4 100.2 100.0 101.1 100.9 100.7 100.5 Refrigerating % (relative 96.0 97.0 98.6 100.1 93.5 95.1 96.7 98.3 Capacity Ratio to R410A)

TABLE 144 Example Example Item Unit 151 152 HFO-1132(E) Mass % 25.0 28.0 R32 Mass % 49.0 49.0 R1234yf Mass % 26.0 23.0 GWP 332 332 COP Ratio % (relative 100.3 100.1 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 99.8 101.3 Capacity Ratio to R410A)

The results also indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IJ, JN, NE, and EI that connect the following 4 points:

point I (72.0, 0.0, 28.0),
point J (48.5, 18.3, 33.2),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and
point E (58.3, 0.0, 41.7),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment EI),

the line segment IJ is represented by coordinates (0.0236y2−1.7616y+72.0, y, −0.0236y2+0.7616y+28.0),

the line segment NE is represented by coordinates (0.012y2−1.9003y+58.3, y, −0.012y2+0.9003y+41.7), and

the line segments JN and EI are straight lines, the refrigerant D has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 80% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 125 or less, and a WCF lower flammability.

The results also indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MM′, M′N, NV, VG, and GM that connect the following 5 points:

point M (52.6, 0.0, 47.4),
point M′ (39.2, 5.0, 55.8),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1),
point V (11.0, 18.1, 70.9), and
point G (39.6, 0.0, 60.4),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GM),

the line segment MM′ is represented by coordinates (0.132y2−3.34y+52.6, y, −0.132y2+2.34y+47.4),

the line segment M′N is represented by coordinates (0.0596y2−2.2541y+48.98, y, −0.0596y2+1.2541y+51.02),

the line segment VG is represented by coordinates (0.0123y2−1.8033y+39.6, y, −0.0123y2+0.8033y+60.4), and

the line segments NV and GM are straight lines, the refrigerant D according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 70% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 125 or less, and an ASHRAE lower flammability.

The results also indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments ON, NU, and UO that connect the following 3 points:

point O (22.6, 36.8, 40.6),
point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and
point U (3.9, 36.7, 59.4),
or on these line segments,

the line segment ON is represented by coordinates (0.0072y2−0.6701y+37.512, y, −0.0072y2−0.3299y+62.488),

the line segment NU is represented by coordinates (0.0083y2−1.7403y+56.635, y, −0.0083y2+0.7403y+43.365), and

the line segment UO is a straight line, the refrigerant D according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 80% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 250 or less, and an ASHRAE lower flammability.

The results also indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QR, RT, TL, LK, and KQ that connect the following 5 points:

point Q (44.6, 23.0, 32.4),
point R (25.5, 36.8, 37.7),
point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8),
point L (28.9, 51.7, 19.4), and
point K (35.6, 36.8, 27.6),
or on these line segments,

the line segment QR is represented by coordinates (0.0099y2−1.975y+84.765, y, −0.0099y2+0.975y+15.235),

the line segment RT is represented by coordinates (0.0082y2−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y2+0.8683y+16.874),

the line segment LK is represented by coordinates (0.0049y2−0.8842y+61.488, y, −0.0049y2−0.1158y+38.512),

the line segment KQ is represented by coordinates (0.0095y2−1.2222y+67.676, y, −0.0095y2+0.2222y+32.324), and

the line segment TL is a straight line, the refrigerant D according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 92.5% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 350 or less, and a WCF lower flammability.

The results further indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:

point P (20.5, 51.7, 27.8),
point S (21.9, 39.7, 38.4), and
point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8),
or on these line segments,

the line segment PS is represented by coordinates (0.0064y2−0.7103y+40.1, y, −0.0064y2−0.2897y+59.9),

the line segment ST is represented by coordinates (0.0082y2−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y2+0.8683y+16.874), and

the line segment TP is a straight line, the refrigerant D according to the present disclosure has a refrigerating capacity ratio of 92.5% or more relative to R410A, a GWP of 350 or less, and an ASHRAE lower flammability.

(5-5) Refrigerant E

The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is a mixed refrigerant comprising trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123), and difluoromethane (R32).

The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure has various properties that are desirable as an R410A-alternative refrigerant, i.e., a coefficient of performance equivalent to that of R410A and a sufficiently low GWP.

The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IK, KB′, B′H, HR, RG, and GI that connect the following 6 points:

point I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0),
point K (48.4, 33.2, 18.4),
point B′ (0.0, 81.6, 18.4),
point H (0.0, 84.2, 15.8),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segments B′H and GI);

the line segment IK is represented by coordinates (0.025z2−1.7429z+72.00, −0.025z2+0.7429z+28.0, z),

the line segment HR is represented by coordinates (−0.3123z2+4.234z+11.06, 0.3123z2−5.234z+88.94, z),

the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z), and

the line segments KB′ and GI are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has WCF lower flammability, a COP ratio of 93% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 125 or less.

The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IJ, JR, RG, and GI that connect the following 4 points:

point I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0),
point J (57.7, 32.8, 9.5),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GI);

the line segment IJ is represented by coordinates (0.025z2−1.7429z+72.0, −0.025z2+0.7429z+28.0, z),

the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z), and

the line segments JR and GI are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has WCF lower flammability, a COP ratio of 93% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 125 or less.

The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MP, PB′, B′H, HR, RG, and GM that connect the following 6 points:

point M (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (31.8, 49.8, 18.4),
point B′ (0.0, 81.6, 18.4),
point H (0.0, 84.2, 15.8),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segments B′H and GM);

the line segment MP is represented by coordinates (0.0083z2−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z2−0.016z+52.9, z),

the line segment HR is represented by coordinates (−0.3123z2+4.234z+11.06, 0.3123z2−5.234z+88.94, z),

the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z), and

the line segments PB′ and GM are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has ASHRAE lower flammability, a COP ratio of 93% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 125 or less.

The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MN, NR, RG, and GM that connect the following 4 points:

point M (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point N (38.5, 52.1, 9.5),
point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and
point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GM);

the line segment MN is represented by coordinates (0.0083z2−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z2−0.016z+52.9, z),

the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z),

the line segments NR and GM are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has ASHRAE lower flammability, a COP ratio of 93% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 65 or less.

The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:

point P (31.8, 49.8, 18.4),
point S (25.4, 56.2, 18.4), and
point T (34.8, 51.0, 14.2),
or on these line segments;

the line segment ST is represented by coordinates (−0.0982z2+0.9622z+40.931, 0.0982z2−1.9622z+59.069, z),

the line segment TP is represented by coordinates (0.0083z2−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z2−0.016z+52.9, z), and

the line segment PS is a straight line. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has ASHRAE lower flammability, a COP ratio of 94.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 125 or less.

The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QB″, B″D, DU, and UQ that connect the following 4 points:

point Q (28.6, 34.4, 37.0),
point B″ (0.0, 63.0, 37.0),
point D (0.0, 67.0, 33.0), and
point U (28.7, 41.2, 30.1),
or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment B″D);

the line segment DU is represented by coordinates (−3.4962z2+210.71z−3146.1, 3.4962z2−211.71z+3246.1, z),

the line segment UQ is represented by coordinates (0.0135z2−0.9181z+44.133, −0.0135z2−0.0819z+55.867, z), and

the line segments QB″ and B″D are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has ASHRAE lower flammability, a COP ratio of 96% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 250 or less.

The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Oc′, c′d′, d′e′, e′a′, and a′O that connect the following 5 points:

point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
point c′ (56.7, 43.3, 0.0),
point d′ (52.2, 38.3, 9.5),
point e′ (41.8, 39.8, 18.4), and
point a′ (81.6, 0.0, 18.4),
or on the line segments c′d′, d′e′, and e′a′ (excluding the points c′ and a′);

the line segment c′d′ is represented by coordinates (−0.0297z2−0.1915z+56.7, 0.0297z2+1.1915z+43.3, z),

the line segment d′e′ is represented by coordinates (−0.0535z2+0.3229z+53.957, 0.0535z2+0.6771z+46.043, z), and

the line segments Oc′, e′a′, and a′O are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a COP ratio of 92.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 125 or less.

The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Oc, cd, de, ea′, and a′O that connect the following 5 points:

point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
point c (77.7, 22.3, 0.0),
point d (76.3, 14.2, 9.5),
point e (72.2, 9.4, 18.4), and
point a′ (81.6, 0.0, 18.4),
or on the line segments cd, de, and ea′ (excluding the points c and a′);

the line segment cde is represented by coordinates (−0.017z2+0.0148z+77.684, 0.017z2+0.9852z+22.316, z), and

the line segments Oc, ea′, and a′O are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a COP ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 125 or less.

The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Oc′, c′d′, d′a, and aO that connect the following 5 points:

point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
point c′ (56.7, 43.3, 0.0),
point d′ (52.2, 38.3, 9.5), and
point a (90.5, 0.0, 9.5),
or on the line segments c′d′ and d′a (excluding the points c′ and a);

the line segment c′d′ is represented by coordinates (−0.0297z2−0.1915z+56.7, 0.0297z2+1.1915z+43.3, z), and

the line segments Oc′, d′a, and aO are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a COP ratio of 93.5% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 65 or less.

The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure is preferably a refrigerant wherein

when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments Oc, cd, da, and aO that connect the following 4 points:

point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
point c (77.7, 22.3, 0.0),
point d (76.3, 14.2, 9.5), and
point a (90.5, 0.0, 9.5),
or on the line segments cd and da (excluding the points c and a);

the line segment cd is represented by coordinates (−0.017z2+0.0148z+77.684, 0.017z2+0.9852z+22.316, z), and

the line segments Oc, da, and aO are straight lines. When the requirements above are satisfied, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure has a COP ratio of 95% or more relative to that of R410A, and a GWP of 65 or less.

The refrigerant E according to the present disclosure may further comprise other additional refrigerants in addition to HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32, as long as the above properties and effects are not impaired. In this respect, the refrigerant according to the present disclosure preferably comprises HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more, more preferably 99.75 mass % or more, and even more preferably 99.9 mass % or more, based on the entire refrigerant.

Such additional refrigerants are not limited, and can be selected from a wide range of refrigerants. The mixed refrigerant may comprise a single additional refrigerant, or two or more additional refrigerants.

Examples of Refrigerant E

The present disclosure is described in more detail below with reference to Examples of refrigerant E. However, the refrigerant E is not limited to the Examples.

Mixed refrigerants were prepared by mixing HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 at mass % based on their sum shown in Tables 145 and 146.

The composition of each mixture was defined as WCF. A leak simulation was performed using National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Data Base Refleak Version 4.0 under the conditions for equipment, storage, shipping, leak, and recharge according to the ASHRAE Standard 34-2013. The most flammable fraction was defined as WCFF.

For each mixed refrigerant, the burning velocity was measured according to the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 34-2013. When the burning velocities of the WCF composition and the WCFF composition are 10 cm/s or less, the flammability of such a refrigerant is classified as Class 2L (lower flammability) in the ASHRAE flammability classification.

A burning velocity test was performed using the apparatus shown in FIG. 1 in the following manner. First, the mixed refrigerants used had a purity of 99.5% or more, and were degassed by repeating a cycle of freezing, pumping, and thawing until no traces of air were observed on the vacuum gauge. The burning velocity was measured by the closed method. The initial temperature was ambient temperature. Ignition was performed by generating an electric spark between the electrodes in the center of a sample cell. The duration of the discharge was 1.0 to 9.9 ms, and the ignition energy was typically about 0.1 to 1.0 J. The spread of the flame was visualized using schlieren photographs. A cylindrical container (inner diameter: 155 mm, length: 198 mm) equipped with two light transmission acrylic windows was used as the sample cell, and a xenon lamp was used as the light source. Schlieren images of the flame were recorded by a high-speed digital video camera at a frame rate of 600 fps and stored on a PC.

Tables 145 and 146 show the results.

TABLE 145 Item Unit I J K L WCF HFO-1132(E) mass % 72.0 57.7 48.4 35.5 HFO-1123 mass % 28.0 32.8 33.2 27.5 R32 mass % 0.0 9.5 18.4 37.0 Burning velocity (WCF) cm/s 10 10 10 10

TABLE 146 Item Unit M N T P U Q WCF HFO- mass 47.1 38.5 34.8 31.8 28.7 28.6 1132(E) % HFO- mass 52.9 52.1 51.0 49.8 41.2 34.4 1123 % R32 mass 0.0 9.5 14.2 18.4 30.1 37.0 % Leak condition that Storage, Storage, Storage, Storage, Storage, Storage, results in WCFF Shipping, Shipping, Shipping, Shipping, Shipping, Shipping, −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., −40° C., 92%, 92%, 92%, 92%, 92%, 92%, release, release, release, release, release, release, on the liquid on the liquid on the liquid on the liquid on the liquid on the liquid phase side phase side phase side phase side phase side phase side WCFF HFO- mass 72.0 58.9 51.5 44.6 31.4 27.1 1132(E) % HFO- mass 28.0 32.4 33.1 32.6 23.2 18.3 1123 % R32 mass 0.0 8.7 15.4 22.8 45.4 54.6 % Burning velocity cm/s 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less 8 or less (WCF) Burning velocity cm/s 10 10 10 10 10 10 (WCFF)

The results in Table 1 indicate that in a ternary composition diagram of a mixed refrigerant of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 in which their sum is 100 mass %, a line segment connecting a point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is the base, the point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) is on the left side, and the point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is on the right side, when coordinates (x,y,z) are on or below line segments IK and KL that connect the following 3 points:

point I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0),
point K (48.4, 33.2, 18.4), and
point L (35.5, 27.5, 37.0);
the line segment IK is represented by coordinates
(0.025z2−1.7429z+72.00, −0.025z2+0.7429z+28.00, z), and
the line segment KL is represented by coordinates
(0.0098z2−1.238z+67.852, −0.0098z2+0.238z+32.148, z),
it can be determined that the refrigerant has WCF lower flammability.

For the points on the line segment IK, an approximate curve (x=0.025z2−1.7429z+72.00) was obtained from three points, i.e., I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0), J (57.7, 32.8, 9.5), and K (48.4, 33.2, 18.4) by using the least-square method to determine coordinates (x=0.025z2−1.7429z+72.00, y=100−z−x=−0.00922z2+0.2114z+32.443, z).

Likewise, for the points on the line segment KL, an approximate curve was determined from three points, i.e., K (48.4, 33.2, 18.4), Example 10 (41.1, 31.2, 27.7), and L (35.5, 27.5, 37.0) by using the least-square method to determine coordinates.

The results in Table 146 indicate that in a ternary composition diagram of a mixed refrigerant of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 in which their sum is 100 mass %, a line segment connecting a point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is the base, the point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) is on the left side, and the point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is on the right side, when coordinates (x,y,z) are on or below line segments MP and PQ that connect the following 3 points:

point M (47.1, 52.9, 0.0),
point P (31.8, 49.8, 18.4), and
point Q (28.6, 34.4, 37.0),
it can be determined that the refrigerant has ASHRAE lower flammability.

In the above, the line segment MP is represented by coordinates (0.0083z2−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z2−0.016z+52.9, z), and the line segment PQ is represented by coordinates

(0.0135z2−0.9181z+44.133, −0.0135z2−0.0819z+55.867, z).

For the points on the line segment MP, an approximate curve was obtained from three points, i.e., points M, N, and P, by using the least-square method to determine coordinates. For the points on the line segment PQ, an approximate curve was obtained from three points, i.e., points P, U, and Q, by using the least-square method to determine coordinates.

The GWP of compositions each comprising a mixture of R410A (R32=50%/R125=50%) was evaluated based on the values stated in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), fourth report. The GWP of HFO-1132(E), which was not stated therein, was assumed to be 1 from HFO-1132a (GWP=1 or less) and HFO-1123 (GWP=0.3, described in WO2015/141678). The refrigerating capacity of compositions each comprising R410A and a mixture of HFO-1132(E) and HFO-1123 was determined by performing theoretical refrigeration cycle calculations for the mixed refrigerants using the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) and Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties Database (Refprop 9.0) under the following conditions.

The COP ratio and the refrigerating capacity (which may be referred to as “cooling capacity” or “capacity”) ratio relative to those of R410 of the mixed refrigerants were determined. The conditions for calculation were as described below.

Evaporating temperature: 5° C.
Condensation temperature: 45° C.
Degree of superheating: 5K
Degree of subcooling: 5K
Compressor efficiency: 70%

Tables 147 to 166 show these values together with the GWP of each mixed refrigerant.

TABLE 147 Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Example Example 2 Example 3 Example 4 Example 5 Example 6 Example 7 Item Unit 1 A B A′ B′ A″ B″ HFO-1132(E) mass % R410A 90.5 0.0 81.6 0.0 63.0 0.0 HFO-1123 mass % 0.0 90.5 0.0 81.6 0.0 63.0 R32 mass % 9.5 9.5 18.4 18.4 37.0 37.0 GWP 2088 65 65 125 125 250 250 COP ratio % (relative 100 99.1 92.0 98.7 93.4 98.7 96.1 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 100 102.2 111.6 105.3 113.7 110.0 115.4 capacity to R410A) ratio

TABLE 148 Comparative Comparative Comparative Example 8 Example 9 Comparative Example 1 Example 11 Item Unit O C Example 10 U Example 2 D HFO-1132(E) mass % 100.0 50.0 41.1 28.7 15.2 0.0 HFO-1123 mass % 0.0 31.6 34.6 41.2 52.7 67.0 R32 mass % 0.0 18.4 24.3 30.1 32.1 33.0 GWP 1 125 165 204 217 228 COP ratio % (relative 99.7 96.0 96.0 96.0 96.0 96.0 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 98.3 109.9 111.7 113.5 114.8 115.4 capacity ratio to R410A)

TABLE 149 Comparative Comparative Example 12 Comparative Example 3 Example 4 Example 14 Item Unit E Example 13 T S F HFO-1132(E) mass % 53.4 43.4 34.8 25.4 0.0 HFO-1123 mass % 46.6 47.1 51.0 56.2 74.1 R32 mass % 0.0 9.5 14.2 18.4 25.9 GWP 1 65 97 125 176 COP ratio % (relative 94.5 94.5 94.5 94.5 94.5 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 105.6 109.2 110.8 112.3 114.8 capacity ratio to R410A)

TABLE 150 Comparative Comparative Example 15 Example 6 Example 16 Item Unit G Example 5 R Example 7 H HFO-1132(E) mass % 38.5 31.5 23.1 16.9 0.0 HFO-1123 mass % 61.5 63.5 67.4 71.1 84.2 R32 mass % 0.0 5.0 9.5 12.0 15.8 GWP 1 35 65 82 107 COP ratio % (relative 93.0 93.0 93.0 93.0 93.0 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 107.0 109.1 110.9 111.9 113.2 capacity ratio to R410A)

TABLE 151 Comparative Example 17 Example 8 Example 9 Comparative Example 19 Item Unit I J K Example 18 L HFO-1132(E) mass % 72.0 57.7 48.4 41.1 35.5 HFO-1123 mass % 28.0 32.8 33.2 31.2 27.5 R32 mass % 0.0 9.5 18.4 27.7 37.0 GWP 1 65 125 188 250 COP ratio % (relative 96.6 95.8 95.9 96.4 97.1 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 103.1 107.4 110.1 112.1 113.2 capacity ratio to R410A)

TABLE 152 Comparative Example Example Example Example 20 10 11 12 Item Unit M N P Q HFO- mass % 47.1 38.5 31.8 28.6 1132(E) HFO-1123 mass % 52.9 52.1 49.8 34.4 R32 mass % 0.0 9.5 18.4 37.0 GWP 1 65 125 250 COP ratio % (relative 93.9 94.1 94.7 96.9 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 106.2 109.7 112.0 114.1 capacity ratio to R410A)

TABLE 153 Comparative Comparative Comparative Example Example Example Comparative Comparative Item Unit Example 22 Example 23 Example 24 14 15 16 Example 25 Example 26 HFO-1132(E) mass % 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 HFO-1123 mass % 85.0 75.0 65.0 55.0 45.0 35.0 25.0 15.0 R32 mass % 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 GWP 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 COP ratio % (relative 91.7 92.2 92.9 93.7 94.6 95.6 96.7 97.7 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 110.1 109.8 109.2 108.4 107.4 106.1 104.7 103.1 capacity ratio to R410A)

TABLE 154 Comparative Comparative Comparative Example Example Example Comparative Comparative Item Unit Example 27 Example 28 Example 29 17 18 19 Example 30 Example 31 HFO-1132(E) mass % 90.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 HFO-1123 mass % 5.0 80.0 70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 R32 mass % 5.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 GWP 35 68 68 68 68 68 68 68 COP ratio % (relative 98.8 92.4 92.9 93.5 94.3 95.1 96.1 97.0 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 101.4 111.7 111.3 110.6 109.6 108.5 107.2 105.7 capacity ratio to R410A)

TABLE 155 Comparative Example Example Example Example Comparative Comparative Comparative Item Unit Example 32 20 21 22 23 Example 24 Example 33 Example 34 HFO-1132(E) mass % 80.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 HFO-1123 mass % 10.0 75.0 65.0 55.0 45.0 35.0 25.0 15.0 R32 mass % 10.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 GWP 68 102 102 102 102 102 102 102 COP ratio % (relative 98.0 93.1 93.6 94.2 94.9 95.6 96.5 97.4 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 104.1 112.9 112.4 111.6 110.6 109.4 108.1 106.6 capacity ratio to R410A)

TABLE 156 Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Item Unit Example 35 Example 36 Example 37 Example 38 Example 39 Example 40 Example 41 Example 42 HFO-1132(E) mass % 80.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 HFO-1123 mass % 5.0 70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 R32 mass % 15.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 GWP 102 136 136 136 136 136 136 136 COP ratio % (relative 98.3 93.9 94.3 94.8 95.4 96.2 97.0 97.8 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 105.0 113.8 113.2 112.4 111.4 110.2 108.8 107.3 capacity ratio to R410A)

TABLE 157 Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Item Unit Example 43 Example 44 Example 45 Example 46 Example 47 Example 48 Example 49 Example 50 HFO-1132(E) mass % 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 10.0 HFO-1123 mass % 65.0 55.0 45.0 35.0 25.0 15.0 5.0 60.0 R32 mass % 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 25.0 30.0 GWP 170 170 170 170 170 170 170 203 COP ratio % (relative 94.6 94.9 95.4 96.0 96.7 97.4 98.2 95.3 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 114.4 113.8 113.0 111.9 110.7 109.4 107.9 114.8 capacity ratio to R410A)

TABLE 158 Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Example Example Comparative Item Unit Example 51 Example 52 Example 53 Example 54 Example 55 25 26 Example 56 HFO-1132(E) mass % 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 HFO-1123 mass % 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 55.0 45.0 35.0 R32 mass % 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 GWP 203 203 203 203 203 237 237 237 COP ratio % (relative 95.6 96.0 96.6 97.2 97.9 96.0 96.3 96.6 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 114.2 113.4 112.4 111.2 109.8 115.1 114.5 113.6 capacity ratio to R410A)

TABLE 159 Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Item Unit Example 57 Example 58 Example 59 Example 60 Example 61 Example 62 Example 63 Example 64 HFO-1132(E) mass % 40.0 50.0 60.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 HFO-1123 mass % 25.0 15.0 5.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 R32 mass % 35.0 35.0 35.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 GWP 237 237 237 271 271 271 271 271 COP ratio % (relative 97.1 97.7 98.3 96.6 96.9 97.2 97.7 98.2 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 112.6 111.5 110.2 115.1 114.6 113.8 112.8 111.7 capacity ratio to R410A)

TABLE 160 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 HFO-1132(E) mass % 38.0 40.0 42.0 44.0 35.0 37.0 39.0 41.0 HFO-1123 mass % 60.0 58.0 56.0 54.0 61.0 59.0 57.0 55.0 R32 mass % 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 GWP 14 14 14 14 28 28 28 28 COP ratio % (relative 93.2 93.4 93.6 93.7 93.2 93.3 93.5 93.7 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 107.7 107.5 107.3 107.2 108.6 108.4 108.2 108.0 capacity ratio to R410A)

TABLE 161 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 HFO-1132(E) mass % 43.0 31.0 33.0 35.0 37.0 39.0 41.0 27.0 HFO-1123 mass % 53.0 63.0 61.0 59.0 57.0 55.0 53.0 65.0 R32 mass % 4.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 8.0 GWP 28 41 41 41 41 41 41 55 COP ratio % (relative 93.9 93.1 93.2 93.4 93.6 93.7 93.9 93.0 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 107.8 109.5 109.3 109.1 109.0 108.8 108.6 110.3 capacity ratio to R410A)

TABLE 162 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 HFO-1132(E) mass % 29.0 31.0 33.0 35.0 37.0 39.0 32.0 32.0 HFO-1123 mass % 63.0 61.0 59.0 57.0 55.0 53.0 51.0 50.0 R32 mass % 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 17.0 18.0 GWP 55 55 55 55 55 55 116 122 COP ratio % (relative 93.2 93.3 93.5 93.6 93.8 94.0 94.5 94.7 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 110.1 110.0 109.8 109.6 109.5 109.3 111.8 111.9 capacity ratio to R410A)

TABLE 163 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 HFO-1132(E) mass % 30.0 27.0 21.0 23.0 25.0 27.0 11.0 13.0 HFO-1123 mass % 52.0 42.0 46.0 44.0 42.0 40.0 54.0 52.0 R32 mass % 18.0 31.0 33.0 33.0 33.0 33.0 35.0 35.0 GWP 122 210 223 223 223 223 237 237 COP ratio % (relative 94.5 96.0 96.0 96.1 96.2 96.3 96.0 96.0 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 112.1 113.7 114.3 114.2 114.0 113.8 115.0 114.9 capacity ratio to R410A)

TABLE 164 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 HFO-1132(E) mass % 15.0 17.0 19.0 21.0 23.0 25.0 27.0 11.0 HFO-1123 mass % 50.0 48.0 46.0 44.0 42.0 40.0 38.0 52.0 R32 mass % 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 37.0 GWP 237 237 237 237 237 237 237 250 COP ratio % (relative 96.1 96.2 96.2 96.3 96.4 96.4 96.5 96.2 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 114.8 114.7 114.5 114.4 114.2 114.1 113.9 115.1 capacity ratio to R410A)

TABLE 165 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 HFO-1132(E) mass % 13.0 15.0 17.0 15.0 17.0 19.0 21.0 23.0 HFO-1123 mass % 50.0 48.0 46.0 50.0 48.0 46.0 44.0 42.0 R32 mass % 37.0 37.0 37.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 GWP 250 250 250 237 237 237 237 237 COP ratio % (relative 96.3 96.4 96.4 96.1 96.2 96.2 96.3 96.4 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 115.0 114.9 114.7 114.8 114.7 114.5 114.4 114.2 capacity ratio to R410A)

TABLE 166 Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Item Unit 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 HFO-1132(E) mass % 25.0 27.0 11.0 19.0 21.0 23.0 25.0 27.0 HFO-1123 mass % 40.0 38.0 52.0 44.0 42.0 40.0 38.0 36.0 R32 mass % 0.0 0.0 0.0 37.0 37.0 37.0 37.0 37.0 GWP 237 237 250 250 250 250 250 250 COP ratio % (relative 96.4 96.5 96.2 96.5 96.5 96.6 96.7 96.8 to R410A) Refrigerating % (relative 114.1 113.9 115.1 114.6 114.5 114.3 114.1 114.0 capacity ratio to R410A)

The above results indicate that under the condition that the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum is respectively represented by x, y, and z, when coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass %, a line segment connecting a point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) and a point (0.0, 0.0, 100.0) is the base, and the point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0) is on the left side are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments that connect the following 4 points:

point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
point A″ (63.0, 0.0, 37.0),
point B″ (0.0, 63.0, 37.0), and
point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0),
or on these line segments,
the refrigerant has a GWP of 250 or less.

The results also indicate that when coordinates (x,y,z) are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments that connect the following 4 points:

point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
point A′ (81.6, 0.0, 18.4),
point B′ (0.0, 81.6, 18.4), and
point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0),
or on these line segments,
the refrigerant has a GWP of 125 or less.

The results also indicate that when coordinates (x,y,z) are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments that connect the following 4 points:

point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0),
point A (90.5, 0.0, 9.5),
point B (0.0, 90.5, 9.5), and
point (0.0, 100.0, 0.0),
or on these line segments,
the refrigerant has a GWP of 65 or less.

The results also indicate that when coordinates (x,y,z) are on the left side of line segments that connect the following 3 points:

point C (50.0, 31.6, 18.4),
point U (28.7, 41.2, 30.1), and
point D (52.2, 38.3, 9.5),
or on these line segments,
the refrigerant has a COP ratio of 96% or more relative to that of R410A.

In the above, the line segment CU is represented by coordinates (−0.0538z2+0.7888z+53.701, 0.0538z2−1.7888z+46.299, z), and the line segment UD is represented by coordinates

(−3.4962z2+210.71z−3146.1, 3.4962z2−211.71z+3246.1, z).

The points on the line segment CU are determined from three points, i.e., point C, Comparative Example 10, and point U, by using the least-square method.

The points on the line segment UD are determined from three points, i.e., point U, Example 2, and point D, by using the least-square method.

The results also indicate that when coordinates (x,y,z) are on the left side of line segments that connect the following 3 points:

point E (55.2, 44.8, 0.0),
point T (34.8, 51.0, 14.2), and
point F (0.0, 76.7, 23.3),
or on these line segments,
the refrigerant has a COP ratio of 94.5% or more relative to that of R410A.

In the above, the line segment ET is represented by coordinates (−0.0547z2−0.5327z+53.4, 0.0547z2−0.4673z+46.6, z), and the line segment TF is represented by coordinates

(−0.0982z2+0.9622z+40.931, 0.0982z2−1.9622z+59.069, z).

The points on the line segment ET are determined from three points, i.e., point E, Example 2, and point T, by using the least-square method.

The points on the line segment TF are determined from three points, i.e., points T, S, and F, by using the least-square method.

The results also indicate that when coordinates (x,y,z) are on the left side of line segments that connect the following 3 points:

point G (0.0, 76.7, 23.3),
point R (21.0, 69.5, 9.5), and
point H (0.0, 85.9, 14.1),
or on these line segments,
the refrigerant has a COP ratio of 93% or more relative to that of R410A.

In the above, the line segment GR is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z), and the line segment RH is represented by coordinates

(−0.3123 z2+4.234z+11.06, 0.3123 z2−5.234z+88.94, z).

The points on the line segment GR are determined from three points, i.e., point G, Example 5, and point R, by using the least-square method.

The points on the line segment RH are determined from three points, i.e., point R, Example 7, and point H, by using the least-square method.

In contrast, as shown in, for example, Comparative Examples 8, 9, 13, 15, 17, and 18, when R32 is not contained, the concentrations of HFO-1132(E) and HFO-1123, which have a double bond, become relatively high; this undesirably leads to deterioration, such as decomposition, or polymerization in the refrigerant compound.

(6) Configuration of Air Conditioner 1

FIG. 16 is a refrigeration circuit diagram of an air conditioner 1 in which a compressor 100 according to an embodiment of the present invention is utilized. The air conditioner 1 is a refrigeration cycle apparatus provided with the compressor 100. As examples of the air conditioner 1 in which the compressor 100 is employed, an “air conditioner dedicated to cooling-operation”, an “air conditioner dedicated to heating-operation”, an “air conditioner switchable between cooling operation and heating operation by using a four-way switching valve”, and the like are presented. Here, description will be provided using the “air conditioner switchable between cooling operation and heating operation by using a four-way switching valve”.

Referring to FIG. 16, the air conditioner 1 is provided with an indoor unit 2 and an outdoor unit 3. The indoor unit 2 and the outdoor unit 3 are connected to each other by a liquid-refrigerant connection pipe 4 and a gas-refrigerant connection pipe 5. As illustrated in FIG. 16, the air conditioner 1 is of a pair-type having the indoor unit 2 and the outdoor unit 3 one each. The air conditioner 1 is, however, not limited thereto and may be of a multi-type having a plurality of the indoor units 2.

In the air conditioner 1, devices, such as an accumulator 15, the compressor 100, a four-way switching valve 16, an outdoor heat exchanger 17, an expansion valve 18, and an indoor heat exchanger 13, are connected together by pipes, thereby constituting a refrigerant circuit 11.

In the present embodiment, a refrigerant for performing a vapor compression refrigeration cycle is packed in the refrigerant circuit 11. The refrigerant is a mixed refrigerant containing 1,2-difluoroethylene, and, as the refrigerant, any one of the aforementioned refrigerants A to E is usable. A refrigerating machine oil is also packed together with the mixed refrigerant in the refrigerant circuit 11.

(6-1) Indoor Unit 2

The indoor heat exchanger 13 to be loaded in the indoor unit 2 is a cross-fin type fin-and-tube heat exchanger constituted by a heat transfer tube and a large number of heat transfer fins. The indoor heat exchanger 13 is connected at the liquid side thereof to the liquid-refrigerant connection pipe 4 and connected at the gas side thereof to the gas-refrigerant connection pipe 5, and the indoor heat exchanger 13 functions as a refrigerant evaporator during cooling operation.

(6-2) Outdoor Unit 3

The outdoor unit 3 is loaded with the accumulator 15, the compressor 100, the outdoor heat exchanger 17, and the expansion valve 18.

(6-2-1) Outdoor Heat Exchanger 17

The outdoor heat exchanger 17 is a cross-fin type fin-and-tube heat exchanger constituted by a heat transfer tube and a large number of heat transfer fins. The outdoor heat exchanger 17 is connected at one end thereof to the side of a discharge pipe 24 in which a refrigerant discharged from the compressor 100 flows and connected at the other end thereof to the side of the liquid-refrigerant connection pipe 4. The outdoor heat exchanger 17 functions as a condenser for a gas refrigerant supplied from the compressor 100 through the discharge pipe 24.

(6-2-2) Expansion Valve 18

The expansion valve 18 is disposed in a pipe that connects the outdoor heat exchanger 17 and the liquid-refrigerant connection pipe 4 to each other. The expansion valve 18 is an opening-degree adjustable electric valve for adjusting the pressure and the flow rate of a refrigerant that flows in the pipe.

(6-2-3) Accumulator 15

The accumulator 15 is disposed in a pipe that connects the gas-refrigerant connection pipe 5 and a suction pipe 23 of the compressor 100 to each other. The accumulator 15 separates, into a gas phase and a liquid phase, a refrigerant that flows from the indoor heat exchanger 13 toward the suction pipe 23 through the gas-refrigerant connection pipe 5 to prevent a liquid refrigerant from being supplied into the compressor 100. The compressor 100 is supplied with a gas-phase refrigerant accumulated in an upper space of the accumulator 15.

(6-2-4) Compressor 100

FIG. 17 is a longitudinal sectional view of the compressor 100 according to an embodiment of the present invention. The compressor 100 in FIG. 17 is a scroll compressor. The compressor 100 compresses a refrigerant sucked through the suction pipe 23 in a compression chamber Sc and discharges the compressed refrigerant through the discharge pipe 24. Regarding the compressor 100, details will be described in the section of “(7) Configuration of Compressor 100”.

(6-2-5) Four-way Switching Valve 16

The four-way switching valve 16 has first to fourth ports. The four-way switching valve 16 is connected at the first port thereof to the discharge side of the compressor 100, connected at the second port thereof to the suction side of the compressor 100, connected at the third port thereof to the gas-side end portion of the outdoor heat exchanger 17, and connected at the fourth port thereof to a gas-side shutoff valve Vg.

The four-way switching valve 16 is switchable between a first state (the state indicated in the solid line in FIG. 16) and a second state (the state indicated by the dashed line in FIG. 16). In the four-way switching valve 16 in the first state, a first port and a third port are in communication with each other, and a second port and a fourth port are in communication with each other. In the four-way switching valve 16 in the second state, the first port and the fourth port are in communication with each other, and the second port and the third port are in communication with each other.

(7) Configuration of Compressor 100

A compressor 100 constitutes a refrigerant circuit in cooperation with an evaporator, a condenser, an expansion mechanism, and the like and plays a role of compressing a gas refrigerant in the refrigerant circuit. As illustrated in FIG. 17, the compressor 100 is constituted by, mainly, a casing 20 of a hermetically closed dome type having a vertically-elongated cylindrical shape, a motor 70, a compression mechanism 60, an oldham ring 39, a lower bearing 90, a suction pipe 23, and a discharge pipe 24.

(7-1) Casing 20

The casing 20 has a substantially cylindrical cylinder member 21, a bowl-shaped upper cover 22a welded to an upper end portion of the cylinder member 21 in an airtight manner, and a bowl-shaped lower cover 22b welded to a lower end portion of the cylinder member 21 in an airtight manner.

The casing 20 accommodates, mainly, the compression mechanism 60 that compresses a gas refrigerant and the motor 70 that is disposed on the lower side of the compression mechanism 60. The compression mechanism 60 and the motor 70 are coupled to each other by a crank shaft 80 disposed to extend in an up-down direction in the casing 20. A gap space 68 is generated between the compression mechanism 60 and the motor 70.

An oil reservoir space So is formed in a lower portion of the casing 20. The oil reservoir space So stores a refrigerating machine oil O for lubricating the compression mechanism 60 and the like. The refrigerating machine oil O is the refrigerating machine oil described in the section of “(4-1) Refrigerating Machine Oil”.

In the inner portion of the crank shaft 80, an oil supply path 83 for supplying the refrigerating machine oil O to the compression mechanism 60 and the like is formed. The lower end of a main shaft 82 of the crank shaft 80 is positioned in the oil reservoir space So formed in the lower portion of the casing 20. The refrigerating machine oil O in the oil reservoir space So is supplied to the compression mechanism 60 and the like through the oil supply path 83.

(7-2) Motor 70

The motor 70 is an induction motor and constituted by an annular stator 72 fixed to the inner wall surface of the casing 20, and a rotor 71 rotatably accommodated inside the stator 72 with a slight gap (air gap).

The motor 70 is disposed such that the upper end of a coil end of a coil 727 formed on the upper side of the stator 72 is at a height position substantially identical to the height position of the lower end of a bearing portion 61b of a housing 61.

A copper wire is wound around each tooth portion of the stator 72, and coil ends of the coil 727 are formed on the upper side and the lower side.

The rotor 71 is drive-coupled to a movable scroll 40 of the compression mechanism 60 via the crank shaft 80 disposed at the axial center of the cylinder member 21 so as to extend in the up-down direction. In addition, a guide plate 58 that guides a refrigerant that has flowed out through an outlet 49 of a connection passage 46 to a motor cooling passage 55 is formed in the gap space 68.

The stator 72 is a so-called distributed-winding stator and has a barrel portion 725, which is an iron core, and the coil 727 wound around the barrel portion 725. A narrow portion 727a, which is a narrow portion of the coil 727, recessed inward more than the outer circumferential surface of the barrel portion 725 is formed on each of an upper portion and a lower portion of the barrel portion 725.

Details of the motor 70 will be described in the section of “(9) Configuration of Motor 70”.

(7-3) Compression Mechanism 60

As illustrated in FIG. 17, the compression mechanism 60 is constituted by, mainly, the housing 61, a fixed scroll 30 disposed in close contact with the upper side of the housing 61, and the movable scroll 40 that engages the fixed scroll 30.

(7-3-1) Fixed Scroll 30

As illustrated in FIG. 17, the fixed scroll 30 is constituted by, mainly, an end plate 34 and a spiral (involute) lap 33 formed on the lower surface of the end plate 34.

A discharge hole 341 in communication with a compression chamber Sc and an extended concave portion 342 in communication with the discharge hole 341 are formed in the end plate 34. The discharge hole 341 is formed in a center portion of the end plate 34 to extend in the up-down direction.

The extended concave portion 342 is constituted by a concave portion extending horizontally on the upper surface of the end plate 34. A cover body 344 is fastened and fixed by a bolt 344a to the upper surface of the fixed scroll 30 so as to close the extended concave portion 342. As a result of the extended concave portion 342 being covered by the cover body 344, a muffler space 345 constituted by an expansion chamber that muffles an operation sound of the compression mechanism 60 is formed.

(7-3-2) Movable Scroll 40

As illustrated in FIG. 17, the movable scroll 40 is constituted by, mainly, an end plate 41, a spiral (involute) lap 42 formed on the upper surface of the end plate 41, and a boss portion 43 formed on the lower surface of the end plate 41.

The movable scroll 40 is a movable scroll of an outer drive. In other words, the movable scroll 40 has the boss portion 43 that is fitted on the outer side of the crank shaft 80.

The movable scroll 40 is supported by the housing 61 by the oldham ring 39 being filled into a groove portion formed in the end plate 41. The upper end of the crank shaft 80 is fitted into the boss portion 43. The movable scroll 40 revolves in the housing 61, without being rotated by the rotation of the crank shaft 80, by being thus incorporated in the compression mechanism 60. The lap 42 of the movable scroll 40 is engaged with the lap 33 of the fixed scroll 30, and the compression chamber Sc is formed between contact parts of the two laps 33 and 42. In the compression chamber Sc, the capacity of a gap between the two laps 33 and 42 contracts toward the center in response to the revolution of the movable scroll 40. It is thereby possible to compress a gas refrigerant.

(7-3-3) Housing 61

The housing 61 is press-fitted and fixed, at the entirety of the outer circumferential surface thereof in the circumferential direction, to the cylinder member 21. In other words, the cylinder member 21 and the housing 61 are in close contact with each other over the whole circumference in an airtight manner. Consequently, the inner portion of the casing 20 is divided into a high-pressure space on the lower side of the housing 61 and a low-pressure space on the upper side of the housing 61. In the housing 61, a housing concave portion 61a recessed at the center of the upper surface thereof and the bearing portion 61b extending from the center of the lower surface thereof on the lower side are formed. The bearing portion 61b has a bearing hole 63 formed to pass therethrough in the up-down direction, and the crank shaft 80 is rotatably fitted into the bearing portion 61b through the bearing hole 63.

(7-4) Oldham Ring 39

The oldham ring 39 is a member for preventing the rotation movement of the movable scroll 40 and is fitted into an oldham groove (not illustrated) formed in the housing 61. The oldham groove is an elongated-circular groove and is disposed at positions opposite each other in the housing 61.

(7-5) Lower Bearing 90

The lower bearing 90 is disposed in a lower space on the lower side of the motor 70. The lower bearing 90 is fixed to the cylinder member 21 while constituting the lower-end-side bearing of the crank shaft 80 and supports the crank shaft 80.

(7-6) Suction Pipe 23

The suction pipe 23 is a pipe for guiding a refrigerant of the refrigerant circuit to the compression mechanism 60 and is fitted into the upper cover 22a of the casing 20 in an airtight manner. The suction pipe 23 passes through a low-pressure space Sl in the up-down direction with an inner end portion thereof fitted into the fixed scroll 30.

(7-7) Discharge Pipe 24

The discharge pipe 24 is a pipe for discharging a refrigerant in the casing 20 to the outside of the casing 20 and is fitted into the cylinder member 21 of the casing 20 in an airtight manner. The discharge pipe 24 has an inner end portion 36 that has a cylindrical shape extending in the up-down direction and that is fixed to a lower end portion of the housing 61. An inner end opening, that is, an inflow port of the discharge pipe 24 opens downward.

(8) Operation of Compressor 100

When the motor 70 is driven, the crank shaft 80 rotates, and the movable scroll 40 performs revolving operation without rotating. A low-pressure gas refrigerant is then sucked from the peripheral side of the compression chamber Sc through the suction pipe 23 into the compression chamber Sc and compressed in response to a change in the capacity of the compression chamber Sc, thereby becoming a high-pressure gas refrigerant.

The high-pressure gas refrigerant is discharged from a center portion of the compression chamber Sc by passing through the discharge hole 341 into the muffler space 345, then flows out into the gap space 68 through the connection passage 46, a scroll-side passage 47, a housing-side passage 48, and the outlet 49, and flows downward between the guide plate 58 and the inner surface of the cylinder member 21.

When the gas refrigerant flows downward between the guide plate 58 and the inner surface of the cylinder member 21, a portion of the gas refrigerant branches to flow between the guide plate 58 and the motor 70 in the circumferential direction. At this time, a lubrication oil mixed in the gas refrigerant is separated.

The other portion of the branched gas refrigerant flows downward in the motor cooling passage 55 and, after flowing into a motor lower space, turns and flows upward in an air-gap passage between the stator 72 and the rotor 71 or in the motor cooling passage 55 on a side (left side in FIG. 17) opposite the connection passage 46.

After that, the gas refrigerant that has passed the guide plate 58 and the gas refrigerant that has flowed in the air-gap passage or in the motor cooling passage 55 merge together in the gap space 68, flow into the discharge pipe 24 from the inner end portion 36 of the discharge pipe 24, and are discharged to the outside of the casing 20.

After circulating in the refrigerant circuit, the gas refrigerant discharged to the outside of the casing 20 is sucked through the suction pipe 23 and compressed again by the compression mechanism 60.

(9) Configuration of Motor 70

FIG. 18 is a sectional view of the motor 70 sectioned along a plane perpendicular to the axis. FIG. 19 is a sectional view of the rotor 71 sectioned along a plane perpendicular to the axis. FIG. 20 is a perspective view of the rotor 71.

In FIG. 18 to FIG. 20, illustration of a shaft that is coupled to the rotor 71 to transmit a rotational force to an external portion is omitted. The motor 70 in FIG. 18 to FIG. 20 is an induction motor. The motor 70 has the rotor 71 and the stator 72.

(9-1) Stator 72

The stator 72 is provided with the barrel portion 725 and a plurality of tooth portions 726. The barrel portion 725 has a substantially cylindrical shape having an inner circumferential diameter larger than the outer circumferential diameter of the rotor 71. The barrel portion 725 is formed by machining each of thin electromagnetic steel plates having a thickness of 0.05 mm or more and 0.5 mm or less into a predetermined shape and laminating a predetermined number of the electromagnetic steel plates.

The plurality of tooth portions 726 project on the inner circumferential part of the barrel portion 725 in a form of being positioned at substantially equal intervals in the circumferential direction thereof. Each of the tooth portions 726 extend from the inner circumferential part of the barrel portion 725 toward the center in the radial direction of a circle centered on the axis and faces the rotor 71 with a predetermined gap.

The tooth portions 726 are magnetically coupled on the outer circumferential side via the barrel portion 725. The coil 727 is wound, as a coil, around each of the tooth portions 726 (only one of the coils 727 is illustrated in FIG. 18). Three-phase alternating current for generating a rotating magnetic field that rotates the rotor 71 is made to flow through the coils 727. The winding type of the coils 727 is not limited and may be wound with respect to the plurality of tooth portions 726 in a concentrated form or in a distributed form.

The rotor 71 and the stator 72 are incorporated in the casing 20 and used as a rotary electric machine.

(9-2) Rotor 71

The rotor 71 is a basket-shaped rotor. The rotor 71 has a substantially cylindrical external shape and has a center axis along which the main shaft 82 of the crank shaft 80 is coupled and fixed. The rotor 71 has a rotor core 710, a plurality of conducting bars 716, and an end ring 717.

(9-2-1) Rotor Core 710

The rotor core 710 is formed of a magnetic material into a substantially cylindrical shape. The rotor core 710 is formed by machining each of thin electromagnetic steel plates having a thickness of 0.05 mm or more and 0.5 mm or less into a predetermined shape and laminating, as illustrated in FIG. 20, a predetermined number of the electromagnetic steel plates.

The electromagnetic steel plates are desirably a plurality of electromagnetic steel plates each having a tensile strength of 400 MPa or more to improve durability of the rotor during high-speed rotation. As illustrated in FIG. 19, the rotor core 710 has a plurality of conducting-bar formation holes 718 and a shaft insertion hole 719.

In each one of electromagnetic steel plates 711, a [hole having a planar shape identical to that of the shaft insertion hole 719] is formed at the center thereof, and in addition, [holes each having a planar shape identical to those of the conducting-bar formation holes 718] are provided at predetermined intervals. As a result of the electromagnetic steel plates 711 being laminated in a state in which the [holes each having the planar shape identical to those of the conducting-bar formation holes 718] are displaced from each other by a predetermined angle, the conducting-bar formation holes 718 and the shaft insertion hole 719 are formed. The conducting-bar formation holes 718 are holes for molding the conducting bars 716 in the rotor core 710. Note that FIG. 20 only illustrates some of the conducting bars 716 and some of the conducting-bar formation holes 718.

The shaft insertion hole 719 is a hole for fixing the main shaft 82 (refer to FIG. 17) of the crank shaft 80 along the center axis of the rotor core 710.

(9-2-2) Conducting Bar 716 and End Ring 717

The conducting bars 716 packed in the conducting-bar formation holes 718 and the end ring 717 that holds the rotor core 710 from both ends are molded integrally. For example, when aluminum or an aluminum alloy is employed as a conductor, the conducting bars 716 and the end ring 717 are integrally molded by, after setting the rotor core 710 in an aluminum die-casting die, press-fitting the aluminum or the aluminum alloy that has melted into the die.

Consequently, the basket-shaped rotor 71 having the plurality of conducting bars 716 disposed in an annular form and the end ring 717 that short-circuits the plurality of conducting bars 716 at an end portion in the axial direction is realized.

(10) Feature

The compressor 100 is a compressor that compresses a mixed refrigerant containing at least 1,2-difluoroethylene and that enables high power at comparatively low costs by employing the induction motor 70.

(11) Modifications (11-1) First Modification

In the aforementioned embodiment, the conducting bars 716 and the end ring 717 have been described in a form in which the conducting bars 716 and the end ring 717 are integrally molded with aluminum or an aluminum alloy. The conducting bars 716 and the end ring 717 are, however, not limited thereto.

For example, the conducting bars 716 and the end ring 717 may be molded with a metal whose electric resistance is lower than that of aluminum. Specifically, the conducting bars 716 and the end ring 717 may be molded with copper or a copper alloy.

According to a first modification, heat generation due to current that flows through the conducting bars 716 of the induction motor 70 is suppressed, which enables high power of the compressor 100.

In cases of being molded with copper and a copper alloy, it is not possible to mold the conducting bars 716 and the end ring 717 by a die-casting method. The conducting bars 716 and the end ring 717 are thus welded by brazing.

Needless to say, the conducting bars 716 and the end ring 717 may be molded with metals of different types. For example, the conducting bars 716 may be molded with copper or a copper alloy while the end ring 717 may be molded with aluminum or an aluminum alloy.

(11-2) Second Modification

FIG. 21 is a perspective view of the rotor 71 to be used in the induction motor 70 of the compressor 100 according to a second modification. The rotor 71 in FIG. 21 has a heat sink 717a as a heat-radiation structure.

The heat sink 717a has heat-radiation fins 717af projecting from an end surface of the end ring 717 in the direction of the center axis of the rotor 71 and extending in the radius direction of the rotor 71. In the present modification, six heat-radiation fins 717af are disposed around the center axis at center-angle 60° intervals.

In the compressor 100, the rotation of the rotor 71 rotates the heat sink 717a, and heat radiation properties of the heat-radiation fins 717af are thus improved, and, moreover, the rotation causes forced convection and suppresses an increase in the peripheral temperature, which enables high power of the compressor 100.

In addition, it is possible to suppress an increase in manufacturing costs because the heat sink 717a is formed on the end ring 717, and the heat sink 717a can be molded integrally with the end ring 717 when the end ring 717 is molded.

(11-3) Third Modification

FIG. 22 is a refrigerant circuit diagram of an air conditioner 1 in which the compressor 100 according to a third modification is utilized. The configuration in FIG. 22 differs from the configuration in FIG. 16 in terms of that a refrigerant circuit 11 has a cooling structure that includes a branch circuit 110 and is identical to that in FIG. 16 in other features.

In the branch circuit 110, a refrigerant that has branched from the refrigerant circuit 11 flows. The branch circuit 110 is provided in parallel from a portion between an outdoor heat exchanger 17 and an expansion valve 18 of the refrigerant circuit 11 to a portion between the expansion valve 18 and an indoor heat exchanger 13. A second expansion valve 112, a cooling portion 111, and a third expansion valve 113 are connected to the branch circuit 110.

The cooling portion 111 is mounted on the outer circumferential surface of the casing 20 of the compressor 100 via a heat transfer plate. The mounted position thereof corresponds to the side of the stator 72 of the induction motor 70. The cooling portion 111 is a portion that cools the stator 72 indirectly by using the cold heat of the refrigerant flowing in the refrigerant circuit 11. Specifically, the second expansion valve 112 is connected to one end of a pipe fitted, in a state of being bent in a serpentine shape, into the heat transfer plate, and the third expansion valve 113 is connected to the other end thereof.

During cooling operation, a portion of the refrigerant flowing in the refrigerant circuit 11 branches at a portion between the outdoor heat exchanger 17 and the expansion valve 18 into the branch circuit 110, flows through the second expansion valve 112 whose opening degree has been adjusted, the cooling portion 111, and the third expansion valve 113 whose opening degree has been set to be fully open, in this order, and merges at a portion between the expansion valve 18 and the indoor heat exchanger 13. The opening degree of the second expansion valve 112 is adjusted so as to enable the refrigerant decompressed in the second expansion valve 112 to absorb heat in the cooling portion 111 and evaporate.

During heating operation, a portion of the refrigerant flowing in the refrigerant circuit 11 branches at a portion between the indoor heat exchanger 13 and the expansion valve 18 into the branch circuit 110, flows through the third expansion valve 113 whose opening degree has been adjusted, the cooling portion 111, and the second expansion valve 112 whose opening degree has been set to be fully open, in this order, and merges at a portion between the expansion valve 18 and the outdoor heat exchanger 17. The opening degree of the third expansion valve 113 is adjusted to enable the refrigerant decompressed in the third expansion valve 113 to absorb heat in the cooling portion 111 and evaporate.

With the aforementioned cooling structure, it is possible to cool the stator 72 by using the cold heat of the refrigerant that flows in the refrigerant circuit 11, which enables high power of the compressor.

(12) Configuration of Compressor 300 According to Second Embodiment

In the first embodiment, a scroll compressor has been described as the compressor 100. The compressor is, however, not limited to a scroll compressor.

FIG. 23 is a longitudinal sectional view of the compressor 300 according to a second embodiment of the present disclosure. The compressor 300 in FIG. 23 is a rotary compressor. The compressor 300 constitutes a portion of a refrigerant circuit in which one of the aforementioned refrigerants A to E circulates. The compressor 300 compresses a refrigerant and discharges a high-pressure gas refrigerant. The arrows in FIG. 23 indicate the flow of the refrigerant.

(12-1) Casing 220

The compressor 300 has a vertically elongated cylindrical casing 220. The casing 220 has a substantially cylindrical cylinder member 221 that opens upward and downward, and an upper cover 222a and a lower cover 222b that are disposed on the upper end and the lower end of the cylinder member 221, respectively. The upper cover 222a and the lower cover 222b are fixed to the cylinder member 221 by welding to maintain airtightness.

The casing 220 accommodates constituent devices of the compressor 300, including a compression mechanism 260, a motor 270, a crank shaft 280, an upper bearing 263, and a lower bearing 290. The oil reservoir space So is formed in a lower portion of the casing 220.

In the lower portion of the casing 220, a suction pipe 223 that sucks a gas refrigerant and supplies the gas refrigerant to the compression mechanism 260 is disposed to pass through a lower portion of the cylinder member 221. One end of the suction pipe 223 is connected to a cylinder 230 of the compression mechanism 260. The suction pipe 223 is in communication with the compression chamber Sc of the compression mechanism 260. In the suction pipe 223, a low-pressure refrigerant of the refrigeration cycle before compression by the compressor 300 flows.

The upper cover 222a of the casing 220 is provided with a discharge pipe 224 through which a refrigerant that is to be discharged to the outside of the casing 220 passes. Specifically, an end portion of the discharge pipe 224 in the inner portion of the casing 220 is disposed in a high-pressure space 51 formed in the upper side of the motor 270. In the discharge pipe 224, a high-pressure refrigerant of the refrigeration cycle after compression by the compression mechanism 260 flows.

(12-2) Motor 270

The motor 270 has a stator 272 and a rotor 271. Except for being used in the compressor 300, which is a rotary compressor, the motor 270 is basically equivalent to the motor 70 of the first embodiment and exerts performance and actions/effects equivalent to those of the motor 70 of the first embodiment. Therefore, description of the motor 270 is omitted here.

(12-3) Crank Shaft 280, Upper Bearing 263, and Lower bearing 290

The crank shaft 280 is fixed to the rotor 271. Further, the crank shaft 280 is supported by the upper bearing 263 and the lower bearing 290 to be rotatable about a rotation axis Rs. The crank shaft 280 has an eccentric portion 241.

(12-4) Compression Mechanism 260

The compression mechanism 260 has the single cylinder 230 and a single piston 242 disposed in the cylinder 230. The cylinder 230 has a predetermined capacity and is fixed to the casing 220.

The piston 242 is disposed on the eccentric portion 241 of the crank shaft 280. The cylinder 230 and the piston 242 define the compression chamber Sc. Rotation of the rotor 271 revolves the piston 242 via the eccentric portion 241. In response to the revolution, the capacity of the compression chamber Sc changes, thereby compressing a gaseous refrigerant.

Here, “the capacity of the cylinder” means so-called theoretical capacity and, in other words, corresponds to the volume of a gaseous refrigerant sucked into the cylinder 230 through the suction pipe 223 during one rotation of the piston 242.

(12-5) Oil Reservoir Space So

The oil reservoir space So is disposed in a lower portion of the casing 220. The oil reservoir space So stores the refrigerating machine oil O for lubricating the compression mechanism 260. The refrigerating machine oil O is the refrigerating machine oil described in the section of “(4-1) Refrigerating Machine Oil”.

(13) Operation of Compressor 300

Operation of the compressor 300 will be described. When the motor 270 is started, the rotor 271 rotates with respect to the stator 272, and the crank shaft 280 fixed to the rotor 271 rotates. When the crank shaft 280 rotates, the piston 242 coupled to the crank shaft 280 revolves with respect to the cylinder 230. Then, a low-pressure gas refrigerant of the refrigeration cycle is sucked into the compression chamber Sc through the suction pipe 223. As a result of the piston 242 revolving, the suction pipe 223 and the compression chamber Sc become not in communication with each other, and in response to the capacity of the compression chamber Sc decreasing, the pressure in the compression chamber Sc starts to increase.

The refrigerant in the compression chamber Sc is compressed in response to the capacity of the compression chamber Sc decreasing and eventually becomes a high-pressure gas refrigerant. The high-pressure gas refrigerant is discharged through a discharge port 232a. Then, the high-pressure gas refrigerant passes through a gap between the stator 272 and the rotor 271 and other parts and is discharged through the discharge pipe 224 disposed in the upper side of the casing 220.

(14) Features of Second Embodiment

(14-1)

The compressor 300 is a compressor that compresses a mixed refrigerant containing at least 1,2-difluoroethylene and that enables high power at comparatively low costs by employing an induction motor as the motor 270.

(14-2)

When using the compressor 300, which is a rotary compressor, as the compressor of the air conditioner 1, it is possible to reduce the packed amount of refrigerant compared with when a scroll compressor is used. Therefore, the compressor 300 is suitable for an air conditioner that uses a flammable refrigerant.

(15) Modification of Second Embodiment

Due to the compressor 300 employing the motor 270 equivalent to the motor 70 of the first embodiment, the modification is applicable to all described in “(11) Modifications” of the first embodiment.

(16) Other Embodiment

Regarding the form of the compressor, a screw compressor or a turbo compressor may be employed provided that a motor equivalent to the motor 70 is used.

Although embodiments of the present disclosure have been described above, it should be understood that various changes in the forms and the details are possible without deviating from the spirit and the scope of the present disclosure described in the claims.

REFERENCE SIGNS LIST

    • 11 refrigerant circuit
    • 60 compression unit
    • 70 induction motor
    • 71 rotor
    • 72 stator
    • 100 compressor
    • 260 compression unit
    • 270 induction motor
    • 271 rotor
    • 272 stator
    • 300 compressor
    • 716 conducting bar
    • 717 end ring
    • 717a heat sink (heat-radiation structure)
    • 717af heat-radiation fin (heat-radiation structure)
    • 110 branch circuit (cooling structure)
    • 111 cooling portion (cooling structure)
    • 112 second expansion valve (cooling structure)
    • 113 third expansion valve (cooling structure)

CITATION LIST Patent Literature

PTL 1: Japanese Unexamined Patent Application Publication No. 2013-124848

Claims

1. A compressor comprising:

a compression unit that compresses a refrigerant containing at least 1,2-difluoroethylene; and
an induction motor that drives the compression unit.

2. The compressor according to claim 1, wherein

a rotor of the induction motor has a plurality of conducting bars that are bar-shaped conductors and that are disposed in an annular form, and an end ring that short-circuits the plurality of conducting bars at an end portion in an axial direction, and
at least the conducting bars are formed of a metal whose electric resistance is lower than electric resistance of aluminum.

3. The compressor according to claim 1, wherein

a rotor of the induction motor has a heat-radiation structure.

4. The compressor according to claim 3, wherein

the rotor of the induction motor has a plurality of conducting bars that are bar-shaped conductors and that are disposed in an annular form, and an end ring that short-circuits the plurality of conducting bars at an end portion in an axial direction, and
the heat-radiation structure is formed on the end ring.

5. The compressor according to claim 3, wherein

the heat-radiation structure is a heat sink.

6. The compressor according to claim 1, further comprising:

a cooling structure that cools a stator of the induction motor by a refrigerant.

7. The compressor according to claim 6, wherein

the cooling structure cools the stator by cool heat of a refrigerant that flows in a refrigerant circuit to which the compressor is connected.

8. The compressor according to claim 1,

wherein
the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123), and 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (R1234yf).

9. The compressor according to claim 8, point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4), point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4), point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3), point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6), point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0), and point O (100.0, 0.0, 0.0), or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments BD, CO, and OA);

wherein
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments AA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, CO, and OA that connect the following 7 points:
the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),
the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and
the line segments BD, CO, and OA are straight lines.

10. The compressor according to claim 8, point G (72.0, 28.0, 0.0), point I (72.0, 0.0, 28.0), point A (68.6, 0.0, 31.4), point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4), point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3), point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6), point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0), or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments IA, BD, and CG);

wherein
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments GI, IA, AA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CG that connect the following 8 points:
the line segment AA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),
the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and
the line segments GI, IA, BD, and CG are straight lines.

11. The compressor according to claim 8, point J (47.1, 52.9, 0.0), point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2), point N (68.6, 16.3, 15.1), point K (61.3, 5.4, 33.3), point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4), point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3), point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6), point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0), or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments BD and CJ);

wherein
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments JP, PN, NK, KA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CJ that connect the following 9 points:
the line segment PN is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43),
the line segment NK is represented by coordinates (x, 0.2421x2−29.955x+931.91, −0.2421x2+28.955x−831.91),
the line segment KA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),
the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and
the line segments JP, BD, and CG are straight lines.

12. The compressor according to claim 8, point J (47.1, 52.9, 0.0), point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2), point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0), point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5), point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4), point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3), point D (0.0, 80.4, 19.6), point C′ (19.5, 70.5, 10.0), and point C (32.9, 67.1, 0.0), or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segments BD and CJ);

wherein
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments JP, PL, LM, MA′, A′B, BD, DC′, C′C, and CJ that connect the following 9 points:
the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43)
the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment DC′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0082x2−0.6671x+80.4, −0.0082x2−0.3329x+19.6),
the line segment C′C is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0067x2−0.6034x+79.729, −0.0067x2−0.3966x+20.271), and
the line segments JP, LM, BD, and CG are straight lines.

13. The compressor according to claim 8, point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2), point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0), point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5), point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4), point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3), point F (0.0, 61.8, 38.2), and point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3), or on the above line segments (excluding the points on the line segment BF);

wherein
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PL, LM, MA′, A′B, BF, FT, and TP that connect the following 7 points:
the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43),
the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment FT is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0078x2−0.7501x+61.8, −0.0078x2−0.2499x+38.2),
the line segment TP is represented by coordinates (x, 0.00672x2−0.7607x+63.525, −0.00672x2−0.2393x+36.475), and
the line segments LM and BF are straight lines.

14. The compressor according to claim 8, point P (55.8, 42.0, 2.2), point L (63.1, 31.9, 5.0), point Q (62.8, 29.6, 7.6), and point R (49.8, 42.3, 7.9), or on the above line segments;

wherein
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PL, LQ, QR, and RP that connect the following 4 points:
the line segment PL is represented by coordinates (x, −0.1135x2+12.112x−280.43, 0.1135x2−13.112x+380.43),
the line segment RP is represented by coordinates (x, 0.00672x2−0.7607x+63.525, −0.00672x2−0.2393x+36.475), and
the line segments LQ and QR are straight lines.

15. The compressor according to claim 8, point S (62.6, 28.3, 9.1), point M (60.3, 6.2, 33.5), point A′ (30.6, 30.0, 39.4), point B (0.0, 58.7, 41.3), point F (0.0, 61.8, 38.2), and point T (35.8, 44.9, 19.3), or on the above line segments,

wherein
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments SM, MA′, A′B, BF, FT, and TS that connect the following 6 points:
the line segment MA′ is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0016x2−0.9473x+57.497, −0.0016x2−0.0527x+42.503),
the line segment A′B is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0029x2−1.0268x+58.7, −0.0029x2+0.0268x+41.3),
the line segment FT is represented by coordinates (x, 0.0078x2−0.7501x+61.8, −0.0078x2−0.2499x+38.2),
the line segment TS is represented by coordinates (x, −0.0017x2−0.7869x+70.888, −0.0017x2−0.2131x+29.112), and
the line segments SM and BF are straight lines.

16. The compressor according to claim 1,

wherein
the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)) and trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123) in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more based on the entire refrigerant, and
the refrigerant comprises 62.0 mass % to 72.0 mass % of HFO-1132(E) based on the entire refrigerant.

17. The compressor according to claim 1,

wherein
the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), and trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123), in a total amount of 99.5 mass % or more based on the entire refrigerant, and
the refrigerant comprises 45.1 mass % to 47.1 mass % of HFO-1132(E) based on the entire refrigerant.

18. The compressor according to claim 1, wherein point G (0.026a2−1.7478a+72.0, −0.026a2+0.7478a+28.0, 0.0), point I (0.026a2−1.7478a+72.0, 0.0, −0.026a2+0.7478a+28.0), point A (0.0134a2−1.9681a+68.6, 0.0, −0.0134a2+0.9681a+31.4), point B (0.0, 0.0144a2−1.6377a+58.7, −0.0144a2+0.6377a+41.3), point D′ (0.0, 0.0224a2+0.968a+75.4, −0.0224a2−1.968a+24.6), and point C (−0.2304a2−0.4062a+32.9, 0.2304a2−0.5938a+67.1, 0.0), or on the straight lines GI, AB, and D′C (excluding point G, point I, point A, point B, point D′, and point C); point G (0.02a2−1.6013a+71.105, −0.02a2+0.6013a+28.895, 0.0), point I (0.02a2−1.6013a+71.105, 0.0, −0.02a2+0.6013a+28.895), point A (0.0112a2−1.9337a+68.484, 0.0, −0.0112a2+0.9337a+31.516), point B (0.0, 0.0075a2−1.5156a+58.199, −0.0075a2+0.5156a+41.801), and point W (0.0, 100.0-a, 0.0), or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point point I, point A, point B, and point W); point G (0.0135a2−1.4068a+69.727, −0.0135a2+0.4068a+30.273, 0.0), point I (0.0135a2−1.4068a+69.727, 0.0, −0.0135a2+0.4068a+30.273), point A (0.0107a2−1.9142a+68.305, 0.0, −0.0107a2+0.9142a+31.695), point B (0.0, 0.009a2−1.6045a+59.318, −0.009a2+0.6045a+40.682), and point W (0.0, 100.0-a, 0.0), or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point point I, point A, point B, and point W); point G (0.0111a2−1.3152a+68.986, −0.0111a2+0.3152a+31.014, 0.0), point I (0.0111a2−1.3152a+68.986, 0.0, −0.0111a2+0.3152a+31.014), point A (0.0103a2−1.9225a+68.793, 0.0, −0.0103a2+0.9225a+31.207), point B (0.0, 0.0046a2−1.41a+57.286, −0.0046a2+0.41a+42.714), and point W (0.0, 100.0-a, 0.0), or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point point I, point A, point B, and point W); and point G (0.0061a2−0.9918a+63.902, −0.0061a2−0.0082a+36.098, 0.0), point I (0.0061a2−0.9918a+63.902, 0.0, −0.0061a2−0.0082a+36.098), point A (0.0085a2−1.8102a+67.1, 0.0, −0.0085a2+0.8102a+32.9), point B (0.0, 0.0012a2−1.1659a+52.95, −0.0012a2+0.1659a+47.05), and point W (0.0, 100.0-a, 0.0), or on the straight lines GI and AB (excluding point point I, point A, point B, and point W).

wherein
the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123), 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (R1234yf), and difluoromethane (R32),
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a,
if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is (100-a) mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BD′, D′ C, and CG that connect the following 6 points:
if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:
if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines GI, IA, AB, BW, and WG that connect the following 5 points:

19. The compressor according to claim 1, wherein point J (0.0049a2−0.9645a+47.1, −0.0049a2−0.0355a+52.9, 0.0), point K′ (0.0514a2−2.4353a+61.7, −0.0323a2+0.4122a+5.9, −0.0191a2+1.0231a+32.4), point B (0.0, 0.0144a2−1.6377a+58.7, −0.0144a2+0.6377a+41.3), point D′ (0.0, 0.0224a2+0.968a+75.4, −0.0224a2−1.968a+24.6), and point C (−0.2304a2−0.4062a+32.9, 0.2304a2−0.5938a+67.1, 0.0), or on the straight lines JK′, K′B, and D′C (excluding point J, point B, point D′, and point C); point J (0.0243a2−1.4161a+49.725, −0.0243a2+0.4161a+50.275, 0.0), point K′ (0.0341a2−2.1977a+61.187, −0.0236a2+0.34a+5.636, −0.0105a2+0.8577a+33.177), point B (0.0, 0.0075a2−1.5156a+58.199, −0.0075a2+0.5156a+41.801), and point W (0.0, 100.0-a, 0.0), or on the straight lines JK′ and K′B (excluding point J, point B, and point W); point J (0.0246a2−1.4476a+50.184, −0.0246a2+0.4476a+49.816, 0.0), point K′ (0.0196a2−1.7863a+58.515, −0.0079a2−0.1136a+8.702, −0.0117a2+0.8999a+32.783), point B (0.0, 0.009a2−1.6045a+59.318, −0.009a2+0.6045a+40.682), and point W (0.0, 100.0-a, 0.0), or on the straight lines JK′ and K′B (excluding point J, point B, and point W); point J (0.0183a2−1.1399a+46.493, −0.0183a2+0.1399a+53.507, 0.0), point K′ (−0.0051a2+0.0929a+25.95, 0.0, 0.0051a2−1.0929a+74.05), point A (0.0103a2−1.9225a+68.793, 0.0, −0.0103a2+0.9225a+31.207), point B (0.0, 0.0046a2−1.41a+57.286, −0.0046a2+0.41a+42.714), and point W (0.0, 100.0-a, 0.0), or on the straight lines JK′, K′A, and AB (excluding point J, point B, and point W); and point J (−0.0134a2+1.0956a+7.13, 0.0134a2−2.0956a+92.87, 0.0), point K′ (−1.892a+29.443, 0.0, 0.892a+70.557), point A (0.0085a2−1.8102a+67.1, 0.0, −0.0085a2+0.8102a+32.9), point B (0.0, 0.0012a2−1.1659a+52.95, −0.0012a2+0.1659a+47.05), and point W (0.0, 100.0-a, 0.0), or on the straight lines JK′, K′A, and AB (excluding point J, point B, and point W).

wherein
the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123), 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (R1234yf), and difluoromethane (R32),
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, R1234yf, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, z, and a,
if 0<a≤11.1, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R1234yf is (100-a) mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BD′, D′C, and CJ that connect the following 5 points:
if 11.1<a≤18.2, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BW, and WJ that connect the following 4 points:
if 18.2<a≤26.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′B, BW, and WJ that connect the following 4 points:
if 26.7<a≤36.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′A, AB, BW, and WJ that connect the following 5 points:
if 36.7<a≤46.7, coordinates (x,y,z) in the ternary composition diagram are within the range of a figure surrounded by straight lines JK′, K′A, AB, BW, and WJ that connect the following 5 points:

20. The compressor according to claim 1, wherein point I (72.0, 0.0, 28.0), point J (48.5, 18.3, 33.2), point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and point E (58.3, 0.0, 41.7), or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment EI;

wherein
the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), difluoromethane(R32), and 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (R1234yf),
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments U, JN, NE, and EI that connect the following 4 points:
the line segment U is represented by coordinates (0.0236y2−1.7616y+72.0, y, −0.0236y2+0.7616y+28.0);
the line segment NE is represented by coordinates (0.012y2−1.9003y+58.3, y, −0.012y2+0.9003y+41.7); and
the line segments JN and EI are straight lines.

21. The compressor according to claim 1, wherein point M (52.6, 0.0, 47.4), point M′ (39.2, 5.0, 55.8), point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), point V (11.0, 18.1, 70.9), and point G (39.6, 0.0, 60.4), or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GM);

wherein
the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), difluoromethane (R32), and 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (R1234yf),
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MM′, M′N, NV, VG; and GM that connect the following 5 points:
the line segment MM′ is represented by coordinates (0.132y2−3.34y+52.6, y, −0.132y2+2.34y+47.4);
the line segment M′N is represented by coordinates (0.0596y2−2.2541y+48.98, y, −0.0596y2+1.2541y+51.02);
the line segment VG is represented by coordinates (0.0123y2−1.8033y+39.6, y, −0.0123y2+0.8033y+60.4); and
the line segments NV and GM are straight lines.

22. The compressor according to claim 1, wherein point O (22.6, 36.8, 40.6), point N (27.7, 18.2, 54.1), and point U (3.9, 36.7, 59.4), or on these line segments;

wherein
the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), difluoromethane (R32), and 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (R1234yf),
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments ON, NU, and UO that connect the following 3 points:
the line segment ON is represented by coordinates (0.0072y2−0.6701y+37.512, y, −0.0072y2−0.3299y+62.488);
the line segment NU is represented by coordinates (0.0083y2−1.7403y+56.635, y, −0.0083y2+0.7403y+43.365); and
the line segment UO is a straight line.

23. The compressor according to claim 1, wherein point Q (44.6, 23.0, 32.4), point R (25.5, 36.8, 37.7), point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8), point L (28.9, 51.7, 19.4), and point K (35.6, 36.8, 27.6), or on these line segments;

wherein
the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), difluoromethane (R32), and 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (R1234yf),
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QR, RT, TL, LK, and KQ that connect the following 5 points:
the line segment QR is represented by coordinates (0.0099y2−1.975y+84.765, y, −0.0099y2+0.975y+15.235);
the line segment RT is represented by coordinates (0.0082y2−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y2+0.8683y+16.874);
the line segment LK is represented by coordinates (0.0049y2−0.8842y+61.488, y, −0.0049y2−0.1158y+38.512);
the line segment KQ is represented by coordinates (0.0095y2−1.2222y+67.676, y, −0.0095y2+0.2222y+32.324); and
the line segment TL is a straight line.

24. The compressor according to claim 1, wherein point P (20.5, 51.7, 27.8), point S (21.9, 39.7, 38.4), and point T (8.6, 51.6, 39.8), or on these line segments;

wherein
the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), difluoromethane (R32), and 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propene (R1234yf),
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), R32, and R1234yf is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:
the line segment PS is represented by coordinates (0.0064y2−0.7103y+40.1, y, −0.0064y2−0.2897y+59.9);
the line segment ST is represented by coordinates (0.0082y2−1.8683y+83.126, y, −0.0082y2+0.8683y+16.874); and
the line segment TP is a straight line.

25. The compressor according to claim 1, wherein point I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0), point K (48.4, 33.2, 18.4), point B′ (0.0, 81.6, 18.4), point H (0.0, 84.2, 15.8), point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0), or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segments B′H and GI);

wherein
the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123), and difluoromethane (R32),
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments IK, KB′, B′H, HR, RG, and GI that connect the following 6 points:
the line segment IK is represented by coordinates (0.025z2−1.7429z+72.00, −0.025z2+0.7429z+28.0, z),
the line segment HR is represented by coordinates (−0.3123z2+4.234z+11.06, 0.3123z2−5.234z+88.94, z),
the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
the line segments KB′ and GI are straight lines.

26. The compressor according to claim 1, wherein point I (72.0, 28.0, 0.0), point J (57.7, 32.8, 9.5), point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0), or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GI);

wherein
the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123), and difluoromethane (R32),
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments U, JR, RG, and GI that connect the following 4 points:
the line segment IJ is represented by coordinates (0.025z2−1.7429z+72.0, −0.025z2+0.7429z+28.0, z),
the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
the line segments JR and GI are straight lines.

27. The compressor according to claim 1, wherein point M (47.1, 52.9, 0.0), point P (31.8, 49.8, 18.4), point B′ (0.0, 81.6, 18.4), point H (0.0, 84.2, 15.8), point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0), or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segments B′H and GM);

wherein
the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123), and difluoromethane (R32),
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MP, PB′, B′H, HR, RG, and GM that connect the following 6 points:
the line segment MP is represented by coordinates (0.0083z2−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z2−0.016z+52.9, z),
the line segment HR is represented by coordinates (−0.3123z2+4.234z+11.06, 0.3123z2−5.234z+88.94, z),
the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
the line segments PB′ and GM are straight lines.

28. The compressor according to claim 1, wherein point M (47.1, 52.9, 0.0), point N (38.5, 52.1, 9.5), point R (23.1, 67.4, 9.5), and point G (38.5, 61.5, 0.0), or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment GM);

wherein
the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123), and difluoromethane (R32),
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments MN, NR, RG, and GM that connect the following 4 points:
the line segment MN is represented by coordinates (0.0083z2−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z2−0.016z+52.9, z),
the line segment RG is represented by coordinates (−0.0491z2−1.1544z+38.5, 0.0491z2+0.1544z+61.5, z), and
the line segments JR and GI are straight lines.

29. The compressor according to claim 1, wherein point P (31.8, 49.8, 18.4), point S (25.4, 56.2, 18.4), and point T (34.8, 51.0, 14.2), or on these line segments;

wherein
the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123), and difluoromethane (R32),
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments PS, ST, and TP that connect the following 3 points:
the line segment ST is represented by coordinates (−0.0982z2+0.9622z+40.931, 0.0982z2−1.9622z+59.069, z),
the line segment TP is represented by coordinates (0.0083z2−0.984z+47.1, −0.0083z2−0.016z+52.9, z), and
the line segment PS is a straight line.

30. The compressor according to claim 1, wherein point Q (28.6, 34.4, 37.0), point B″ (0.0, 63.0, 37.0), point D (0.0, 67.0, 33.0), and point U (28.7, 41.2, 30.1), or on these line segments (excluding the points on the line segment B″D);

wherein
the refrigerant comprises trans-1,2-difluoroethylene (HFO-1132(E)), trifluoroethylene (HFO-1123), and difluoromethane (R32),
when the mass % of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 based on their sum in the refrigerant is respectively represented by x, y, and z, coordinates (x,y,z) in a ternary composition diagram in which the sum of HFO-1132(E), HFO-1123, and R32 is 100 mass % are within the range of a figure surrounded by line segments QB″, B″D, DU, and UQ that connect the following 4 points:
the line segment DU is represented by coordinates (−3.4962z2+210.71z−3146.1, 3.4962z2−211.71z+3246.1, z),
the line segment UQ is represented by coordinates (0.0135z2−0.9181z+44.133, −0.0135z2−0.0819z+55.867, z), and
the line segments QB″ and B″D are straight lines.

31. A refrigeration cycle apparatus comprising the compressor according to claim 1.

Patent History
Publication number: 20200393175
Type: Application
Filed: Dec 18, 2018
Publication Date: Dec 17, 2020
Applicant: DAIKIN INDUSTRIES, LTD. (Osaka)
Inventors: Yoshinari ASANO (Osaka), Keiji AOTA (Osaka), Mitsushi ITANO (Osaka), Daisuke KARUBE (Osaka), Yuuki YOTSUMOTO (Osaka), Kazuhiro TAKAHASHI (Osaka), Yuzo KOMATSU (Osaka), Shun OHKUBO (Osaka), Tatsuya TAKAKUWA (Osaka), Tetsushi TSUDA (Osaka)
Application Number: 16/772,976
Classifications
International Classification: F25B 31/02 (20060101); C09K 5/04 (20060101); F25B 9/00 (20060101); F25B 31/00 (20060101);