Fluidized Bed Of Noncombustible Particles Patents (Class 110/245)
  • Patent number: 6418866
    Abstract: The objective of the present invention is to provide a fluidized bed incinerator which will increase the thermal capacity of the freeboard to respond to fluctuations of the load imposed by waste matter such as sludge or garbage with a high moisture content; which would absorb local and momentary temperature spikes due to load fluctuations or variations in the characteristics of the waste material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 25, 2000
    Date of Patent: July 16, 2002
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Yoshihito Shimizu, Hiroki Honda, Masao Takuma, Toshihisa Goda, Shiro Sasatani
  • Patent number: 6389995
    Abstract: A method of combustion and a combustion plant in which absorbent is regenerated is described herein. During the combustion of a fuel in a combustion chamber enclosing a fluidized bed, a fuel and an absorbent are supplied to the fluidized bed. The combustion gases generated during the combustion are collected and purified in a separating member by separation of solid material from the combustion gases. The separated solid material is recirculated to the fluidized bed through a channel, and a gaseous medium is supplied in a controlled manner to the separated solid material present in the channel in order to displace the combustion gases and provide a chemical reaction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 1998
    Date of Patent: May 21, 2002
    Assignee: ABB Carbon AB
    Inventors: Christopher Adams, Jim Anderson, Mats Andersson, Roine Brännström, John Weatherby
  • Publication number: 20020043221
    Abstract: The present invention relates to an arrangement for introducing black liquor into a furnace of a recovery boiler, said arrangement comprising an elongated tube having an interior surface and an exterior surface, through which tube the black liquor being fed into the furnace is supplied, whereby the black liquor is taken into contact with said interior surface prior to being sprayed into the furnace. The interior surface of said elongated tube is provided with heat transfer elements and surfaces, such as fins or grooves. The heat transfer element or surface increases the heat conductivity between the tube and the black liquor above the conductivity achieved with a normal tube passage.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 17, 2001
    Publication date: April 18, 2002
    Inventors: Antti Hytonen, Pentti Piilonen, Esa Vakkilainen
  • Patent number: 6349658
    Abstract: An improved auger combustor for the incineration of refuse featuring, in its preferred embodiment, a granular substrate formed as a fluidized bed by underfire air and composed of particulate material with pollution abatement properties, an auger with expandable flights, a post combustor treatment zone comprised of particulate material with pollution abatement properties suspended in the gas stream exiting the auger combustor chamber; and in alternate embodiments, also including the ability to insert combustible fuel gases from the bottom of the combustor chamber, particularly at the input end of the combustor chamber, and/or the volumetric expansion of the combustor chamber from the input to the output end as a means of increasing retention time for gases released by the burning of refuse in the combustor chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 19, 2000
    Date of Patent: February 26, 2002
    Assignee: Environmental Improvement Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Robert C. Tyer
  • Patent number: 6350288
    Abstract: A combustion method and apparatus in which combustible matter, e.g., waste matter, coal, etc., is gasified to produce a combustible gas containing a sufficiently large amount of combustible component to melt the ash by its own heat. A fluidized-bed furnace (2) has an approximately circular horizontal cross-sectional configuration. A moving bed (9), in which a fluidized medium settles and diffuses, is formed in the central portion of the furnace, and a fluidized bed (10), in which the fluidized medium is actively fluidized, is formed in the peripheral portion in the furnace. The fluidized medium is turned over to the upper part of the moving bed (9) from the upper part of the fluidized bed (10), thus circulating through the two beds. Combustible matter (11) is cast into the upper part of the moving bed (9) and gasified to form a combustible gas while circulating, together with the fluidized medium.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 17, 1998
    Date of Patent: February 26, 2002
    Assignee: Ebara Corporation
    Inventors: Yoshio Hirayama, Takahiro Oshita, Chikashi Tame, Shuichi Nagato, Tetsuhisa Hirose, Norihisa Miyoshi, Seiichiro Toyoda, Shugo Hosoda, Shosaku Fujinami, Kazuo Takano
  • Patent number: 6318088
    Abstract: In an improved system for recovering heat from a combustion gas produced by burning wastes, the combustion gas or combustible gas produced by partial burning of the wastes subjected to dust filtration in a temperature range of 450-650° C. at a filtration velocity of 1-5 cm/sec under a pressure of from −5 kPa (gage) to 5 MPa before heat recovery is effected. The dust filtration is preferably performed using a filter medium which may or may not support a denitration catalyst. Heat recovery is preferably effected using a steam superheater. The dust-free gas may partly or wholly be reburnt with or without an auxiliary fuel to a sufficiently high temperature to permit heat recovery. The combustion furnace may be a gasifying furnace which, in turn, may be combined with a melting furnace.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 24, 1999
    Date of Patent: November 20, 2001
    Assignee: Ebara Corporation
    Inventors: Norihisa Miyoshi, Shosaku Fujinami, Tetsuhisa Hirose, Masaaki Irie, Kazuo Takano, Takahiro Oshita
  • Publication number: 20010038989
    Abstract: In order to create, for cement clinker production lines, a calcinator that is connected upstream from the rotary tubular kiln and is equipped with two firings, which enables on the one hand a high-grade calcinated raw meal and on the other hand an exhaust gas with very low NOx emissions, as well as a burning that is as complete as possible of remaining CO-containing NOx reduction zones, it is provided that a combustion point with sub-stoichiometric fuel combustion be arranged both in the rotary kiln exhaust gas ascending line and also in the cooler outgoing air line which form a first and section portion, respectively, of the calcinator and that downstream in a flow direction of the suspension, additional combustion air discharges into the calcinator which combustion air is branched off from the tertiary air line coming from the clinker cooler via at least one branch line.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 22, 2001
    Publication date: November 8, 2001
    Inventors: Hubert Ramesohl, Michael Brachthauser, Andreas Hand, Stephan Kuhnke
  • Patent number: 6305330
    Abstract: A top-supported circulating fluidized bed boiler system includes a furnace, having sidewalls of a tube wall construction, for combusting fuel and producing combustion products, a particle separator, connected to the furnace, for separating particles from the combustion products from the furnace, an external, preferably non-cooled, heat exchange chamber connected to the particle separator for removing heat from the combustion products, a return duct, connected to the heat exchange chamber, for returning particles separated by the separator to the furnace, a rigid support construction for supporting elements of the system, and a suspension arrangement for suspending the heat exchange chamber from the rigid support construction. The suspension arrangement includes, for preferably 60% or more of its length, at least one of steam tubes and water tubes at a temperature of about 300 to about 550° C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 3, 2000
    Date of Patent: October 23, 2001
    Assignee: Foster Wheeler Corporation
    Inventor: Scott Darling
  • Patent number: 6301896
    Abstract: In an improved system for recovering heat from a combustion gas produced by burning wastes, the combustion gas or combustible gas produced by partial burning of the wastes subjected to dust filtration in a temperature range of 450-650° C. at a filtration velocity of 1-5 cm/sec under a pressure of from −5 kPa (gage) to 5 MPa before heat recovery is effected. The dust filtration is preferably performed using a filter medium which may or may not support a denitration catalyst. Heat recovery is preferably effected using a steam superheater. The dust-free gas may partly or wholly be reburnt with or without an auxiliary fuel to a sufficiently high temperature to permit heat recovery. The combustion furnace may be a gasifying furnace which, in turn, may be combined with a melting furnace.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 24, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 16, 2001
    Assignee: Ebara Corporation
    Inventors: Norihisa Miyoshi, Shosaku Fujinami, Tetsuhisa Hirose, Masaaki Irie, Kazuo Takano, Takahiro Oshita
  • Patent number: 6298666
    Abstract: In an improved system for recovering heat from a combustion gas produced by burning wastes, the combustion gas or combustible gas produced by partial burning of the wastes subjected to dust filtration in a temperature range of 450-650° C. at a filtration velocity of 1-5 cm/sec under a pressure of from −5 kPa (gage) to 5 MPa before heat recovery is effected. The dust filtration is preferably performed using a filter medium which may or may not support a denitration catalyst. Heat recovery is preferably effected using a steam superheater. The dust-free gas may partly or wholly be reburnt with or without an auxiliary fuel to a sufficiently high temperature to permit heat recovery. The combustion furnace may be a gasifying furnace which, in turn, may be combined with a melting furnace.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 24, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 9, 2001
    Assignee: Ebara Corporation
    Inventors: Norihisa Miyoshi, Shosaku Fujinami, Tetsuhisa Hirose, Masaaki Irie, Kazuo Takano, Takahiro Oshita
  • Patent number: 6293209
    Abstract: A process for treating a raw material containing aluminum or a similar metal melting at a low temperature and organic matter, including metal separation, particularly intended for the treatment of liquid container rejects consisting of aluminum foil, polymer material and possible fibre residues in order to recover the aluminum and to utilise the organic matter as a fuel. The raw material is introduced in a bubbling fluidised bed, where the organic matter is gasified at a temperature higher than the melting point of the metal present. The gas removed from the fluidised bed and the entrained metal are subsequently cooled to a temperature below the melting point of metal by admixing a cooling medium such as water in the gas flow. The solid metal particles are eventually separated from the gas e.g. with a cyclone and the gas flow is possibly filtered before combustion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 8, 1999
    Date of Patent: September 25, 2001
    Assignee: Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus
    Inventors: Matti Nieminen, Esa Kurkela
  • Patent number: 6286443
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method for treating combustibles by slagging combustion, such as municipal wastes, plastic wastes, sewage sludges, or automobile wastes. Combustibles and oxygen-containing gas are supplied to a slagging combustion furnace (3), and the combustibles are partially oxidized under a reducing atmosphere in a primary combustion chamber (8) to obtain combustible gas and convert ash content in the combustibles into molten slag which is discharged from a slag separation chamber (10), and then the combustible gas is completely combusted in a secondary combustion chamber (9) by supplying oxygen-containing gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 10, 2000
    Date of Patent: September 11, 2001
    Assignee: Ebara Corporation
    Inventors: Shosaku Fujinami, Tetsuhisa Hirose, Takahiro Oshita
  • Patent number: 6283048
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a swirling-type melting furnace for gasifying combustible wastes and/or coal, and a method of gasifying wastes by the swirling-type melting furnace. In the swirling-type melting furnace (5), gaseous materials supplied to a combustion chamber (6) form a swirling flow which includes an outer swirling flow primarily containing particulate combustibles and an inner swirling flow primarily containing gaseous combustibles. Oxygen is supplied through an inner wall of the combustion chamber (6) to the outer swirling flow primarily containing the particulate combustibles for thereby accelerating gasification of the particulate combustibles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 1, 2000
    Date of Patent: September 4, 2001
    Assignees: Ebara Corporation, Ube Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Shosaku Fujinami, Shuichi Nagato, Takahiro Oshita, Shinichirou Chiba, Osamu Kameda, Toshio Fukuda, Yoshio Kosaka
  • Patent number: 6276306
    Abstract: An apparatus (10) for recovering hydrocarbons or other volatile material from granular solids includes an infeed conveyor (20) that moves the mud, containing a mixture of particulate solids and hydrocarbons, into the fluid bed (40). The fluid bed fluidizes the mud; i.e. transforms the mud from a first condition wherein it is a mass having a consistency with elements of similarity with oatmeal, to a second condition wherein it is a mass of swirling particles. Some of the particles leave the fluid bed through a slide gate at the bottom. Other particles, gas and the hydrocarbons leave the fluid bed through an opening at the top, and are transferred to one or more cyclones (60). In the cyclones, the rapid circular motion of the gas, hydrocarbons and particles results in the particles hitting the inside surface of the cyclone, sliding downwardly, and leaving the cyclone through a slide gate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 3, 2000
    Date of Patent: August 21, 2001
    Inventors: Michael L. Murphy, James M Scranton, Ronald A Siverson, Michael K. Kologi
  • Patent number: 6269778
    Abstract: A CFB furnace or reactor unit is provided having enhanced circulation of the reagents finest particles. The improved circulation is achieved by recycling gas having entrained fine particles from a solids collection hopper connected to the solids separator back into the reactor. A system of one or more conduits connects the upper portion of the solids collection hopper with the reactor. The conduit system is equipped with means for recycling gas from the hopper to the reactor. The invention is an inexpensive system which permits recycling of the finest particles that would otherwise be carried over with the gas flow exiting the separator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 1999
    Date of Patent: August 7, 2001
    Assignee: The Babcock & Wilcox Company
    Inventors: Gary L. Anderson, Mikhail Maryamchik, Donald L. Wietzke
  • Patent number: 6263837
    Abstract: A grate construction for a fluidized bed boiler, the boiler including a furnace defined by substantially vertical walls in which a fluidized bed of solid particles is maintained, a windbox under the furnace in the lower part of the boiler, a grate construction being positioned between the furnace and the windbox and forming an upper surface of the windbox, for suspending the fluidized bed in the furnace and an outlet duct for withdrawing from the boiler solid material removed from the grate. The grate construction includes a device for distributing fluidizing air or other equivalent gas from the windbox into the furnace and a device for removing coarse solids from the grate construction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 9, 2000
    Date of Patent: July 24, 2001
    Assignee: Foster Wheeler Energia Oy
    Inventors: Pekka Utunen, Pekka Lehtonen
  • Patent number: 6260492
    Abstract: A method of combustion in a pressurized, fluidized bed and in the freeboard thereof. The combustion method is further characterized by the recirculation of solid sulfur absorbing materials. A gas channel, designed so as to prevent fluidizing gas from entering the channel from below, is provided such that it opens to the freeboard and to a separating member which separates particulate matter from the combustion gasses.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 22, 1998
    Date of Patent: July 17, 2001
    Assignee: ABB Carbon AB
    Inventors: Christopher Adams, Jim Anderson, Mats Andersson, Roine Brännström, John Weatherby
  • Publication number: 20010006769
    Abstract: The method is applicable to a combustion system of the circulating fluidized bed type which system includes a hearth and a cyclone, and operates using fuel that is inserted into the bottom of the hearth, where a reducing atmosphere is created and where the fuel undergoes pyrolysis with separation into two phases, namely a solid phase made up of grains of coke, and a gaseous phase containing volatile matter. Provision is made for a primary air injection, secondary air injections, and a late air injection to be performed at different levels. The late air injected between the top of the hearth and the inlet of the cyclone is used to increase the efficiency with which the cyclone collects the particles that reach the top of the hearth unburnt, and thus to increase the combustion efficiency of the system. The system includes air injection means making it possible to implement the method.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 13, 2000
    Publication date: July 5, 2001
    Inventors: Francois Malaubier, Patrick Duche
  • Publication number: 20010004516
    Abstract: In a combustion installation for burning a fuel, which installation includes a hearth operating as a circulating fluidized bed, and in which installation at least a fraction of the flow of solid particles resulting from the combustion of the fuel in the hearth is returned to the hearth via a heat exchanger operating as a fluidized bed, the method of decreasing nitrogen oxide emissions consisting in the heat exchanger being fed with a fluidization gas which is considerably poorer in oxygen than air.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 19, 2000
    Publication date: June 21, 2001
    Inventors: Francois Malaubier, Eugene Guilleux
  • Patent number: 6230664
    Abstract: A method and an arrangement for supplying air to a fluidized bed boiler are disclosed. In the method, the air is supplied from all comers of the fluidized bed boiler substantially parallel to two opposite walls and from the middle of said walls toward the center of the fluidized bed boiler whereby the air flows cause the formation of four vortexes in the fluidized bed boiler. The arrangement comprises nozzles that blow air jets towards each other parallel to the opposite walls of the fluidized bed boiler and nozzles in the middle of the walls arranged to blow air toward the center of the fluidized bed boiler.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 5, 1999
    Date of Patent: May 15, 2001
    Assignee: Kvaerner Pulping Oy
    Inventors: Kauko Janka, Matti Ylitalo, Tuomo Ruohola
  • Patent number: 6220189
    Abstract: A rotatable fluidised bed incinerator comprises a rotatable combustion chamber, a means for rotating the combustion chamber, a means for introducing combustible material into the combustion chamber, and a means for introducing a gas into the combustion chamber to create a fluidised bed within the chamber. A flow area of the combustion chamber remains substantially constant or increases with decreasing chamber radius.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 14, 1999
    Date of Patent: April 24, 2001
    Assignee: The University of Sheffield
    Inventor: Joshua Swithenbank
  • Patent number: 6213764
    Abstract: Waste tires are disposed of in a cement-manufacturing or other mineral-burning process by introducing the tires into the hot gas stream at at least one point between the mineral-inlet end of a rotary kiln and the lowermost cyclone of an associated preheater system, e.g. into the gas stream within a precalciner vessel or riser duct, the tires being maintained in contact with the hot gas for a sufficient period to effect at least partial combustion of the tires. As an alternative, the tires may be introduced into a Lepol grate preheater.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 19, 1999
    Date of Patent: April 10, 2001
    Assignee: Blue Circle Industries PLC
    Inventor: Lawrence Paul Evans
  • Patent number: 6213033
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method for treating water material containing hydrocarbon, wherein the waste material is supplied in a reactor, gas containing oxygen is supplied in the reactor, said substances are combusted to form gaseous combustion products and solid residue and said solid residue is discharged from the reactor. The gas containing oxygen is supplied continuously in the reactor in amounts insufficient for complete oxidation of the waste material, said gas containing oxygen is supplied so as to pass it through a layer of said solid residue and the gaseous combustion products are passed through a layer of untreated waste material to form a product gas containing hydrocarbons and droplets of liquid hydrocarbons.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 21, 1999
    Date of Patent: April 10, 2001
    Assignee: Fioter Oy
    Inventors: Georgi Manelis, Victor Foursov, Galina Yakovleva, Sergei Glazov, Lev Stesik, Evgeni Poliantchik, Nikolai Alkov
  • Patent number: 6202576
    Abstract: In a process for recycling fine-particle solids (4) discharged from a reactor vessel (1) at a discharging position of the reactor vessel (1) by means of a gas, at a recycling position (16) of the reactor vessel (1), the solids (4) are separated in a solids separator (3) and subsequently collected in a collecting vessel (8) and from the same are recycled into the reactor vessel (1) by means of a conveying gas. To enhance the operation of the solids separator (3), but without causing an additional load on the reactor vessel (1), an additional gas stream (23) independent of the gas stream in the reactor vessel is conducted through the solids separator (3) in a circuit, in the direction of flow of the solids (4).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 1, 1998
    Date of Patent: March 20, 2001
    Assignee: Deutsche Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH
    Inventors: Michael Nagl, Johannes Schenk, Josef Stockinger
  • Patent number: 6190429
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for treating wastes by gasification recovers useful resources including energy, valuables such as metals, and gases for use as synthesis gas for chemical industries or fuel. The wastes are gasified in a fluidized-bed reactor at a relatively low temperature. Gaseous material and char produced in the fluidized-bed reactor are introduced into a high-temperature combustor, and low calorific gas or medium calorific gas is produced in the high-temperature combustor at a relatively high temperature. The fluidized-bed reactor preferably is a revolving flow-type fluidized-bed reactor. The high-temperature combustor preferably is a swirling-type high-temperature combustor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 23, 1999
    Date of Patent: February 20, 2001
    Assignee: Ebara Corporation
    Inventors: Hiroyuki Fujimura, Shosaku Fujinami, Tetsuhisa Hirose, Takahiro Oshita, Masaaki Irie, Kazuo Takano
  • Patent number: 6161490
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a swirling-type melting furnace for gasifying combustible wastes and/or coal, and a method of gasifying wastes by the swirling-type melting furnace. In the swirling-type melting furnace (5), gaseous materials supplied to a combustion chamber (6) form a swirling flow which includes an outer swirling flow primarily containing particulate combustibles and an inner swirling flow primarily containing gaseous combustibles. Oxygen is supplied through an inner wall of the combustion chamber (6) to the outer swirling flow primarily containing the particulate combustibles for thereby accelerating gasification of the particulate combustibles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 15, 1999
    Date of Patent: December 19, 2000
    Assignees: Ebara Corporation, Ube Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Shosaku Fujinami, Shuichi Nagato, Takahiro Oshita, Shinichirou Chiba, Osamu Kameda, Toshio Fukuda, Yoshio Kosaka
  • Patent number: 6133499
    Abstract: According to the present invention, boiler water is pressurized so that its boiling point is set at approximately 200.degree. C. to 320.degree. C. The boiler water is heated in at least two stages. Thermal energy of gases containing chlorine compounds is used to heat the water to its boiling point. Thermal energy of gases which do not contain chlorine compounds is used to heat the water from its boiling point until superheated steam of a given temperature is generated. The heating which uses the thermal energy of gases containing chlorine compounds is accomplished using the thermal energy from the combustion of pyrolysis gases obtained from a pyrolysis means in which waste material is supplied into a chamber containing a fluidized bed medium which has been heated to at least 300.degree. C., and a pyrolytic reaction is induced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 12, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 17, 2000
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Hirotoshi Horizoe, Yoshihito Shimizu, Jun Sato, Shizuo Yasuda, Yuji Kaihara, Yoshimasa Kawami
  • Patent number: 6119607
    Abstract: The process is conducted in an incinerator installation comprising i) a generally vertical, cylindrical riser pipe, ii) a vertically extending annular chamber surrounding the riser pipe and containing a fluidized bed of granular inert material, and iii) a burner for producing an upwardly extending flame in the lower portion of the riser pipe. Granular solid waste is supplied at a constant flow rate to the bed, directly or through the burner. Granular solid waste and bed material is transferred from the lower portion of the annular chamber to the lower portion of the riser pipe directly in the flame. The flame burns the granular solid waste, heats the inside of the riser pipe to a temperature greater than or equal to 900.degree. C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 9, 1997
    Date of Patent: September 19, 2000
    Assignee: Corporation de l'Ecole Polytechnique
    Inventors: Christophe Guy, Robert Legros, Jamal Chaouki, Rene-Jean Lavallee, Luc Bussac, Luc Mauillon, Lukanda Mukadi
  • Patent number: 6116169
    Abstract: In an improved system for recovering heat from a combustion gas produced by burning wastes, the combustion gas or combustible gas produced by partial burning of the wastes subjected to dust filtration in a temperature range of 450-650.degree. C. at a filtration velocity of 1-5 cm/sec under a pressure of from -5 kPa (gage) to 5 MPa before heat recovery is effected. The dust filtration is preferably performed using a filter medium which may or may not support a denitration catalyst. Heat recovery is preferably effected using a steam superheater. The dust-free gas may partly or wholly be reburnt with or without an auxiliary fuel to a sufficiently high temperature to permit heat recovery. The combustion furnace may be a gasifying furnace which, in turn, may be combined with a melting furnace.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 16, 1998
    Date of Patent: September 12, 2000
    Assignee: Ebara Corporation
    Inventors: Norihisa Miyoshi, Shosaku Fujinami, Tetsuhisa Hirose, Masaaki Irie, Kazuo Takano, Takahiro Oshita
  • Patent number: 6109342
    Abstract: Heat exchanger, consisting of a reservoir, having upwardly directed tubes that are flowed through by a liquid to be heated and by fluidized bed particles for cleaning the tubes internally. Connected to the reservoir is an external downcomer (2) for receiving fluidized bed particles coming from the top box (21) of the reservoir and to be conveyed again to the bottom box (25) of the reservoir. Provided in the downcomer (2) is an inner tube (1) of smaller diameter, which is open at its bottom end (5) and provided, directly below the closed top end (9), with openings (8) for effecting a circulation flow in the downcomer (2).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 11, 1998
    Date of Patent: August 29, 2000
    Assignee: Klarex Beheer B.V.
    Inventor: Dick Gerrit Klaren
  • Patent number: 6099301
    Abstract: Feed apparatus for treating and feeding lumpy or granular material to a smelting furnace, which apparatus contains a plurality of silos or sub-silos in which said material is contacted with a gas. The silo or sub-silo contains a cone-shaped gas distributor located in the middle of the bottom portion of the silo. The gas distribution cone has a number of gas nozzles, preferably between 100 and 500 gas nozzles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 26, 1999
    Date of Patent: August 8, 2000
    Assignee: Outokumpu Oyj
    Inventors: Matti Elias Honkaniemi, Pekka Juhani Niemela, Risto Markus Heikkila, Martti Johannes Jankkila, Launo Leo Lilja
  • Patent number: 6098553
    Abstract: An arrangement for converting a conventional oil boiler to a boiler with moist, granular and solid fuel, utilizes a fuel combustion gas dryer connected to the combustion gas line of the boiler, and a solid fuel combustion device to replace the oil burner. The combustion gas dryer is a so-called circulating fluidized bed (CFB) dryer together with a particle separator and a combustion gas center tap has been fitted into the oil boiler, through which center tap hot combustion gas has been set to be mixed with combustion gases of the normal outlet in the desired proportion in order to regulate the temperature of the drying gas of the dryer. The combustion devices may include a cyclone burner.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 29, 1999
    Date of Patent: August 8, 2000
    Assignee: Vapo Oy
    Inventors: Mauno Oksanen, Markku Miettinen, Markku Pyykkonen, Kari Pajunen
  • Patent number: 6095095
    Abstract: A CFB reactor or combustor having an impact type primary particle separator collects solids particles from a flow of flue gas/solids and returns the collected particles along an inclined or substantially horizontal planar floor to a bottom portion of the reactor or combustor for subsequent recirculation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 7, 1998
    Date of Patent: August 1, 2000
    Assignee: The Bacock & Wilcox Company
    Inventors: Kiplin C. Alexander, Felix Belin, Mikhail Maryamchik, David J. Walker
  • Patent number: 6073682
    Abstract: An apparatus for carrying out a physical and/or chemical process, such as a heat exchanger, including a reservoir in which a series of riser pipes (2) are arranged. Disposed in the reservoir (1) is a fluidized bed of granular material. The apparatus includes means for circulating the particles of the fluidized bed through the riser pipes (2), which means include a downcomer (15) arranged outside the reservoir (1), this downcomer being closed off at the bottom end by an inclined closing plate (16). Above the closing plate (16), via a bypass line (17), a part of the medium to be treated is fed to the particle bed resting on the plate (16).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 11, 1998
    Date of Patent: June 13, 2000
    Assignee: Klarex Beheer B.V.
    Inventor: Dick Gerrit Klaren
  • Patent number: 6067943
    Abstract: The circulating fluidized bed boiler comprises a combustion hearth and a separator cyclone interconnected by a duct which extends along a longitudinal axis and which channels a flow of particles and gas containing nitrogen oxides. It also includes means for injecting into the flow a reagent for reducing nitrogen oxides. Said means comprises at least a first injection tube disposed in a setback of the top portion of the combustion hearth which extends over the duct so as to inject the reagent along the longitudinal axis of the duct in the same direction as the flow.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 16, 1999
    Date of Patent: May 30, 2000
    Assignee: Alstom Energy Systems SA
    Inventors: Jean-Xavier Morin, Michel Vandycke, Corinne Beal
  • Patent number: 6058857
    Abstract: A plurality of dispersive air pipes for combustion (11) containing a plurality of dispersive air holes and projecting in a cantilever fashion from the side walls (1b, 1c) in an oblique downward direction are provided in the lower portion of a combustion zone (2b) of a furnace main unit (1) which includes an ash discharge outlet (6) formed in the base portion of the furnace main unit, and an incombustible material discharge space (12) is formed between the ends of the dispersive air pipes for combustion (11). As a result, incombustible material accumulating on the dispersive air pipes for combustion (11) is guided to the incombustible material discharge space (12) and then discharged.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 23, 1998
    Date of Patent: May 9, 2000
    Assignee: Hitachi Zosen Corporation
    Inventors: Seiichi Nakai, Ryozo Shiji, Takeshi Matsui, Norihiro Aoki, Yoshimasa Miura, Yusuke Okada
  • Patent number: 6058858
    Abstract: A circulating fluidized bed (CFB) reactor or combustor having an internal impact type primary particle separator which provides for internal return of all primary collected solids to a bottom portion of the reactor or combustor for subsequent recirculation without external and internal recycle conduits. The CFB reactor enclosure or furnace is provided with plural furnace outlets. This construction permits increased furnace depths and reduced furnace widths, resulting in a compact design.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 29, 1998
    Date of Patent: May 9, 2000
    Assignee: The Babcock & Wilcox Company
    Inventors: Felix Belin, David E. James, David J. Walker, Kiplin C. Alexander
  • Patent number: 6032591
    Abstract: A refuse recycling system which recycles municipal waste as energy, includes a shredder for shredding the waste and removing rejects via a feed pipe to a circulating fluidized bed reactor, the reactor producing flue gases. The reactor includes a side dense fluidized bed situated on the wall of the reactor which is provided with the feed pipe, the side dense fluidized bed extracting non-fluidizable heavy elements and transporting them to a coarse-particle sorter apparatus via an extraction duct disposed at a base of the side dense fluidized bed. At least a portion of the rejects from the shredder is fed into the coarse-particle sorter apparatus. The coarse-particle sorter apparatus cools the elements and extracts non-fluidizable inert matter from the elements, the remaining matter being fed back into the reactor. A module for recovering energy and for treating the flue gases output by said reactor is connected downstream from the reactor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 29, 1998
    Date of Patent: March 7, 2000
    Assignee: Gec Alsthom Stein Industrie
    Inventors: Jean-Xavier Morin, Jean-Pierre Peyrelongue
  • Patent number: 6029612
    Abstract: A fluidized bed reactor including in its lower part a furnace section having a bed of fluidized solid particles, the furnace section being delimited by side walls such as external side walls and/or partition walls and a bottom grid, and a supplying device for introducing gas into the furnace section at a level above the bottom grid, the supplying device including a gas source chamber, an opening in at least one of the side walls at a level above the bottom grid, and a conduit having a first end connected to the opening and a second end connected to the gas source chamber. The conduit includes a solid flow seal preventing solid particles from flowing backwards from the furnace section into the conduit in a manner preventing or noticeably decreasing introduction of gas from the gas source chamber to the furnace section.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 7, 1997
    Date of Patent: February 29, 2000
    Assignee: Foster Wheeler Energia Oy
    Inventors: Donald L. Wietzke, Neil R. Raskin, Scott Darling
  • Patent number: 6003475
    Abstract: A power plant which combusts fossil fuel and biomaterial or waste includes a large boiler plant having at least one device for the combustion of fossil fuel. At least one additional combustion device is connected to the large boiler plant via at least one connection channel. The additional combustion device includes a grate hearth for the combustion of biomaterial or waste. The additional combustion device includes at least one heat exchanger device which is integrated into the water/steam circuit of the large boiler plant.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 15, 1998
    Date of Patent: December 21, 1999
    Assignee: Alstom Energy Systems GmbH
    Inventors: Birgit Elsner, Hellmuth Bruggemann, Uwe Krogmann, Tino-Martin Marling, Gerhard Schroth, Walter Vogt
  • Patent number: 6003476
    Abstract: A boiler comprising a circulating fluidized bed hearth, a separator member for separating flue gas and solids extracted from the hearth, an external dense fluidized bed between the solids outlet of the separator member and the base of the hearth, the external bed containing a first heat exchanger in which a coolant fluid to be evaporated circulates. The outlet of the first heat exchanger is connected to a second heat exchanger placed in the hearth.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 17, 1998
    Date of Patent: December 21, 1999
    Assignee: Gec Alsthom Stein Industrie
    Inventors: Jean-Claude Semedard, Pierre Gauville, Christian Enault
  • Patent number: 5996512
    Abstract: An apparatus for recycling municipal waste as energy includes a shredder for shredding the waste, and removing rejects, the rejects from the shredder being sorted into a first stream of inert matter that is substantially unpolluted with organic matter and into a second stream of inert matter that is substantially polluted with either organic matter or with combustible heavy elements; a first outlet for removing the second stream of inert matter; a circulating fluidized bed reactor for receiving the shredded waste and producing gases with solid particles therein; a cyclone for separating out the solid particles and receiving the gases output by the reactor; a recuperator boiler into which the gases output by the cyclone are discharged and which is provided with a first set of heat exchangers, the boiler including a dust-filtering hopper; a second outlet for removing the solid particles from the dust-filtering hopper; a second set of heat exchangers disposed in a chamber into which the gases are fed after trans
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 29, 1998
    Date of Patent: December 7, 1999
    Assignee: GEC Alsthom Stein Industrie
    Inventors: Jean-Xavier Morin, Jean-Pierre Peyrelongue
  • Patent number: 5988080
    Abstract: In an improved system for recovering heat from a combustion gas produced by burning wastes, the combustion gas or combustible gas produced by partial burning of the wastes subjected to dust filtration in a temperature range of 450-650.degree. C. at a filtration velocity of 1-5 cm/sec under a pressure of from -5 kPa (gage) to 5 MPa before heat recovery is effected. The dust filtration is preferably performed using a filter medium which may or may not support a denitration catalyst. Heat recovery is preferably effected using a steam superheater. The dust-free gas may partly or wholly be reburnt with or without an auxiliary fuel to a sufficiently high temperature to permit heat recovery. The combustion furnace may be a gasifying furnace which, in turn, may be combined with a melting furnace.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 3, 1996
    Date of Patent: November 23, 1999
    Assignee: Ebara Corporation
    Inventors: Norihisa Miyoshi, Shosaku Fujinami, Tetsuhisa Hirose, Masaaki Irie, Kazuo Takano, Takahiro Oshita
  • Patent number: 5983840
    Abstract: The invention relates to a steam generator, which consists of a combustion chamber (1), a radiation part (2) and a convection part (3) and which has at least two vertical gas passes (4, 5) following the combustion chamber (1), in each case with a 180.degree. deflection of the flue gas (12), the combustion chamber (1) and the gas pass (4) being separated from one another by means of a first partition (14) and the two gas passes (4, 5) being separated from one another by means of a second partition (6). It is defined in that the second partition (6) is designed, at its lower end, in such a way that the passage area for the flue gas (12) from the vertical pass (4) with downward flow to the vertical pass (5) with upward flow has a variable value over the width, the passage area being smaller in the middle than on the outside. The secondary flow occurring during deflection is thereby reinforced, in the wall region the vortices of said secondary flow rotating opposite to the direction of the main flow deflection.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 16, 1998
    Date of Patent: November 16, 1999
    Assignee: Asea Brown Boveri AG
    Inventors: Oliver Riccius, Georg Ziegler
  • Patent number: 5979367
    Abstract: A dense fluidized bed exchanger includes a casing the vertical longitudinal walls of which consist of tubes conveying a heat-conducting fluid, the casing being divided lengthwise into chambers separated from each other by a baffle consisting of a wall consisting of tubes conveying a heat-conducting fluid. The vertical longitudinal walls consist of horizontal tubes and the baffle extends from the bottom wall of the casing to a height less than that of the latter and consists of superposed hairpin-shape transverse extensions of tubes of each of the vertical longitudinal walls disposed perpendicular to the tubes and extending to the opposite vertical longitudinal wall.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 12, 1998
    Date of Patent: November 9, 1999
    Assignee: GEC Alsthom Stein Industrie
    Inventors: Jean Aubry, Djamel Daoud, Alain Quaranta
  • Patent number: 5979341
    Abstract: A fluidized-bed thermal reaction apparatus burns or gasifies combustible matter containing incombustible components, so that deposition of incombustible components in a fluidized-bed furnace is prevented, and incombustible components are smoothly removed, thereby efficiently burning or gasifying the combustible matter. A weak diffusion plate, a strong diffusion plate, and an auxiliary diffusion plate, each have a large number of fluidizing gas feed holes. An incombustible component outlet is disposed between the auxiliary diffusion plate and the strong diffusion plate. A part of fluidizing gas is supplied from the incombustible component outlet, or the incombustible component outlet is provided to open horizontally. Thus, a continuous fluidized bed circulating stream is formed in the furnace bottom. The weak and auxiliary diffusion plates each has a downwardly inclined surface extending toward the incombustible component outlet.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 17, 1998
    Date of Patent: November 9, 1999
    Assignee: Ebara Corporation
    Inventors: Shuichi Nagato, Takahiro Oshita
  • Patent number: 5967098
    Abstract: A fluidized bed combustion system is disclosed and in particular a fluidized bed combustion system particularly well suited for the combustion of oil shale, generating steam thereby. The fluidized bed combustion system includes a furnace volume having a multi-chambered upper segment thereof, a deentrainment zone, a fluidized bed having a plurality of isolatable segments thereof, a fluidized bed ash cooler having a plurality of isolatable segments thereof wherein the fluidized bed ash cooler is in fluid communication with the furnace volume, a fuel supply means in fluid communication with the furnace volume for delivering oil shale thereto for combustion therein, a backpass volume defined by a plurality of backpass wall tubes integral to a thermodynamic steam cycle and in fluid flow relation with the furnace volume and a plurality of circulatory fluid flow paths integral to a thermodynamic steam cycle and operative to conduct the flow of steam or water therethrough.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 22, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 19, 1999
    Inventors: Michael C. Tanca, Mark S. Zak
  • Patent number: 5960559
    Abstract: A process and apparatus for drying material, in which a previous dried material is mixed into the wet material to be dried to produce a dried mixture of different particle sizes. The process for drying material requires less industrial equipment implemented in a more economical and simpler plant that can be operated with low energy and maintenance requirments. The amount of fine material obtained after drying is measured and the amount of fine previously dried material mixed into the wet material to be dried is then set in inverse proportion to the quantity of fine dried material produce.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 14, 1997
    Date of Patent: October 5, 1999
    Assignee: Andritz-Patentverwaltungs-Gesellscaft m.b.h.
    Inventors: Erwin Brunnmair, Reinhard Pinter
  • Patent number: 5957066
    Abstract: In a fluidized-bed thermal reaction apparatus for burning or gasifying combustible matter containing incombustible components, deposition of incombustible components in a fluidized-bed furnace is prevented, and incombustible components are smoothly removed, thereby efficiently burning or gasifying combustible matter. The fluidized-bed thermal reaction apparatus has a weak diffusion plate, a strong diffusion plate, and an auxiliary diffusion plate, each having a large number of fluidizing gas feed holes, and an incombustible component outlet disposed between the auxiliary diffusion plate and the strong diffusion plate. A part of fluidizing gas is supplied from the incombustible component outlet, or the incombustible component outlet is provided to open horizontally. Thus, a continuous fluidized bed circulating stream is formed in the furnace bottom. The weak and auxiliary diffusion plates each has a downwardly inclined surface extending toward the incombustible component outlet.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 18, 1996
    Date of Patent: September 28, 1999
    Assignee: Ebara Corporation
    Inventors: Shuichi Nagato, Takahiro Oshita
  • Patent number: 5954001
    Abstract: A fluidized bed reactor includes an axial recirculating fluidized bed and at least first and second lateral dense fluidized beds, respectively disposed along a first and a second wall of the jacket of the reactor. Waste is fed via at least one point on the first wall of the jacket of the reactor, above the first lateral dense fluidized bed. The reactor includes at least one duct for extracting non-fluidizable heavy elements at the base of the first lateral dense fluidized bed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 29, 1997
    Date of Patent: September 21, 1999
    Assignee: GEC Alsthom Stein Industrie
    Inventor: Jean-Xavier Morin