Metal Or Alloy Or Metalloid, Each In Particulate Form, With At Least One Metal Oxide, Inorganic Oxygen Containing Salt Or Organic Metal-oxygen Salt Patents (Class 149/37)
  • Patent number: 7422618
    Abstract: The present invention relates to an expansive cell composition for an electric rock destruction. The expansive cell composition is fabricated using metallic salt that is oxidation agent, metallic powder, and hydrocarbon compound. The composition is uniformly mixed at a certain composition ratio so that the composition is stably expanded by a high temperature heat and impact wave energy generated when a high current is fast discharged with respect to a metallic wire. A hybrid-oxidation and combustion reaction is obtained, in which a hybrid-oxidation and combustion reaction is performed, in which a flame oxidation reaction of metallic salt and metallic powder and a combustion oxidation reaction of a hydrocarbon compound by the flame oxidation reaction are mixed. The rocks are destructed by generating a vapor expansion force matching with a fracture ability class of rocks. Low noise and vibration are obtained when destructing rocks, and broken pieces of rocks do not fly away.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 18, 2005
    Date of Patent: September 9, 2008
    Assignee: Swell Tech Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Yong-So Cho
  • Patent number: 6986819
    Abstract: A method of preparing energetic metal-oxide-based energetic materials using sol-gel chemistry has been invented. The wet chemical sol-gel processing provides an improvement in both safety and performance. Essentially, a metal-oxide oxidizer skeletal structure is prepared from hydrolyzable metals (metal salts or metal alkoxides) with fuel added to the sol prior to gelation or synthesized within the porosity metal-oxide gel matrix. With metal salt precursors a proton scavenger is used to destabilize the sol and induce gelation. With metal alkoxide precursors standard well-known sol-gel hydrolysis and condensation reactions are used. Drying is done by standard sol-gel practices, either by a slow evaporation of the liquid residing within the pores to produce a high density solid nanocomposite, or by supercritical extraction to produce a lower density, high porous nanocomposite.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 24, 2003
    Date of Patent: January 17, 2006
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Thomas M. Tillotson, Randall L. Simpson, Lawrence W. Hrubesh
  • Patent number: 6976430
    Abstract: An igniter for an inflator has a heat generating body provided on a bottom surface of a pyrotechnic material accomodating space. By dripping a pyrotechnic material slurry including a fuel component and an oxidizing agent component dispersed in a solvent from above the accomodating space upon manufacturing the igniter, the heat generating body can be prevented from being damaged.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 2, 2003
    Date of Patent: December 20, 2005
    Assignee: Daicel Chemical Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Gen Kinoshita, Hiroshi Harada, Shingo Oda
  • Patent number: 6849103
    Abstract: Disclosed is a rapidly expanding metallic mixture treated for oxidation prevention thereof at room temperature, comprising a metal salt and a metal powder, which prevents its spontaneous explosion due to oxidation of the metal powder in the mixture at room temperature during storage, or dysfunction of the mixture upon blasting work because of altered mixing ratios between the metal salt and the metal powder. The rapidly expanding metallic mixture is characterized in that the mixture is added with a water repellent such as oil or an inorganic preservative, or is coated with a resin and formed to the size of 0.1-100 mm3.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 24, 2002
    Date of Patent: February 1, 2005
    Inventor: Chang Sun Kim
  • Patent number: 6841015
    Abstract: A high temperature combination delay element and ignition composition contains a polymeric silicone component, an oxidizer component and a high temperature metal component.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 9, 2003
    Date of Patent: January 11, 2005
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventor: James J. Baker
  • Patent number: 6792867
    Abstract: Fluoroalkylsilane-coated metal particles having a central metal core, a buffer layer surrounding the core, and a fluoroalkylsilane layer attached to the buffer layer are prepared by combining a chemically reactive fluoroalkylsilane compound with an oxide coated metal particle having a hydroxylated surface. The resulting fluoroalkylsilane layer that coats the particles provides them with excellent resistance to aging. The particles can be blended with oxidant particles to form energetic powder that releases chemical energy when the buffer layer is physically disrupted so that the reductant metal core can react with the oxidant.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 2, 2003
    Date of Patent: September 21, 2004
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Betty S. Jorgensen, Wayne C. Danen
  • Publication number: 20040134577
    Abstract: An igniting agent composition substantially free of a lead compound, characterized in that it comprises a metal power and one or more selected from the group consisting of nitrate salt, basic nitrate salt, a metal oxide and a basic carbonate salt; and an igniter using the igniting agent composition. The igniting agent composition shows no delay in ignition time and no reduction in igniting capability, as compared to conventional lead-containing composition.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 2, 2004
    Publication date: July 15, 2004
    Inventors: Yasushi Matsumura, Shigeru Maeda, Eishi Sato, Kenjiro Ikeda
  • Patent number: 6749702
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a low temperature autoignition composition for safely initiating combustion of a main pyrotechnic charge in a gas generator or pyrotechnic device exposed to flame or a high temperature environment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 22, 1998
    Date of Patent: June 15, 2004
    Assignee: Talley Defense Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Gregory D. Knowlton, Christopher P. Ludwig
  • Publication number: 20040108030
    Abstract: An ignition composition effective to form a porous igniter substance capable of adhering to an associated inflator apparatus surface for use in an automotive inflatable restraint system and a method for preparing a porous igniter coating formed from the ignition composition are provided. The ignition composition includes a fuel, an oxidizer, a polymeric binder and a blowing agent effective, upon decomposition, to increase the surface area of the porous igniter substance. The porous igniter substance or coating is formed by heating the ignition composition to a predetermined temperature.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 2, 2003
    Publication date: June 10, 2004
    Inventors: Ivan V. Mendenhall, David W. Parkinson
  • Patent number: 6709537
    Abstract: Pyrotechnic compositions such as used in initiator devices and corresponding initiator devices having a low firing energy are provided. The pyrotechnic composition includes a mixture containing a fuel component which includes a quantity of at least one Iron Blue Pigment and an oxidizer component which includes at least one oxidizer effective, upon reaction initiation with at least a portion of the quantity of the at least one Iron Blue Pigment, to produce gaseous reaction products. The pyrotechnic composition may additionally include a burn rate enhancing additive such as zirconium metal powder.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 13, 2002
    Date of Patent: March 23, 2004
    Assignee: Autoliv ASP, Inc,
    Inventor: Brian K. Hamilton
  • Patent number: 6666936
    Abstract: Fluoroalkylsilane-coated metal particles. The particles have a central metal core, a buffer layer surrounding the core, and a fluoroalkylsilane layer attached to the buffer layer. The particles may be prepared by combining a chemically reactive fluoroalkylsilane compound with an oxide coated metal particle having a hydroxylated surface. The resulting fluoroalkylsilane layer that coats the particles provides them with excellent resistance to aging. The particles can be blended with oxidant particles to form energetic powder that releases chemical energy when the buffer layer is physically disrupted so that the reductant metal core can react with the oxidant.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 13, 2003
    Date of Patent: December 23, 2003
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Betty S. Jorgensen, Wayne C. Danen
  • Patent number: 6627013
    Abstract: A thermite composition for pyrotechnics having high heat transfer charactistics comprising a strongly reducible metal oxide, a thermally decomposable heat transfer agent consisting of Cu2O, and a strong reducing agent. It is desirable that the stoichiometerics and mechanics of the thermite reaction is such that there is a substantial excess of oxygen. Also, other ingredients may be added to the composition such as gas generating compounds, binders, diluents and supplemental oxidizing agents.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 5, 2002
    Date of Patent: September 30, 2003
    Inventors: Greg Carter, Jr., Greg Carter, Sr.
  • Patent number: 6617064
    Abstract: The present invention features methods for preparing stabilized &agr;-AlH3 and &agr;′-AlH3, compositions containing these alane polymorphs, e.g., energetic compositions such as rocket propellants, and methods for using the novel polymorphs as chemical reducing agents, polymerization catalysts, and as a hydrogen source in fuel cells and batteries. The method produces stabilized alane by treating &agr;-AlH3 with an acidic solution that optionally contains a stabilizing agent such as an electron donor, an electron acceptor, or a compound which coordinates the Al3+ ion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 29, 2001
    Date of Patent: September 9, 2003
    Assignee: SRI International
    Inventors: Mark A. Petrie, Jeffrey C. Bottaro, Robert J. Schmitt, Paul E. Penwell, David C. Bomberger
  • Patent number: 6605167
    Abstract: An autoignition material includes a plurality of agglomerates. Each agglomerate comprises an oxidizer material particle. A plurality of metal fuel particles are disposed on the oxidizer material particle. The metal fuel particles are present in a weight ratio effective to substantially stoichiometrically balance the oxidizer material particle. The metal fuel particles exothermically react with the oxidizer material particle when the autoignition material is exposed to a temperature of about 80° C. to about 250° C. A thin binder film adheres the metal fuel particles to the oxidizer material particle and maintains the metal fuel particles in intimate contact with the oxidizer particle.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 1, 2000
    Date of Patent: August 12, 2003
    Assignee: TRW Inc.
    Inventor: Harold R. Blomquist
  • Publication number: 20030145924
    Abstract: A thermite composition for pyrotechnics having high heat transfer charactistics comprising a strongly reducible metal oxide, a thermally decomposable heat transfer agent consisting of Cu2O, 5 and a strong reducing agent. It is desirable that the stoichiometerics and mechanics of the thermite reaction is such that there is a substantial excess of oxygen. Also, other ingredients may be added to the composition such as gas generating compounds, binders, diluents and supplemental oxidizing agents.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 5, 2002
    Publication date: August 7, 2003
    Inventor: Greg Carter
  • Patent number: 6599380
    Abstract: The invention relates to an igniter composition for use in a gas generator for a safety means in vehicles. The igniter composition consists of a gas-generating composition in an amount of 15 to 70 wt-% and of a thermite composition in an amount of 30 to 85 wt-%. The gas-generating composition consists essentially of a guanidine compound as fuel and an inorganic oxidizer. The thermite composition consisting essentially of a metal and a metal oxide. The igniter composition or the gas-generating composition and the thermite composition, each for itself, have an oxygen balance of between 0 and −20%.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 6, 2001
    Date of Patent: July 29, 2003
    Assignee: TRW Airbag Systems GmbH & Co. KG
    Inventors: Siegfried Zeuner, Achim Hofmann, Roland Schropp, Karl-Heinz Rödig
  • Patent number: 6589374
    Abstract: A pourable, plastic-bound explosive charge has a crystalline explosive substance embedded in a polymer matrix which includes a binder, a softener and a metal powder. The metal powder which is added in a proportion of 0.1 to 10 weight % has substantially spherical grains and is one or more of the following materials: vanadium, niobium, tantalum, chromium, molybdenum or tungsten.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 26, 2001
    Date of Patent: July 8, 2003
    Assignee: Rheinmetall W & M GmbH
    Inventor: Paul Wanninger
  • Publication number: 20030051786
    Abstract: This invention relates to granules comprising a homogenous mixture of metal flakes and/or metal powder and metal oxide powder, and a binder. The process also relates to a process for producing such granules. The process includes the step of forming a mixture of metal flakes and metal oxide powder, forming the mixture into a homogenous blend, adding the blend, together with a binder, to a granulator to form granules, and drying the granules. Granules so formed containing aluminium, aluminium oxide and iron oxide find particular use as sensitisers and energisers in explosives compositions.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 6, 2002
    Publication date: March 20, 2003
    Inventor: Dennis Gordon Verity
  • Publication number: 20030015267
    Abstract: A delay composition for a detonator or delay device. The composition comprising a mixture of silicon and barium sulfate, and an amount of red lead in the range of about 3 to 15%, and preferably 6 to 12%, by weight of the mixture. The invention also relates to a delay element comprising a rigid metal tube containing the delay composition, and a delay device incorporating the delay element.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 2, 2001
    Publication date: January 23, 2003
    Inventor: Rejean Aube
  • Patent number: 6503350
    Abstract: Disclosed are propellants such as may be used in solid rocket motors. In one preferred embodiment, the propellant comprises one high energy propellant composition comprising a homogeneous mixture of fuel and oxidizer having a predetermined fuel/oxidizer ratio, wherein individual fuel particles are generally uniformly distributed throughout a matrix of oxidizer, and a low energy propellant composition comprising a fuel and oxidizer. The amounts of the two propellants are present in amounts which achieve a preselected burn rate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 23, 1999
    Date of Patent: January 7, 2003
    Assignee: Technanogy, LLC
    Inventors: Joe A. Martin, Larry H. Welch
  • Patent number: 6485588
    Abstract: An apparatus (12) for inflating an inflatable vehicle occupant protection device (14) comprises an inflator housing (20). A gas generating material (18) is within the inflator housing (20). The gas generating material (18), when ignited, generates a gas for inflating the vehicle occupant protection device (14). An autoignition material (24) is provided for igniting the gas generating material (18). The autoignition material (24) comprises an additive that has a ratio of absorptivity of incident radiation to emissivity of internal energy by radiation of at least about 10.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 20, 2000
    Date of Patent: November 26, 2002
    Assignee: TRW Inc.
    Inventor: Timothy A. Swann
  • Patent number: 6481746
    Abstract: Gas generating compositions and methods for their use are provided. Metal complexes are used as gas generating compositions. These complexes are comprised of a metal cation template, a neutral ligand containing hydrogen and nitrogen, and sufficient oxidizing anion to balance the charge of the complex. The complexes are formulated such that when the complex combusts, nitrogen gas and water vapor is produced. Specific examples of such complexes include metal nitrite ammine, metal nitrate ammine, and metal perchlorate ammine complexes, as well as hydrazine complexes. A binder and co-oxidizer can be combined with the metal complexes to improve crush strength of the gas generating compositions and to permit efficient combustion of the binder. Such gas generating compositions are adaptable for use in gas generating devices such as automobile air bags.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 7, 1996
    Date of Patent: November 19, 2002
    Assignee: Alliant Techsystems Inc.
    Inventors: Jerald C. Hinshaw, Daniel W. Doll, Reed J. Blau, Gary K. Lund
  • Patent number: 6454886
    Abstract: Disclosed are compositions comprising mixtures of metallic particles and solid oxidizer, and a method for preparing such compositions. The compositions comprise a homogeneous mixture of metallic particles and solid oxidizer wherein individual metallic particles are generally uniformly distributed throughout a matrix of solid oxidizer which is suitable for use in a solid rocket motor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 23, 1999
    Date of Patent: September 24, 2002
    Assignee: Technanogy, LLC
    Inventors: Joe A. Martin, Larry H. Welch
  • Publication number: 20020033211
    Abstract: The invention relates to an igniter composition for use in a gas generator for a safety means in vehicles. The igniter composition consists of a gas-generating composition in an amount of 15 to 70 wt-% and of a thermite composition in an amount of 30 to 85 wt-%. The gas-generating composition consists essentially of a guanidine compound as fuel and an inorganic oxidizer. The thermite composition consisting essentially of a metal and a metal oxide. The igniter composition or the gas-generating composition and the thermite composition, each for itself, have an oxygen balance of between 0 and −20%.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 6, 2001
    Publication date: March 21, 2002
    Applicant: TRW Airbag Systems GmbH & Co. KG
    Inventors: Siegfried Zeuner, Achim Hofmann, Roland Schropp, Karl-Heinz Rodig
  • Publication number: 20010054462
    Abstract: A firing mixture which contains explosives, oxidizing and reducing agents is characterized in that it contains one or several explosives which can be fired by laser light. Also disclosed is a process for producing the same and its use.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 5, 2001
    Publication date: December 27, 2001
    Inventors: Rainer Hagel, Dieter Hofmann, Bodo Preis, Klaus Redecker, Wolfram Seebeck
  • Patent number: 6316125
    Abstract: The invention provides a new and improved process and exothermic reaction mixture for producing molten weld metal. The molten weld metal is used in joining one metallic piece with at least one other metallic piece. The process and exothermic reaction mixture have distinct advantages over the prior art. These advantages include a higher filler metal yield, an increased tensile strength, and a higher quality corrosion resistant weld. These advantages are accomplished by a process wherein a reactant mixture is provided which has a reducing agent, a metallic compound, and at least two filler metals that at least in part do not chemically react with the metallic compound, one of which is aluminum. The metallic compound subsequently forms, with the reducing agent, having a high heat of formation which provides an exothermic reaction with sufficient heat to melt the filler metals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 1, 1999
    Date of Patent: November 13, 2001
    Assignee: Erico International Corporation
    Inventors: Nicolae Gaman, Harrie van den Nieuwelaar
  • Patent number: 6296678
    Abstract: This invention pertains to an article that emits infrared radiation for a period of about 15 minutes or more, depending on the size and shape, and to a process for preparing the article. The article includes, in a preferred embodiment, a combustible aerogel or other nanocellular substrate with iron metal impregnant formed by thermal decomposition of iron pentacarbonyl deposited on and in the substrate in an amount of at least about 5% or at least about 20% of the weight of the substrate, depending on the substrate. The impregnant reacts exothermically on contact with air or an oxygen-containing gas and imparts sufficient energy to the substrate to cause it to burn for about 30 seconds to about 30 minutes depending on size and shape, thereby emitting infrared radiation. The process pertains to deposition of the impregnant on and in the substrate by flowing a carrier gas saturated with the impregnant precursor over and through the substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 27, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 2, 2001
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Celia Merzbacher, Ken Limparis, Robert Bernstein, Debra Rolison, Zachary J. Homrighaus, Alan D. Berry
  • Patent number: 6227116
    Abstract: A detonator comprising a shell with a secondary explosive base charge, igniting means and an intermediate pyrotechnical train, said train comprising a novel ignition composition with a specific redox-pair of a metal fuel and a metal oxide oxidant, said fuel being present in excess to the amount of stoichiometrically being required to reduce the metal oxide, the ignition composition being able to ignite said secondary explosive into a convective deflagrating state to reliably detonate the same. Use of said novel ignition composition for the ignition of secondary explosives in general.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 10, 1998
    Date of Patent: May 8, 2001
    Assignee: Nitro Nobel AB
    Inventor: Viktor Dumenko
  • Patent number: 6221187
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a low temperature autoignition composition for safely initiating combustion of a main pyrotechnic charge in a gas generator or pyrotechnic device exposed to flame or a high temperature environment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 21, 1999
    Date of Patent: April 24, 2001
    Assignee: Talley Defense Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Gregory D. Knowlton, Christopher P. Ludwig
  • Patent number: 6200357
    Abstract: 35 g of a heating medium comprising 70 to 85% of powdered aluminum and 15 to 30% of powdered calcium oxide on the basis of the total weight of the heating medium is contacted with 80 ml of water to react the powdered calcium with water at a first reaction step to generate heat of reaction and calcium hydroxide, and then the calcium hydroxide is reacted at a second reaction step with powdered aluminum to generate heat of reaction to make use of approximately 3886 cal/g as the sum of the heat of reaction generated at the first reaction step and second reaction step, which can arrive at temperatures of approximately 100 ° C. for a short time which can be maintained for at least 20 minutes. The heating medium of this invention is built in a heating apparatus of a heating cooking container without increasing the weight and bulk of the container.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 1, 2000
    Date of Patent: March 13, 2001
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Kyodo
    Inventor: Kyoko Nakajima
  • Patent number: 6177028
    Abstract: A spontaneous firing explosive composition for use in a gas generator for an airbag containing a fuel, an oxidizer, a combustion modifier, and a binder.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 1, 1998
    Date of Patent: January 23, 2001
    Assignees: Nippon Kayaku Kabushiki-Kaisha, Kabushiki Kaisha Kobe Seiko Sho
    Inventors: Takeshi Kanda, Nobuaki Yokote, Takashi Saso, Koji Tanaka, Akihiko Kuroiwa, Yuji Ito, Ayumu Kimura
  • Patent number: 6156137
    Abstract: Gas generative compositions especially useful in inflators for protective passive restraint devices (e.g., motor vehicle air bags, escape slide chutes, lift rafts, and the like) include a nitrogen-containing fuel and an oxidizer selected from copper (II) oxide (CuO), cupric nitrate, basic copper nitrate (Cu(NO.sub.3).sub.2.3Cu(OH.sub.2), strontium nitrate (Sr(NO.sub.3).sub.2) and mixtures thereof. Most preferably the nitrogen-containing fuel is azodicarbonamidine dinitrate (AZODN) and/or 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20). The compositions of the present invention provide high burning rates with acceptable burning rate pressure exponents which allow their operation at lower pressures, thereby resulting in the use of less costly, lower weight, and lower strength materials for design and manufacture of the inflator pressure vessel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 5, 1999
    Date of Patent: December 5, 2000
    Assignee: Atlantic Research Corporation
    Inventors: Norman H. Lundstrom, Robert S. Scheffee, Aaron J. Gresco
  • Patent number: 6149746
    Abstract: A gas generating composition, when ignited, produces gas to inflate an inflatable vehicle occupant protection device. The gas generating composition comprises ammonium nitrate phase stabilized with a moisture indicating material. The moisture indicating material exhibits a color that changes with change in the concentration of moisture within the ammonium nitrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 6, 1999
    Date of Patent: November 21, 2000
    Assignee: TRW Inc.
    Inventor: Harold R. Blomquist
  • Patent number: 6143101
    Abstract: Chlorate-free autoignition compositions are disclosed, and may be embodied in compositions comprised of (i) an azodiformamidine dinitrate (ADFD), a self-deflagrating, low ignition temperature fuel, (ii) an oxidizer (e.g., a perchlorate, nitrate or mixture thereof) and (iii) an ignition accelerator/augmentor (e.g., a metal or metal oxide powder). One especially preferred solid AIP composition in accordance with the present invention includes ADFD, a mixture of ammonium perchlorate and sodium nitrate, an iron oxide powder and a binder, such as a poly(alkylene carbonate).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 23, 1999
    Date of Patent: November 7, 2000
    Assignee: Atlantic Research Corporation
    Inventor: Norman H. Lundstrom
  • Patent number: 6126764
    Abstract: A pyrotechnic fuel material for a booster in a pyrotechnic system having an adjacent igniter. In one embodiment, a powdered BaAl.sub.4 compound is used as the booster pyrotechnic fuel. In another embodiment, a powdered zirconium/nickel alloy is used as the booster pyrotechnic fuel. Both the powdered BaAl.sub.4 compound and the powdered zirconium/nickel alloy exhibit ignition sensitivity thresholds on the order of millijoules, thereby allowing for increased safety in manufacturing and handling over elemental powdered metal pyrotechnic fuels normally used for the entire pyrotechnic system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 9, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 3, 2000
    Assignee: Special Devices, Inc.
    Inventor: Hubert G. Timmerman
  • Patent number: 6077371
    Abstract: High nitrogen gas generant compositions, useful for inflating passenger restraint gas inflator bags, comprise a nitrogen rich coordination compound selected from coordination complexes comprised of anionic nitro and nitrito ligands coordinated with a transitional metal template, and nonmetallic or nonmetallic/metallic cations. The gas generant compositions generate relatively more gas and less solids, and are safer than known gas generant compositions. Certain gas generant compositions ignite at lower autoignition temperatures thereby facilitating the use of an aluminum or light weight metal pressure vessel. Other gas generants self-deflagrate eliminating the need for other constituents in the composition. Novel methods for the synthesis of nonmetal derivative coordination complexes, guanidine and hydrazine for example, are also presented.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 10, 1997
    Date of Patent: June 20, 2000
    Assignee: Automotive Systems Laboratory, Inc.
    Inventors: Norman H. Lundstrom, Laurence C. Begin
  • Patent number: 6036794
    Abstract: An igniter composition, and a method of manufacturing the igniter composin, comprised of an oxidizer dispersed in polyurethane resin using anhydrous acetone as a solvent. The polyurethane resin is cured at room temperature and granulated to form a granulated igniter. The granulated igniter may be blended with powdered magnesium. Preferably, the oxidizer is strontium peroxide and the amount of polyurethane resin is approximately 10 to 14 parts by weight and the amount of strontium peroxide is approximately 90 to 86 parts by weight, the ideal mixture is 12 part by weight polyurethane resin and 88 parts by weight strontium peroxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 31, 1998
    Date of Patent: March 14, 2000
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army
    Inventors: Thomas A. Doris, Jr., Kevin D. Vest
  • Patent number: 6019861
    Abstract: Gas generating compositions contain a non-azide fuel, phase stabilized ammonium nitrate (PSAN) and silicon. These gas generant compositions yield inflation gases having a reduced content of undesirable gases such as NO.sub.x and CO. The gas generanting compositions preferably contain 5-aminotetrazole at a concentration of 15-30 wt. % as the fuel, an oxidizer system at a concentration of 35-80 wt. % which comprises phase stabilized ammonium nitrate, at least 0.5 wt. % silicon, about 1 wt. % iron oxide and at least one material selected from binders and processing aids. The gas generating compositions are useful for inflating vehicle occupant restraint devices and for pyrotechnically operated fire suppression devices. The high level of gases produced by the compositions of the invention allow for smaller inflators which reduce the costs of production and the saving of weight.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 7, 1997
    Date of Patent: February 1, 2000
    Assignee: Breed Automotive Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: J B Canterberry, Samuel Steven Schlueter, John Herman Adams, Robert Keith Walsh
  • Patent number: 6013144
    Abstract: An infrared emitting pyrotechnic material comprising a fibrous carbon containing substrate (1) onto one or both faces (4, 5) of which is vapor deposited a combustible material layer (2, 3) which may be protected by an additional coating (6, 7). The thickness and composition of each of the layers (2, 3) are selected such that in use each of the layers is capable of igniting substantially simultaneously the entire surface on which it is deposited.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 14, 1997
    Date of Patent: January 11, 2000
    Assignees: Secretary of State for Defence in her Britannic Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, North Ireland of Defence Evaluation and Research Agency
    Inventor: James Callaway
  • Patent number: 5997667
    Abstract: A fire starting flare suitable for hand-held launchers has a fuse and ignitor assembly within a flare core material such that as the flare is launched the fire ignites and as the flare lands the fuse reaches the ignitor assembly to set off the flare.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 20, 1998
    Date of Patent: December 7, 1999
    Assignee: Quoin, Inc.
    Inventor: Michael D. Jacobson
  • Patent number: 5989514
    Abstract: The stoichiometry and/or crystal structure of vanadium oxide particles are altered by heating initial particles of vanadium oxide under mild conditions. The temperature is generally at least about 300.degree. C. less than the melting point of both the initial vanadium oxide particle and the product vanadium oxide particles. Preferred initial particles are vanadium oxide nanoparticles. The heating can be performed under an oxidizing atmosphere or an inert atmosphere, depending on the particular initial particles and the desired product particles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 21, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 23, 1999
    Assignee: NanoGram Corporation
    Inventors: Xiangxin Bi, James T. Gardner, Sujeet Kumar, Nobuyuki Kambe
  • Patent number: 5962808
    Abstract: Nonazide gas generant compositions, useful for inflating passenger restraint gas inflator bags, comprise a multimetallic coordination complex oxidizer selected from coordination complexes comprised of anionic nitro and nitrito ligands coordinated with a transitional metal template, and a cationic component comprised of two or more different metals. The gas generant compositions generate relatively more gas and are significantly less toxic than known azide gas generant compositions, and furthermore, generate solids that are readily filterable.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 5, 1997
    Date of Patent: October 5, 1999
    Assignee: Automotive Systems Laboratory, Inc.
    Inventor: Norman H. Lundstrom
  • Patent number: 5959242
    Abstract: The present invention relates to an autoignition composition for safely initiating combustion of a main pyrotechnic charge in a gas generator or pyrotechnic device exposed to flame or a high temperature environment. The autoignition compositions of the invention include a mixture of an oxidizer composition and a powdered metal, wherein the oxidizer composition includes at least one of an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal nitrate, a complex salt nitrate, such as Ce(NH.sub.4).sub.2 (NO.sub.3).sub.6 or ZrO(NO.sub.3).sub.2, a dried, hydrated nitrate, such as Ca(NO.sub.3).sub.2.4H.sub.2 O or Cu(NO.sub.3).sub.2.2.5 H.sub.2 O, silver nitrate, an alkali or alkaline earth chlorate, an alkali or alkaline earth metal perchlorate, ammonium perchlorate, a nitrite of sodium, potassium, or silver, or a solid organic nitrate, nitrite, or amine, such as guanidine nitrate, nitroguanidine and 5-aminotetrazole, respectively.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 14, 1996
    Date of Patent: September 28, 1999
    Assignee: Talley Defense Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Gregory D. Knowlton, Christopher P. Ludwig
  • Patent number: 5841065
    Abstract: In a gas generant composition containing a source of ammonia, such as an ammonium salt or an ammonia-transitional metal complex that emits ammonia as a degradation product, a zeolite, particularly chabazite, is added as an ammonia-absorbing material. In gas generant formulations containing a copper compound and a nitrate source, the zeolite acts to reduce or prevent formation of copper tetrammine dinitrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 15, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 24, 1998
    Assignee: Autoliv ASP, Inc.
    Inventor: Ivan V. Mendenhall
  • Patent number: 5834680
    Abstract: This invention relates to the production of black body-generating decoy flares for thrusted applications. Compositions are provided which, when combusted, provide black body radiation. The compositions generally include from about 20% to about 60% metal, such as magnesium or aluminum, from about 5% to about 50% ammonium perchlorate, and from about 8% to about 30% binder. Important to operation of the present invention is the production of graphitized carbon upon combustion of the composition. Accordingly, high carbon content materials are added to the compositions. These materials may include from about 5% to about 30% polyaromatic compounds, such as decacyclene, anthracene, and naphthalene. Other suitable high carbon materials include polyolefins. This invention also discloses methods of using these compositions in thrusted decoy flare applications.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 5, 1996
    Date of Patent: November 10, 1998
    Assignee: Cordant Technologies Inc.
    Inventors: Daniel B. Nielson, Dean M. Lester
  • Patent number: 5827996
    Abstract: A gas-generating composition for air bags, which provides low explosion risk and low toxicity, has at least one gas-generating base selected among urazol and metal salts thereof, as the active ingredient, and an oxidizing agent. Urazol and metal salts thereof can effectively generate gas at a low burning temperature when in combination with the oxidizing agent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 29, 1997
    Date of Patent: October 27, 1998
    Assignee: Otsuka Kagaku Kabushiki Kaish
    Inventors: Tadao Yoshida, Yasuo Shimizu, Kazuo Hara, Shiro Chijiwa, Junichi Onishi
  • Patent number: 5717159
    Abstract: A lead-free percussion primer composition and a percussion cup containing e composition. The lead-free percussion primer composition is comprised of a mixture of about 45 wt % aluminum powder having an outer coating of aluminum oxide and molybdenum trioxide powder or a mixture of about 50 wt % aluminum powder having an outer coating of aluminum oxide and polytetrafluoroethylene powder. The aluminum powder, molybdenum trioxide powder and polytetrafluoroethylene powder has a particle size of 0.1 .mu.m or less, more preferably a particle size of from about 200-500 angstroms.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 19, 1997
    Date of Patent: February 10, 1998
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: George P. Dixon, Joe A. Martin, Don Thompson
  • Patent number: 5700974
    Abstract: An improved heat generating thermite composition suitable for use in an inflator of a motor vehicle airbag restraint system comprises a hard consolidated pellet, grain or wafer shaped formulation of a powdered metal fuel, a powdered metal oxide oxidizer, a binder and a supplemental oxidizing agent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 25, 1997
    Date of Patent: December 23, 1997
    Assignee: Morton International, Inc.
    Inventor: Robert D. Taylor
  • Patent number: 5682014
    Abstract: A solid composition for generating a nitrogen containing gas is provided. The composition includes an oxidizer and a non-azide fuel selected from a bitetrazoleamine or a derivative or a salt or complex thereof and mixtures thereof. The preferred bitetrazole-amine is bis-(1(2)H-tetrazol-5-yl)-amine, a metal salt, a salt with a nonmetallic cation of a high nitrogen content base or a complex thereof. The salts and complexes are generally metal salts and complexes. The metal can be a transition metal. Metals that have been found to be particularly useful include copper, boron, cobalt, zinc, potassium, sodium, and strontium. The oxidizer is generally a metal oxide or a metal hydroxide. The composition can include certain other components such as secondary oxidizers, burn rate modifiers, slag formers, and binders.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 2, 1993
    Date of Patent: October 28, 1997
    Assignee: Thiokol Corporation
    Inventors: Thomas K. Highsmith, Reed J. Blau, Gary K. Lund
  • Patent number: 5677510
    Abstract: A gas generating mixture comprises a high nitrogen and low carbon fuel from he group nitroguanidine (NIGU), tiraminoguanidine nitrate (TAGN), diguanidinium-5,5'-azotetrazolate (GZT) or 3-nitro-l,2,3-triazol-5-one (NTO), as well as copper diammine dinitrate Cu(NH.sub.3).sub.2 (NO.sub.3).sub.2 as the oxidizer and a pyrophoric metal or such a metal alloy on a carrier catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 24, 1995
    Date of Patent: October 14, 1997
    Assignee: Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Forderung der angewandten Forschung e.v.
    Inventors: Klaus Martin Bucerius, Norbert Eisenreich, Helmut Schmid, Walter Engel