Fluidized Bed Of Noncombustible Particles Patents (Class 110/245)
  • Patent number: 8499702
    Abstract: Char-handling processes for controlling overall heat balance, ash accumulation, and afterburn in a reheater are provided. Carbonaceous biomass feedstock is pyrolyzed using a heat transfer medium forming pyrolysis products and a spent heat transfer medium. The spent heat transfer medium is separated into segregated char and char-depleted spent heat transfer medium. The char-depleted spent heat transfer medium is introduced into a dense bed of heat transfer medium fluidized by a stream of oxygen-containing regeneration gas. All or a portion of the segregated char is combusted in the dense bed using the stream of oxygen-containing regeneration gas. A portion of the segregated char may be exported out of the pyrolysis system to control the overall heat balance and ash accumulation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 15, 2010
    Date of Patent: August 6, 2013
    Assignee: Ensyn Renewables, Inc.
    Inventors: Paolo Palmas, Paul Alvin Sechrist, Daniel N. Myers, Sid Kulprathipanja, Stanley Joseph Frey, Barry Freel
  • Patent number: 8443739
    Abstract: Through the addition of tertiary air and a reduction of secondary air, NOx emissions from a waste-to-energy (WTE) boiler may be reduced. The tertiary air is added to the WTE at a distance from the secondary air, in a boiler region of relatively lower temperatures. A secondary NOx reduction system, such as a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system using ammonia or urea, may also be added to the boiler with tertiary air to achieve desirable high levels of NOx reductions. The SNCR additives are introduced to the WTE boiler proximate to the tertiary air.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 26, 2011
    Date of Patent: May 21, 2013
    Assignee: Covanta Energy Corporation
    Inventors: Stephen P. Goff, Mark L. White, Stephen G. Deduck, John D. Clark, Christopher A. Bradley, Robert L. Barker, Zenon Semanyshyn
  • Publication number: 20130086905
    Abstract: A waste transformation and destruction apparatus includes a natural gas ignition system, a silica material bed, a heat transfer device, and a system for collecting plasma produced energy. A reaction formed by heat from ignition, carbon from the waste material, supercritical water, —OH radicals, and muons released from the silica bed transform the waste into a fuel. This fuel is more efficiently consumed by the complete combustion process resulting in near total elimination of the waste, increased energy production, and virtually no emissions.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 5, 2011
    Publication date: April 11, 2013
    Inventor: Thomas C. Maganas
  • Publication number: 20130068175
    Abstract: A boiler and a method in a boiler producing thermal energy, the method including: combustion or fuel and combustion air in the furnace of the boiler, delimited by walls; receiving of thermal energy by a steam superheater placed on the wall of the furnace and including at least one heat exchange surface, and supplying of gas or a gas mixture to the front of said heat exchange surface to form a barrier layer for protecting the heat exchange surface from flue gases developed in connection with the combustion. At least one supply device is provided in the superheater or in the direct vicinity of the superheater, to supply gas or a gas mixture to the front of said heat exchange surface to form a barrier layer to protect the heat exchange surface from the flue gases in the boiler.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 21, 2011
    Publication date: March 21, 2013
    Applicant: METSO POWER OY
    Inventors: Asko Rantee, Kari Mäkelä, Kari Jääskeläinen
  • Publication number: 20130055936
    Abstract: A pressurized transport oxy-combustor with different configurations is disclosed. Substantially pure oxygen is fed to the transport oxy-combustor under pressure to combust fossil fuels, generating steam for power generation. The end product is the flue gas containing substantially pure CO2 after moisture condensation. The low excess oxygen necessary to achieve complete combustion in the combustor is scavenged by adding another fuel so that substantially all oxygen fed to the combustor is completely consumed. The capability to operate the transport oxy-combustor as a circulating fluidized bed combustor at very high solids circulation rates makes it unnecessary to use recycled CO2 or flue gas as a means to moderate and control the combustion temperature. The temperature in the combustor is effectively controlled by relatively cooler circulating solids that enter the combustion zone. A small amount of CO2 is recycled for aeration and to convey solids fuel to the combustor.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 26, 2012
    Publication date: March 7, 2013
    Applicant: Southern Company
    Inventors: Pannalal Vimalchand, Guohai Liu, WanWang Peng
  • Patent number: 8382470
    Abstract: A fluidized bed boiler plant and a method of combusting sulfurous fuel in the fluidized bed boiler plant, a furnace of which plant is provided with a fluidized bed of particles. Sulfurous fuel, CaCO3-containing sulphur-binding agent and combusting air are introduced to the bed of particles, whereby fuel burns and generates flue gases and the sulphur-binding agent calcinates to CaO and binds SO2 generated in the combustion. Energy is recovered to a heat exchange medium circulating in heat exchange tubes of a condensing heat exchanger arranged in a flue gas channel, and a water solution of acid condensing on outer surfaces is neutralized by mixing it in a mixing vessel to a CaO-containing ash from a plant, preferably, fly ash collected by a dust separator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 16, 2006
    Date of Patent: February 26, 2013
    Assignee: Foster Wheeler Energia Oy
    Inventor: Pertti Kinnunen
  • Publication number: 20130042795
    Abstract: A method controls mass and heat loading of sludge feed into a fluidized bed combustor (FBC) controlled via regulation of a polymer dosage or a sludge feed rate including: continuously monitoring at least one performance characteristic of the FBC; producing an input signal characteristic; analyzing the input signal and determining a first rate of change of the characteristic; generating an output signal based on the first rate of change to control addition of polymer to the FBC; generating a second output signal to control addition of sludge feed to the FBC; and determining a transition point between the addition of polymer and addition of sludge, which transition point is an upper limit of a first rate change to maintain flow so that the value of the characteristic is maintained proximate at the upper limit.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 19, 2012
    Publication date: February 21, 2013
    Inventors: Ky DANGTRAN, Robert KELLY, Peter BRADY
  • Patent number: 8324523
    Abstract: An apparatus for synergistically combining a plasma with a comminution means such as a fluid kinetic energy mill (jet mill), preferably in a single reactor and/or in a single process step is provided by the present invention. Within the apparatus of the invention potential energy is converted into kinetic energy and subsequently into angular momentum by means of wave energy, for comminuting, reacting and separation of feed materials. Methods of use of the apparatus in the practice of various processes are also provided by the present invention.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 9, 2009
    Date of Patent: December 4, 2012
    Assignee: Foret Plasma Labs, LLC
    Inventor: Todd Foret
  • Publication number: 20120272874
    Abstract: The present invention discloses a biomass fuel internal circulation mechanical fluidized-bed corner tube intelligent boiler which is highly effective in energy-conservation and emission-reduction, which comprises a primary combustion chamber, a secondary combustion chamber, a burning-out chamber, a high temperature multi-tube cyclone dust collector, a heat convection pipe bundle, the hearth of the primary combustion chamber consists of a square membrane water-cooled wall and a profiled seat with a square top and a circular bottom, at the four corners of the seat, there are mounted Venturi tube internal circulators, at the bottom of the hearth, there is mounted a mechanical fluidizing machine; the profiled cyclone separation hearth of the secondary combustion chamber consists of a square membrane water-cooled wall, a profiled seat with a square top and a circular bottom, a profiled fume-venting tube, at the bottom of the hearth, there is mounted a mechanical fluidizing machine; the burning-out chamber is conne
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 24, 2011
    Publication date: November 1, 2012
    Applicant: SHANDONG UCR BIOMASS ENERGY CO., LTD.
    Inventor: Zhijun Yang
  • Patent number: 8291842
    Abstract: A method controls mass and heat loading of sludge feed into a fluidized bed combustor (FBC) controlled via regulation of a polymer dosage or a sludge feed rate including: continuously monitoring at least one performance characteristic of the FBC; producing an input signal characteristic; analyzing the input signal and determining a first rate of change of the characteristic; generating an output signal based on the first rate of change to control addition of polymer to the FBC; generating a second output signal to control addition of sludge feed to the FBC; and determining a transition point between the addition of polymer and addition of sludge, which transition point is an upper limit of a first rate change to maintain flow so that the value of the characteristic is maintained proximate at the upper limit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 19, 2010
    Date of Patent: October 23, 2012
    Assignee: Infilco Degremont, Inc
    Inventors: Ky Dangtran, Robert F. Kelly
  • Patent number: 8277543
    Abstract: Disclosed is a gaseous fossil fuel fired, indirectly heated, Brayton closed cycle comprising an alkali metal seeded noble gases that is rendered non-equilibrium, electrically conducting in a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electric power generator with zero emissions from the combustion products, including physical separation and sequestration of the carbon dioxide (CO2) what is emitted from the fossil fuel, with said cycle combined with a Rankine steam turbine bottoming cycle to compress the noble gas, while another optional new or existing Rankine steam cycle is placed in parallel and separate from the MHD cycle, and it is fired by the solid char remaining if the MHD cycle is fired with the devolatilized coal, and/or with solid coal culm, and/or unburned carbon in coal power plant waste ash, in order to achieve high efficiency at low capital, low operating, and low fuel costs.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 22, 2011
    Date of Patent: October 2, 2012
    Inventor: Bert Zauderer
  • Publication number: 20120234217
    Abstract: In a method for processing ash, fly ash is separated from a product gas flow obtained from gasification of fuel, which fly ash is burned in fluidized bed combustion to reduce the carbon content of the ash. After this, the flue gases from the combustion are processed. In a first step, the ash is burned in fluidized bed combustion (fluidized bed reactor 1) at a temperature of not higher than 800° C. to reduce the carbon content, and in a second step, the flue gases a burned in an independent combustion process (combustion chamber 7), the combustion conditions reaching the temperature of at least 850° C.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 13, 2012
    Publication date: September 20, 2012
    Applicant: Metso Power Oy
    Inventor: Juhani ISAKSSON
  • Patent number: 8230795
    Abstract: The invention relates to a circulating fluidized bed device provided with an oxygen-fired furnace (1), a separator (2) for separating gas and solid particles, a return circuit for returning solids to the furnace (3), and an outlet duct (4) leaving the separator and conveying gases to a heat-recovery boiler, the device being characterized in that it includes injector means for injecting combustible) gas into the outlet from the separator 2), said combustible gas being propelled by recycled carbon dioxide into the residual vortex created at the outlet from the separator, so as to ensure intimate mixing takes place in the downstream duct (4) with the combustion flue gases, thereby reducing the oxygen content of said flue gases by residual combustion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 14, 2006
    Date of Patent: July 31, 2012
    Inventors: Jean-Xavier Morin, Corinne Beal, Silvestre Suraniti
  • Patent number: 8230796
    Abstract: A combustor 110 is operative to effect therewith the combustion of fossil fuel 114? in order to thereby both heat to a working fluid 102 and generate a flue gas 104. An air preheater 144 receives the flue gas 104 generated in the combustor 110. A blower 180 causes air 188 to flow to the air preheater 144 when operating in an air fired mode, and causes both O2 and recycled flue gas 188? to flow when operating in the O2 firing mode. The air preheater 144 is operative to transfer heat from the flue gas 150 received thereby to the air 188 that is received when operating in an air fired mode or to both the received O2 and the recycled flue gas 188? that is received when operating in the O2 firing mode in order to thereby effect a preheating of the air 188 or of both the O2 and recycled flue gas, 188? depending upon the specific nature of the mode of operation thereof, and to thereby effect therewith a cooling of the flue gas received thereby.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 25, 2009
    Date of Patent: July 31, 2012
    Inventors: Herbert E. Andrus, Jr., Gregory N. Liljedahl, John L Marion, Nsakala Ya Nsakala
  • Publication number: 20120180708
    Abstract: A boiler grate including air channels for supplying primary air to a furnace of a boiler. At least one channel, which is open on top, is arranged to collect ash and material from the furnace. At least one removal element is arranged in the channel and to mechanically move ash and material along the channel. A boiler includes a grate, a furnace which is limited by the walls of the furnace and the grate, and an ash chute, which is arranged to remove ash and material from the furnace. The ash removal elements is arranged to move ash and material towards the air chute.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 18, 2012
    Publication date: July 19, 2012
    Applicant: Metso Power Oy
    Inventor: Timo MERO
  • Publication number: 20120167808
    Abstract: The invention is related to a system (1) for converting fuel material comprising: a first reactor (2) in which a fuel material reacts with an oxide material for producing reaction products including fuel particles, ash and oxide particles, a second reactor (3) for oxidizing the oxide particles produced in the first reactor (2), a carbon separator (4) that receives fuel particles, ash and oxide particles produced in the first reactor (2) and suitable for separating the oxide particles and ash from the fuel particles, the carbon separator (4) comprising an outlet path (4c) for the oxide particles and ash exhaust, characterized in that said outlet path (4c) of the carbon separator (4) is connected to an ash separator (10) for separating the ash from the oxide particles.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 27, 2010
    Publication date: July 5, 2012
    Applicant: ALSTOM TECHNOLOGY LTD
    Inventors: Corinne Beal, Laurent Maghdissian, Michel Vandycke
  • Publication number: 20120164588
    Abstract: An exemplary embodiment provides a regenerative burner apparatus. The apparatus includes a burner housing having a gas channel and a single-stage heat regenerator equipped with a housing enclosing a fluid-porous heat regenerative media bed. A first gas passageway in the housing directly interconnects the gas channel and the lower surface of the media bed. A second gas passageway in the housing interconnects an opening in the housing communicating with the exterior and the upper surface of the media bed. This arrangement allows hot waste combustion gases to pass upwardly through the media bed so that any condensable contaminant in the gases condenses to a liquid and flows out of the bed under gravity before becoming solid and clogging the bed. The liquid contaminant may then be removed from the regenerator from a position below the media bed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 22, 2011
    Publication date: June 28, 2012
    Inventor: Edwin L. RAUCH
  • Patent number: 8196532
    Abstract: A combustor 110 combust a fluidized bed of fossil fuel 114, 114? to heat a working fluid 102 and generate flue gas 104. An air preheater 144 has first and second gas passageways 144a, 144b for respectively directing the generated flue gas 150 and another gas 250 with captured CO2 generated by combustion outside of the combustor 110. When operated in a non-CO2 capture, the air preheater 144 receives the flue gas 150, but not the other gas 250, and the first gas passageway 144a directs the flue gas 150 so as to preheat the air 188. However, when operated in the CO2 capture mode, the air preheater 144 receives the flue gas 150 and the other gas 250, and the second gas passageway 144b also directs the other gas 250 so as to preheat the air 188?. In either mode, the preheated air 188, 188? is applied by the combustor 110 to fluidize a bed of fossil fuel 114, 114?.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 25, 2009
    Date of Patent: June 12, 2012
    Inventors: Herbert E. Andrus, Jr., Gregory N. Liljedahl, John L Marion, Nsakala Ya Nsakala
  • Patent number: 8196533
    Abstract: A method for operating a fluidized-bed reactor includes introducing an alkali-containing material into a fluidized-bed reactor and introducing hydrous clay into the fluidized-bed reactor, the hydrous clay having a moisture content of at least about 5% by weight. The method further includes heating at least a portion of the alkali-containing material and hydrous clay, such that at least a portion of the hydrous clay is at least partially calcined and the at least partially calcined clay adsorbs at least a portion of alkali present in the fluidized-bed reactor. The method further includes removing at least a portion of the at least partially calcined clay and adsorbed alkali from the fluidized-bed reactor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 3, 2008
    Date of Patent: June 12, 2012
    Assignee: Kentucky-Tennessee Clay Co.
    Inventors: Billie E. Leach, Thomas E. Landon
  • Publication number: 20120137939
    Abstract: Embodiments of processes and systems for producing heat for rapid thermal processing of carbonaceous material are provided. The process comprises the steps of contacting bubbles of an oxygen containing gas advancing through a fluidized bubbling bed with a grating to form smaller bubbles. The fluidized bubbling bed is contained in a reheater and comprises inorganic heat carrier particles and char. The reheater is operating at combustion conditions effective to burn the char into ash and heat the inorganic heat carrier particles to form heated inorganic particles. The heated inorganic particles are advanced to a reactor.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 6, 2010
    Publication date: June 7, 2012
    Applicant: UOP LLC
    Inventor: Sid Kulprathipanja
  • Patent number: 8171893
    Abstract: The boiler of the invention has a circulating fluidized bed, uses solid fuels and the oxygen obtained by high temperature oxygen production membranes, and is characterized in that the membranes are placed in the bed. These membranes are, for example, of the OTM (Oxygen Transport Membranes) type. Since the membranes operate at over 700° C., their positioning in the outer bed is ideally selected because the temperature of the solids circulating in the outer bed is between 750 and 900° C. This is particularly remarkable because the operating temperature windows of the circulating fluidized bed coincide with the optimal temperature window of use of the membranes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 22, 2005
    Date of Patent: May 8, 2012
    Inventors: Jean-Xavier Morin, Corinne Beal, Silvestre Suraniti
  • Patent number: 8141502
    Abstract: A fluidized bed boiler comprises a furnace whose lower part is equipped with a grate comprising means for supplying fluidizing air into the furnace. The furnace also comprises at least one heat transfer surface extending across the furnace and comprising elongated heat transfer tubes on top of each other. The heat transfer surface is supported on the grate from underneath, substantially over its whole length, in the section extending across the furnace.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 19, 2007
    Date of Patent: March 27, 2012
    Assignee: Metso Power Oy
    Inventors: Risto Eteläaho, Vesa Kainu
  • Publication number: 20110271886
    Abstract: Emission of N2O is efficiently suppressed by supplying an appropriate amount of the N2O-decomposing particles. Disclosed is a combustor which controls emission of N2O generated upon combustion of a predetermined nitrogen-containing fuel, including the N2O-decomposing particles supply part 3 which supplies the particles being capable of decomposing N2O in the apparatus; a N2O concentration measurement meter 8a which measures the concentration of N2O contained in an exhaust gas; and a control part 10 which compares the measured N2O concentration value with a predetermined control value and controls the supply amount of the N2O-decomposing particles based on these comparison results.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 28, 2009
    Publication date: November 10, 2011
    Inventor: Naoki Fujiwara
  • Publication number: 20110265697
    Abstract: A circulating fluidized bed combustor arrangement includes (a) a circulating fluidized bed reactor in which (i) a combustion chamber combusts a fuel material in a suspension of solid particles of a circulating fluidized bed, (ii) a first cyclone separator arrangement receives a mixture of gases and solid particles from the combustion chamber for separating a first fraction of the solid particles from the exhaust gases, and (iii) a solid particle return system connected to the first cyclone separator returns separated solid particles to the combustion chamber, (b) a heat transfer section including a water/steam heat exchanger section arranged after the first cyclone separator arrangement in the exhaust gas flow path, (c) a heat recovery device provided in connection with the combustion chamber, the first cyclone separator arrangement and the heat transfer section being arranged for recovering heat resulting from the combustion process in the combustion chamber, (d) a selective catalytic reduction system arrang
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 29, 2010
    Publication date: November 3, 2011
    Applicant: FOSTER WHEELER NORTH AMERICA CORP.
    Inventors: Kumar Sellakumar, Victor Ciarlante, Horst Hack
  • Publication number: 20110232546
    Abstract: A fluidized bed is described and which includes a multiplicity of fluidizing manifolds positioned in spaced relation one relative to the others; an enclosure positioned in gravity receiving relation relative to the multiplicity of fluidizing manifolds and which has an intake and a discharge end, and wherein particulate matter received in the fluidized bed moves under the influence of gravity from the intake end to the discharge end, and a moveable gate is mounted on the second discharge end of the enclosure and which is operable to selectively occlude a discharge aperture and which further facilitates the selective removal of particulate matter and waste material entrained with same, and which moves under the influence of gravity to the discharge end thereof.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 29, 2010
    Publication date: September 29, 2011
    Inventors: LeRoy B. Pope, Michael L. Murphy, James M. Scranton, James R. Thomas, Peter Mohr, Ben H. Cosby, Michael E. Tracey, Mark R. Castle, Douglas W. Scrafford, Greg Dahlstrom
  • Publication number: 20110207060
    Abstract: A fluidized chamber with a coarse layer of refractory particles and a fine layer of refractory particles along with a fluidizing gas inlet connected to a fluidizing gas supply. The fluidizing bed does not have a distributor and fluidizing gas is passed through the fluidized bed at a flow rate to fluidize the fine layer particles but not to fluidize the coarse layer. Preferably, the fluidized bed is a heat treating furnace, the fluidizing gas is combustible and objects to be heat treated are fed through the fluidizing chamber on a continuous basis. A method of operating a fluidized bed is also provided.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 15, 2011
    Publication date: August 25, 2011
    Inventor: Jacob Friedman
  • Publication number: 20110174203
    Abstract: The invention relates to a plant and a process for the looping-type combustion of solid carbon-containing fuels with a carbon dioxide (CO2) flow output. Said process carries out the conversion of carbon without the help of solid carriers of the MyOx type, or of sulphate/sulphide type, and comprises the steps of: (i) Oxidation, wherein the carbon-containing solids are contacted with a gaseous flow comprising oxygen, for a time period and at a temperature sufficient to allow formation of a surface oxidized complex; (ii) Desorption, wherein the surface oxidized complexes generated by adsorption of oxygen in item (i) are released in a gaseous form by decomposition in the absence of O2.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 8, 2009
    Publication date: July 21, 2011
    Applicant: CONSIGLIO NAZIONALE DELLE RICERCHE
    Inventors: Piero Salatino, Osvalda Seneca
  • Publication number: 20110073049
    Abstract: A circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler comprising a reaction chamber. A bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) is contained within an enclosure within the lower portion of the reaction chamber and contains an in-bed heat exchanger (IBHX) that occupies part of the reaction chamber floor. At least one non-mechanical valve, which includes an opening between the CFB and BFB and independently controlled fluidizing means located both upstream and downstream of the opening, is used to control the heat transfer to the IBHX by controlling the solids discharge from the BFB to the CFB. The elevation of the bottom of the opening is at or above the elevation of the fluidizing means. A flow control barrier may be located downstream of the opening.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 30, 2009
    Publication date: March 31, 2011
    Inventors: Mikhail Maryamchik, Kiplin C. Alexander, Mark C. Godden, David L. Kraft
  • Publication number: 20110073050
    Abstract: A circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler includes a reaction chamber, where a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) is contained within an enclosure within the lower portion of the reaction chamber and contains an in-bed heat exchanger (IBHX) that occupies part of the reaction chamber floor. A plurality of in-bed secondary air nozzles comprise a plurality of tubes which are grouped together and run across the width of the BFB between the BFB enclosure wall and an outside wall of the CFB. The nozzles are positioned to prevent the deflection of solids falling onto the BFB from the CFB by the secondary air jets while avoiding a complicated structure that would interfere with gas and/or solids movement in the furnace. The nozzles' exit openings are flush, or almost flush, with the BFB enclosure wall.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 30, 2009
    Publication date: March 31, 2011
    Inventors: MIKHAIL MARYAMCHIK, Kiplin C. Alexander, Mark C. Godden, David L. Kraft
  • Patent number: 7895957
    Abstract: A heat exchanger tube 41 includes: a first cover layer 44 provided on an outer side of a tube main body 42 to partly or completely cover a tube main body 42; and a second cover layer 45 provided on an outer side of the first cover layer 44 to partly or completely cover the first cover layer 44. The first cover layer 44 is formed by overlay-welding a material higher in ductility than the second cover layer 45 to the tube main body 42. The second cover layer 45 is formed by overlay-welding a material higher in hardness than the first cover layer 44 to the first cover layer 44.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 27, 2006
    Date of Patent: March 1, 2011
    Assignee: Dowa Holdings Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Hirotoshi Inomata, Hiroshi Yoshida
  • Publication number: 20110023760
    Abstract: The invention concerns a process for using a facility in which circulates at least one oxide which is reduced and then oxidized in each of both reactors (1, 4) and including a reactor (1) for reducing oxide in which enter a grounded solid fuel material (E1) and oxide (E2), a lower efficiency separation device (2) receiving entrained solids from the reactor (1) for reducing oxide the upper stream of the solids of the lower efficiency separation device (2) being circulated into a higher efficiency separation device (6), in order to separate the solids from the gases and to re-introduce the solids into the reactor (1) for reducing oxides, a carbon separator (3) installed at the outlet of the lower efficiency separation device (2) in order to send the carbonaceous particles into the reactor (1) for reducing oxide and the oxide into a reactor (4) for oxidizing oxide and a separation device (5) receiving entrained solids from the reactor (4) for oxidizing oxide.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 16, 2009
    Publication date: February 3, 2011
    Inventors: Laurent Maghdissian, Jean-Claude Semedard, Pierre Gauville, Corinne Beal
  • Patent number: 7875249
    Abstract: In order to improve sealing properties between a downcomer and a high-speed layer and in order to efficiently take out produced gas obtained through gasification of, for example, a solid reactant, a syphon for sealing between a downcomer and a high-speed layer through temporary storage of particles moving from the downcomer to the high-speed layer comprises a reactor portion for causing the solid reactant to conduct chemical reaction through action of the particles, a downcomer seal portion in communication, at upper and lower ends thereof, with the downcomer and a lower portion the reactor portion, respectively, a particle outlet seal portion provided in a spaced apart relationship from the downcomer seal portion and in communication, at upper and lower ends thereof, with the high-speed layer and the lower portion of the reactor portion, respectively, and a freeboard portion formed above the reactor portion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 23, 2006
    Date of Patent: January 25, 2011
    Assignee: IHI Corporation
    Inventors: Takahiro Murakami, Koubun Kyo, Toshiyuki Suda
  • Publication number: 20100307389
    Abstract: A reactor system includes a fluidized-bed. A fuel and a sulfur absorbent material are eluted through the fluidized-bed. The reactor system may include a heat exchanger having a heat-exchanging portion within a heating zone of the reactor that is hermetically sealed from the heating zone. The reactor may include loose particles of an inert bed material for forming the fluidized-bed. A feed system may be provided to inject a solid fuel composite that includes a mixture of a solid, carbonaceous fuel and a solid reagent into the reactor.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 4, 2010
    Publication date: December 9, 2010
    Inventors: Albert E. Stewart, Ganesan Subbaraman, Jeffrey A. Mays, James A. Hartung
  • Patent number: 7819071
    Abstract: A nozzle system for a fluidized bed including a pipe for insertion through an air distributor plate in the fluidized bed and extending up through a refractory material on the air distributor plate. A shaft is received in the pipe and has a washer and a collar which supports the shaft on the distal end of the pipe. A cap includes a top surface supported by a skirt, defining a protected annular exhaust space between the shaft and the cap skirt. Spaced discreet supports extend inwardly from the cap skirt supporting and centering the cap on the shaft.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 29, 2007
    Date of Patent: October 26, 2010
    Inventor: Salvatore J. Seminatore
  • Patent number: 7816294
    Abstract: A catalyst regenerator (100) has a first section (110) and a second section (120) and is operated such that carbon from a carbon-contaminated catalyst (140) is converted to carbon monoxide in the first section (110) and that carbon monoxide is converted to carbon dioxide in the second section (120). The residence time of the oxygen-containing gas in the first and second sections (110, 120) is regulated in preferred configurations by the shape (e.g., diameter) of the first and second sections (110, 120).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 21, 2002
    Date of Patent: October 19, 2010
    Assignee: Fluor Technologies Corporation
    Inventor: Humbert Chu
  • Publication number: 20100242815
    Abstract: A sealpot for a combustion power plant includes a downcomer standpipe which receives solids of the combustion power plant, a bed including a first end and a second opposite end, the first end connected to the downcomer standpipe, a discharge standpipe disposed at the second opposite end of the bed, and an orifice plate disposed between the bed and the discharge standpipe separating the discharge standpipe from the bed. The orifice plate includes apertures disposed at a height above the bed which allow transport of fluidized solids and gas through the orifice plate.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 29, 2010
    Publication date: September 30, 2010
    Applicant: ALSTOM TECHNOLOGY LTD
    Inventors: John H. Chiu, Bard C. Teigen
  • Publication number: 20100192816
    Abstract: An inside of an incinerator body into which sludge is fed is divided into a lower portion, a portion above the lower portion, and a top portion in a height direction. The lower portion serves as a pyrolysis zone for supplying fluidizing air having an air ratio of 1.1 or less together with fuel to thermally decompose the sludge while fluidizing the sludge. The portion above the lower portion serves as an over bed combustion zone for supplying only combustion air having an air ratio of 0.1 to 0.3 to form a local high temperature place to decompose N2O. The top portion serves as a perfect combustion zone for perfectly combusting unburned contents. The quantity of N2O generated during sludge incineration can be drastically reduced while maintaining the use quantity of auxiliary fuel at the same level as that of a conventional incineration method.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 12, 2010
    Publication date: August 5, 2010
    Applicant: Metawater Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Masaki YAMADA, Tetsuya Yanase, Masayuki Yamamoto, Tomoyuki Takeshita, Kosuke Kamiya
  • Patent number: 7703403
    Abstract: A system and method for decomposing ammonia from fly ash contaminated with ammonia is provided which includes maintaining the temperature of a bed of ammonia-contaminated fly ash at a decomposition temperature greater than 500° F. and less than 842° F. to decompose the ammonia from the fly ash. In a preferred embodiment, the ammonia-laden fly ash is maintained at a temperatures less than a lowest carbon combustion temperature at which substantial combustion of carbon in fly ash begins to occur. A preferred embodiment includes a first chamber operating at a decomposition temperature greater than 500° F. and less than 842° F. followed by a second chamber operating at a higher carbon combustion temperature for carbon burn-out.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 17, 2007
    Date of Patent: April 27, 2010
    Assignee: PMI Ash Technologies, LLC
    Inventors: Vincent M. Giampa, Joseph W. Cochran
  • Patent number: 7694432
    Abstract: The present invention concerns a method and apparatus for dehumidifying, drying or the like of different materials. The invention is developed primarily for dehumidification of sewage sludge (7), but it may be utilized for many different materials including foodstuffs as crispbread and pasta. The sludge (7) or other material is dehumidified or dried in a chamber (1) by means of thermal radiation. The thermal radiation is given by means of one or more elements (2) for thermal radiation. The thermal radiation is concentrated to one or more distinct wavelength ranges at which water has peaks for absorption of radiation energy. Air is circulated in the chamber (1), to take up moisture evaporated from the material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 14, 2006
    Date of Patent: April 13, 2010
    Inventors: Niclas Eriksson, Lars Svenningsson
  • Publication number: 20100077944
    Abstract: A precombustor having a chamber having a first end and a second end, and an inlet configured to deliver a substantially parallel flow of solid fuel surrounded by oxygen at the first end. The first end further includes a recirculation step and the second end fluidly communicates with a furnace. The inlet and the recirculation step are arranged to form a recirculation zone of at least a portion of the solid fuel and the oxygen. A combustion system and method for operating a combustion system are also disclosed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 26, 2008
    Publication date: April 1, 2010
    Applicant: AIR PRODUCTS AND CHEMICALS, INC.
    Inventors: Aleksandar Georgi Slavejkov, Xiaoyi He, Mark Daniel D'Agostini, Reed Jacob Hendershot
  • Publication number: 20100043683
    Abstract: A fluidized bed gasification system is provided in which bed material and raw material are passed throughout a fluidized bed gasification furnace so that raw material is gasified with higher gasification efficiency to improve gasification productivity. A heat-resistant partition 32 for regulation of bed material flow is arranged between positions I and II of a downcomer 12 of a separator 8 and of a supply flow passage 25 in plane of a fluidized bed gasification furnace 2. As a result, the bed material introduced via the downcomer 12 is directed to a supply flow passage 25 through a circuitous flow passage 33 throughout the fluidized bed gasification furnace 2 defined by the heat-resistant partition 32.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 14, 2007
    Publication date: February 25, 2010
    Applicant: IHI CORPORATION
    Inventors: Yoshiaki Matsuzawa, Toshiyuki Suda, Hironobu Fujiyoshi, Makoto Takafuji, Kenichiro Kondo
  • Patent number: 7658167
    Abstract: The invention relates to a fluidized-bed device (F1, F2) provided with a hearth (1, 23) equipped with gas mixture feeds called primary feeds, said gas mixture being enriched with oxygen, and said hearth (1, 23) being provided with a network of two types of primary feed nozzle, a first type of nozzle (B1, B?1) injecting a first gas mixture at a first level close to the hearth (1, 23) and a second type of nozzle (B2, B?2) injecting a second oxygen-enriched gas mixture at a second level above the first level. According to the invention, said second type of nozzle (B2, B?2) consists of a device for mixing oxygen with a second gas component and connected by its lower end to an oxygen feed (11A, 11A?) and to a feed of second gas component, and of a device for injecting this mixture into the combustion chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 26, 2005
    Date of Patent: February 9, 2010
    Assignee: ALSTOM Technology Ltd
    Inventors: Jean-Xavier Morin, Silvestre Suraniti
  • Publication number: 20100018444
    Abstract: A grate assembly for a fluidized bed reactor includes a plurality of parallel air ducts extending side-by-side in a substantially horizontal plane and defining spaces therebetween through which coarse material from the fluidized bed descends. A plurality of nozzle assemblies is attached to each air duct for supplying fluidizing air from within the air duct into the fluidized bed. Each of the nozzle assemblies includes a nozzle formed from a tube having an inlet end in fluid communication with the air duct, and an outlet end in fluid communication with the inlet end. An orifice is disposed at the outlet end of the nozzle, and the nozzle is bent proximate the outlet end to direct a primary direction of a stream of fluidizing air flowing from the orifice toward the air duct such that an angle ? between the primary direction and the substantially horizontal plane formed by the air ducts is between about 30 to about 90 degrees.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 5, 2009
    Publication date: January 28, 2010
    Applicant: ALSTOM TECHNOLOGY LTD
    Inventors: Thomas Richard Bober, Michael Chris Tanca
  • Patent number: 7651565
    Abstract: A gypsum dryer/calciner (1) includes a calcining space (2), a first pipe (4) exhibiting an inlet connected to a source of hot gases (3) and an outlet emerging in the calcining space (2); a second pipe (5) exhibiting an inlet connected to a source of gypsum (8) and an outlet emerging in the calcining space, the second pipe being concentric with the first pipe; a force-feeding screw (6) positioned at least partially in the second pipe, the said screw carrying the gypsum along in the calcining space. A process for calcining gypsum and to the plaster capable of being obtained by this process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 4, 2003
    Date of Patent: January 26, 2010
    Assignee: Lafarge Platres
    Inventor: Charles Falinower
  • Publication number: 20100012050
    Abstract: A boiler water cycle of a fluidized bed boiler, preferably, a supercritical once-through-unit (OTU) boiler, includes a drop leg, a number of horizontal inlet headers, substantially having a length of the length of a front wall of the furnace of the boiler, arranged below the furnace, and panels of water tubes of the front wall and a rear wall, extensions of the water tubes being directly connected to the inlet headers, wherein each inlet header is in flow communication with a drop leg by way of an inlet duct connected to the end of the inlet header. The inlet headers include a front wall chamber below the front wall of the furnace, a rear wall chamber arranged below the rear wall of the furnace, and at least one grid chamber below the center part of the furnace grid in a wind box of the fluidized bed boiler.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 21, 2007
    Publication date: January 21, 2010
    Applicant: FOSTER WHEELER ENERGIA OY
    Inventor: Pentti Lankinen
  • Patent number: 7648615
    Abstract: In the operation of smoking/burning type volume reduction treatment apparatus (1), referring to view (A), charcoal carbonized layer (T2) is spread over powdery ceramic layer (T1) in the state of having negative ion air fed through air supply inlet (H). Further, sawdust layer (T3) is spread thereover, and thereafter treatment subject layer (V) is piled thereon. In a temporary burning region of the carbonized layer (T2), the powdery ceramic layer (T1) exerts not only heat storing action but also heat radiation action. Referring to view (B), the interior of the sawdust layer (T3) is altered into temporary carbonized layer (T3 1) and temporary dried layer (T3 2). As the temporary burning region slowly moves upward, an under side of the treatment subject layer (V) is altered into dried layer (V1) and further, carbonized layer (V2) shown in view (C) is formed. Thereafter, this carbonized layer (V2) catches fire, so that burning region (V3) is formed in layered form in the treatment subject layer (V).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 12, 2005
    Date of Patent: January 19, 2010
    Inventor: Kuniomi Araki
  • Publication number: 20090293818
    Abstract: A heat exchanger and a circulating fluidized bed boiler with a heat exchanger including a first fluidized bed heat exchange chamber and a second fluidized bed heat exchange chamber, arranged in connection with a furnace of the circulating fluidized bed boiler, a first inlet channel for introducing hot solids from a particle separator of the external circulation of the circulating fluidized bed boiler into the first heat exchange chamber, a second inlet channel for introducing solids to the second heat exchange chamber, a first discharge for removing a first portion of the cooled solids from the first heat exchange chamber to the second inlet channel and a second discharge for removing cooled solids from the second heat exchange chamber to the furnace, the heat exchange chamber including an inlet for introducing hot solids directly from the internal circulation of the furnace to the second heat exchange chamber.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 9, 2007
    Publication date: December 3, 2009
    Applicant: FOSTER WHEELER ENERGIA OY
    Inventor: Kari Kauppinen
  • Patent number: 7624691
    Abstract: An air nozzle has an attachment arrangement for solid fuel burners with fluidized beds. The air nozzle has a body having an inlet and an outlet defined therein. A pipe end is inserted into the inlet. The attachment arrangement secures the pipe end inside the body. The attachment arrangement has a first part engaging a through hole of the body and a second perpendicular part that engages a cavity of the pipe end.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 14, 2005
    Date of Patent: December 1, 2009
    Assignee: Metso Power AB
    Inventor: Lennart Nordh
  • Patent number: 7614352
    Abstract: Both a process and an apparatus whereby a fuel with both a high carbon content, a relatively high sulphur content and a relatively low ash content, can be combusted without the release of potentially damaged amounts of carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide are described. Further, the process and apparatus each provide an operation whereby the carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide emissions form the combustion of a carbonaceous fuel with both a high carbon content and a relatively high sulphur content can each be recovered as a useable product. Typically the fuel is petroleum coke, or certain grades of anthracite, coal and natural gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 29, 2003
    Date of Patent: November 10, 2009
    Assignee: Her Majesty the Queen in right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of Natural Resources
    Inventors: Edward John Anthony, J. Carlos Abanades
  • Publication number: 20090211503
    Abstract: A combustor 110 is operative to effect therewith the combustion of fossil fuel 114? in order to thereby both heat to a working fluid 102 and generate a flue gas 104. An air preheater 144 receives the flue gas 104 generated in the combustor 110. A blower 180 causes air 188 to flow to the air preheater 144 when operating in an air fired mode, and causes both O2 and recycled flue gas 188? to flow when operating in the O2 firing mode. The air preheater 144 is operative to transfer heat from the flue gas 150 received thereby to the air 188 that is received when operating in an air fired mode or to both the received O2 and the recycled flue gas 188? that is received when operating in the O2 firing mode in order to thereby effect a preheating of the air 188 or of both the O2 and recycled flue gas, 188? depending upon the specific nature of the mode of operation thereof, and to thereby effect therewith a cooling of the flue gas received thereby.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 25, 2009
    Publication date: August 27, 2009
    Applicant: ALSTOM Technology Ltd
    Inventors: Herbert E. Andrus, JR., Gregory N. Liljedahl, John L. Marion, Nsakala Ya Nsakala