Fluidized Bed Patents (Class 165/104.16)
  • Patent number: 10323991
    Abstract: A device for local temperature measurement that is suitable for taking temperature measurements of an immediate vicinity of said device. The device comprises: a cell comprising a heat-conductive base and at least one first material having a predetermined fixed state-change temperature and arranged in said base; a heat-energy transfer device thermally connected to said base and said at least one first material; a local temperature measurement probe received in said base and in thermal contact with said at least one first material, the heat-energy transfer device being suitable for causing a change of state of said first material in order to carry out at least one metrological verification of the local temperature measurement probe. An associated cell and method for use are also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 2, 2015
    Date of Patent: June 18, 2019
    Assignees: ELECTRICITE DE FRANCE, LABORATOIRE NATIONAL DE METROLOGIE ET D'ESSAIS (LNE)
    Inventors: Yves-Laurent Beck, Patrick Sollet
  • Patent number: 10309727
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for cooling hot gas streams in the temperature range 800° C. to 1600° C. using multi-stage circulating fluid bed (CFB) coolers is disclosed. The invention relates to cooling the hot syngas from coal gasifiers in which the hot syngas entrains substances that foul, erode and corrode heat transfer surfaces upon contact in conventional coolers. The hot syngas is cooled by extracting and indirectly transferring heat to heat transfer surfaces with circulating inert solid particles in CFB syngas coolers. The CFB syngas coolers are staged to facilitate generation of steam at multiple conditions and hot boiler feed water that are necessary for power generation in an IGCC process. The multi-stage syngas cooler can include internally circulating fluid bed coolers, externally circulating fluid bed coolers and hybrid coolers that incorporate features of both internally and externally circulating fluid bed coolers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 22, 2016
    Date of Patent: June 4, 2019
    Assignee: Southern Company
    Inventors: Guohai Liu, Pannalal Vimalchand, Xiaofeng Guan, WanWang Peng
  • Patent number: 10233111
    Abstract: A strengthened glass sheet product as well as process and an apparatus for making the product. The process comprises cooling the glass sheet by non-contact thermal conduction for sufficiently long to fix a surface compression and central tension of the sheet. The process results in thermally strengthened glass sheets having improved breakage properties.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 28, 2016
    Date of Patent: March 19, 2019
    Assignee: CORNING INCORPORATED
    Inventors: Peter Joseph Lezzi, Richard Orr Maschmeyer, John Christopher Thomas, Kevin Lee Wasson
  • Patent number: 9897308
    Abstract: A heat transfer system includes a plenum configured to provide a secondary side fluid such as feedwater to a plurality of heat transfer tubes from a primary side fluid, and a tube sheet coupled to the plurality of heat transfer tubes. An orifice plate is mounted within the plenum and located adjacent to the tube sheet, and one or more orifice devices are supported by the orifice plate and are configured for insertion into or sealing against the plurality of heat transfer tubes. The one or more orifice devices may include center flow orifices, and/or rectangular or helical shaped transition stepped annular flow orifices, and an insertion of a number of the transition steps into the plurality of heat transfer tubes may determine a corresponding pressure drop of the secondary side fluid in the heat transfer system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 16, 2014
    Date of Patent: February 20, 2018
    Assignee: NUSCALE POWER, LLC
    Inventor: Christian Lobscheid
  • Patent number: 9828247
    Abstract: The present disclosure provides a process for cleaning raw product gas. The process includes contacting the raw product gas with a flow of catalyst to reform organic contaminants and inorganic contaminants in the raw product gas and to remove particulates. Further, the process includes cooling the resulting product gas via heat exchange with a heat exchange medium in the presence of char or a solid adsorbent medium to condense remaining organic contaminants and inorganic contaminants on the char or solid adsorbent medium and to filter out fine particulates.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 16, 2014
    Date of Patent: November 28, 2017
    Assignee: RENERGI PTY LTD
    Inventors: Chun-Zhu Li, Richard Gunawan, Li Dong
  • Patent number: 9823021
    Abstract: Methods, systems, and apparatus for cooling particulates are provided. A method can include introducing particulates and water to a first vessel to provide a fluidized bed of particulates and cooling the fluidized bed of particulates in the first vessel to obtain first cooled particulates. The method can also include recovering the first cooled particulates from the first vessel and introducing the first cooled particulates to a heat exchanger comprising a plurality of tubulars. The method can also include introducing a coolant to the plurality of tubulars, flowing the first cooled particulates through a shell side of the heat exchanger and contacting at least a portion of the first cooled particulates with the plurality of tubulars, recovering a heated coolant from the plurality of tubulars, and recovering second cooled particulates from a particulate outlet.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 20, 2013
    Date of Patent: November 21, 2017
    Assignee: Kellogg Brown + Root LLC
    Inventors: Iwan H. Chan, Yongchao Li
  • Patent number: 9610537
    Abstract: A loop tower CO2 capture system includes a feeding unit, a carbonator, an accumulator, a calciner, a combustion chamber and a gas blower. The feeding unit has a first gas pipe. The carbonator includes multiple first cyclone dust collecting units. The first gas pipe has one end connected to the uppermost first cyclone dust collecting unit. The accumulator is connected to the lowermost first cyclone dust collecting unit, and is located between the carbonator and the calciner. The calciner includes multiple second cyclone dust collecting units. The accumulator is connected to the uppermost second cyclone dust collecting unit. The first gas pipe has the other end connected to the lowermost second cyclone dust collecting unit. The combustion chamber is connected to the lowermost second cyclone dust collecting unit. The gas blower is connected to the first gas pipe of the feeding unit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 12, 2014
    Date of Patent: April 4, 2017
    Assignees: Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan Cement Corporation
    Inventors: Wei-Cheng Chen, Shoung Ouyang, Chin-Ming Huang, Cheng-Hsien Shen, Heng-Wen Hsu
  • Patent number: 9421510
    Abstract: An apparatus for cooling a gas distribution grid of fluidized bed gasifier and a method is provided in the present invention. The apparatus comprises a gas flow failure event detector for detecting a gasifying gas flow failure event, a flow control device for controlling the introduction of a flow stream of a liquid material into a spraying device placed in the plenum space of the gasifier, wherein the gas flow failure event detector is in signal connection with the flow control device, and a spraying device for spraying into the plenum space the liquid material as mist which evaporates and generates a positive pressure to cause through the gas distribution grid a flow which prevents the hot bed material from settling on the gas distribution grid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 14, 2014
    Date of Patent: August 23, 2016
    Assignee: SYNTHESIS ENERGY SYSTEMS, INC.
    Inventor: John D. Winter
  • Patent number: 9422490
    Abstract: A rotating heat regenerator is used to recover heat from the syngas at it exits the reactor vessel of a waste or biomass gasifier. In some embodiments, three or more streams are passed through the heat exchanger. One stream is the dirty syngas, which heats the rotating material. A second stream is a cold stream that is heated as it passes through the material. A third stream is a cleaning stream, which serves to remove particulates that are collected on the rotating material as the dirty syngas passes through it. This apparatus can also be used as an auto-heat exchanger, or it can exchange heat between separate flows in the gasifier process. The apparatus can also be used to reduce the heating requirement for the thermal residence chamber (TRC) used downstream from the gasification system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 2013
    Date of Patent: August 23, 2016
    Assignee: INENTEC INC.
    Inventors: Leslie Bromberg, Daniel R. Cohn, Jeffrey E. Surma, James A. Batdorf, David A. Lamar
  • Patent number: 9409809
    Abstract: A method for manufacturing a glass blank for magnetic disk and a method for manufacturing a glass substrate for magnetic disk are provided which are capable of producing a glass blank for magnetic disk having a good surface waviness by press forming. The method includes a forming process of press-forming a lump of molten glass using a pair of dies, wherein in the forming process, press forming is performed using thermally equalizing means for reducing a difference in temperature in the press forming surface of the die during pressing of the molten glass.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 27, 2012
    Date of Patent: August 9, 2016
    Assignee: HOYA CORPORATION
    Inventors: Hideki Isono, Hidekazu Tanino, Akira Murakami, Takashi Sato, Masamune Sato
  • Patent number: 9371745
    Abstract: A vaporization method includes a preparing step of preparing a vaporizing tube that covers at least a part of a heat exchange unit for cold energy of a Stirling engine and is capable of forming an ascending flow of the liquid flowing from a bottom to a top of the heat exchange unit for cold energy, and a vaporizing step of feeding the liquid in the vaporizing tube to thereby form the ascending flow and bringing the liquid into contact with the Stirling engine to vaporize the liquid. In the preparing step, a flowing direction of the ascending flow is adjusted to suppress occurrence of separated flows of the liquid and gas in the vaporizing tube. In the vaporizing step, the liquid is fed at a flow velocity at which a gas-liquid two-phase flow in which the liquid and the gas are mixed is formed in the vaporizing tube.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 27, 2011
    Date of Patent: June 21, 2016
    Assignees: Kobe Steel, Ltd., CHUBU ELECTRIC POWER COMPANY, INCORPORATED
    Inventors: Kazuo Takahashi, Norio Oiwa
  • Patent number: 9347705
    Abstract: A dryer dries particles, wherein the dryer comprises two circular decks mounted substantially horizontally and rotating in opposite directions relative to one another about a same vertical axis, Z, the surface of said decks being perforated and permeable to air, steam and water, a means for blowing hot gas in a flow substantially parallel to the axis Z, passing through the second deck before passing through the first deck, means for distributing said particles to be dried on the first and second decks and means for recovering the particles after a rotation of each deck, and a means for transferring the particles collected from the first deck by the recovery means to a second distribution means suitable for distributing said particles along a radius of the second deck.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 18, 2013
    Date of Patent: May 24, 2016
    Inventor: Léon Crosset
  • Patent number: 9337704
    Abstract: The embodiments herein provide a system for collecting flare gas and using the same for electricity generation. A flare gas collector assembly is attached inline with a flare stack pipeline. An electric generator comprises a combustion engine and at-least alternator. An intake valve of the combustion engine is connected to a collector tank through an intake pipeline. The at-least one alternator is connected to an output shaft of the combustion engine through a transmission mechanism. The divider circuit is connected to an output node of the alternator. The battery back is connected to the at-least one alternator through the divider circuit followed a filter circuit. The primary pump is connected to the output node of the at-least one alternator through the divider circuit for pumping water from ground to a primary reservoir. The centrifuge receives water from the primary reservoir through wherein the centrifuge separates a water from undissolved solids.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 20, 2015
    Date of Patent: May 10, 2016
    Inventors: Jerry Leslie, Paul Stringer
  • Patent number: 9296638
    Abstract: A strengthened glass sheet product as well as process and an apparatus for making the product. The process comprises cooling the glass sheet by non-contact thermal conduction for sufficiently long to fix a surface compression and central tension of the sheet. The process results in thermally strengthened glass sheets having improved breakage properties.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 30, 2015
    Date of Patent: March 29, 2016
    Assignee: CORNING INCORPORATED
    Inventors: Peter Joseph Lezzi, Richard Orr Maschmeyer, John Christopher Thomas, Kevin Lee Wasson
  • Patent number: 9163829
    Abstract: A moving bed heat exchanger (155) includes a vessel having an upper portion (200), a lower portion (210) with a floor (272) including a discharge opening therein, and an intermediate portion (205). The vessel directs a gravity flow of hot ash particles (140) received thereby from the upper portion (200) through the intermediate portion (205) to the floor (272) of the lower portion (210) of the vessel, where the hot ash particles (140) are collected. Tubes in the intermediate portion (205) of the vessel direct a flow of working fluid in a direction substantially orthogonal to the direction of the gravity flow of the hot ash particles (140) through the intermediate portion (205) of the vessel such that heat from the hot ash particles (140) is transferred to the working fluid thereby cooling the hot ash particles (140).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 12, 2007
    Date of Patent: October 20, 2015
    Assignee: ALSTOM Technology Ltd
    Inventors: Robert V. Jacobs, Glen D. Jukkola, George D. Mylchreest, Bard C. Teigen, Richard E. Waryasz, Laurie Ferguson, John E. Ferguson
  • Patent number: 8859882
    Abstract: A heat rejection system includes a plurality of panel subassemblies and a solid state heat pipe flex joint. Each panel subassembly includes a fin, a solid state heat pipe manifold, a first solid state heat pipe tube operatively connected to the solid state heat pipe manifold and secured to the fin, a second solid state heat pipe tube operatively connected to the solid state heat pipe manifold adjacent to the first solid state heat pipe and secured to the fin. The solid state heat pipe flex joint operably connects the solid state heat pipe manifolds of two of the plurality of panel subassemblies in a hermetically sealed configuration, and is configured to permit repositioning of the two panel subassemblies relative to each other.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 2008
    Date of Patent: October 14, 2014
    Assignee: Aerojet Rocketdyne of DE, Inc.
    Inventors: Cheng-Yi Lu, James A. McClanahan, Joseph P. Carroll, William Determan, Patrick E. Frye, Charles Thomas Kudija, Rick L. Howerton, Kenneth John Metcalf, Andrew J. Zillmer
  • Patent number: 8832962
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method for drying slurry-like materials, in particular sludge from wastewater treatment plants, including two drying stages, namely: a first indirect drying stage (2), supplied with hot fluid, which receives sludge having an entry dryness Se, and outputs sludge having an intermediate dryness Si and water steam, which is channelled towards a condenser (8) in which a heating fluid, in particular water, is reheated and, in turn, heats a heating gas for a second drying stage (6); and a step (5) of forming strings of sludge at the exit from the first stage; the second stage (6) of drying the strings of sludge using gas at least partially heated by the heat extracted from the condenser, said second stage outputting a slurry having a final dryness Sf; the intermediate dryness Si is controlled according to the measured entry dryness Se and the desired exit dryness Sf, for minimum consumption of the total energy used for drying, the flow rate, pressure and/or temperature of the hot fluid (3)
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 19, 2010
    Date of Patent: September 16, 2014
    Assignee: Degremont
    Inventor: Pierre Emmanuel Pardo
  • Patent number: 8800498
    Abstract: Systems and methods for exchanging heat in a gasification system are provided. The method can include introducing one or more particulates and a heat transfer medium including a feed water, a deaerated feed water, or a combination thereof, to a first zone. The method can also include indirectly exchanging heat from the one or more particulates to the heat transfer medium within the first zone to provide an intermediate heat transfer medium and cooled particulates. The method can also include introducing at least a portion of the intermediate heat transfer medium and a syngas to a second zone. The method can also include indirectly exchanging heat from the syngas to the intermediate heat transfer medium within the second zone to provide a heat transfer medium product and a cooled syngas. The heat transfer medium product can include steam.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 30, 2010
    Date of Patent: August 12, 2014
    Assignee: Kellogg Brown & Root LLC
    Inventor: John Abughazaleh
  • Publication number: 20140102342
    Abstract: A non-mechanical valve arrangement for use with circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers has a CFB reaction chamber and a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) within an enclosure in the lower portion of the CFB reaction chamber, the BFB containing an in-bed heat exchanger (IBHX). Solids flowing from the BFB enclosure to the CFB reaction chamber may be controlled using one or more non-mechanical valves. Each non-mechanical valve is independently controlled using independently controlled fluidizing means. The non-mechanical valve has collectors to collect solids backsifting into the fluidizing means of the valve. Agglomerates are removed which could block the valve. Channel walls parallel to the direction of solids flow through the valve opening may be provided to reduce external interference with local fluidization to maintain the proper functionality of the non-mechanical valve.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 17, 2012
    Publication date: April 17, 2014
    Applicant: BABCOCK & WILCOX POWER GENERATION GROUP, INC.
    Inventors: MIKHAIL MARYAMCHIK, DAVID L. KRAFT, KIPLIN C. ALEXANDER, THOMAS J. FLYNN, SHENGTENG HU
  • Publication number: 20140053792
    Abstract: A fluidized bed heat exchange apparatus of a flue gas heat recovery type for producing high temperature water. The fluidized bed heat exchange apparatus passes a waste heat of a combustion flue gas containing a high temperature water vapor emitted from a combustion apparatus subsequently through a water fluidized bed and a heat medium fluidized bed such that a hot water at a saturation temperature of a wet air produced from a latent heat of the combustion flue gas at the water fluidized bed is again heated at the heat medium fluidized bed which does not have a vapor condensation phenomenon, thereby producing a hot water at a temperature higher than the saturation temperature of the wet air.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 4, 2013
    Publication date: February 27, 2014
    Applicant: KOREA INSTITUTE OF ENERGY RESEARCH
    Inventors: Sang-Il Park, Kyoung-Bin Choi, Chang-Bok Ko
  • Patent number: 8622029
    Abstract: A circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler includes a reaction chamber, where a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) is contained within an enclosure within the lower portion of the reaction chamber and contains an in-bed heat exchanger (IBHX) that occupies part of the reaction chamber floor. A plurality of in-bed secondary air nozzles comprise a plurality of tubes which are grouped together and run across the width of the BFB between the BFB enclosure wall and an outside wall of the CFB. The nozzles are positioned to prevent the deflection of solids falling onto the BFB from the CFB by the secondary air jets while avoiding a complicated structure that would interfere with gas and/or solids movement in the furnace. The nozzles' exit openings are flush, or almost flush, with the BFB enclosure wall.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 2009
    Date of Patent: January 7, 2014
    Assignee: Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group, Inc.
    Inventors: Mikhail Maryamchik, Kiplin C. Alexander, Mark C. Godden, David L. Kraft
  • Patent number: 8579014
    Abstract: A conveyor for moving hot material at temperatures on this order of 1000° F. or higher along a conveyor trough receiving the material has one or more coolant liquid flow vessels extending over but spaced from the outer surface of a trough inner wall to indirectly cause cooling of the inner wall. A heat transfer path is established between a separate coolant flow vessel and the hot trough defined by a packed together mass of heat conductive beads interposed to controllably transfer heat into the coolant liquid flowing through the flow vessel to prevent boiling of the coolant while allowing heat to be transferred from the through into the coolant in the separate flow vessel. The arrangement of a mass of heat conductive beads is also used to provide a non rigid mechanical support of fluid carrying tubing, the support having a predetermined thermal conductivity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 18, 2009
    Date of Patent: November 12, 2013
    Inventors: Richard W. Kauppila, Raymond W. Kauppila
  • Patent number: 8434430
    Abstract: A circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler comprising a reaction chamber. A bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) is contained within an enclosure within the lower portion of the reaction chamber and contains an in-bed heat exchanger (IBHX) that occupies part of the reaction chamber floor. At least one non-mechanical valve, which includes an opening between the CFB and BFB and independently controlled fluidizing means located both upstream and downstream of the opening, is used to control the heat transfer to the IBHX by controlling the solids discharge from the BFB to the CFB. The elevation of the bottom of the opening is at or above the elevation of the fluidizing means. A flow control barrier may be located downstream of the opening.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 2009
    Date of Patent: May 7, 2013
    Assignee: Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group, Inc.
    Inventors: Mikhail Maryamchik, Kiplin C. Alexander, Mark C. Godden, David L. Kraft
  • Patent number: 8430154
    Abstract: A heat transfer tube includes a container, a cavity within the container, and a heat transfer medium located within the cavity. The heat transfer medium consists essentially of a solid-gas suspension of a gas and a substantially homogeneous nanoparticle powder located within the cavity. The cavity is in a partial vacuum state. The nanoparticle powder comprises Ca(OH)2, LiH, ZrH2, or Mg(OH)2 in a solid state and is capable of substantially freely emitted and reabsorbing the gas as a function of temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 12, 2007
    Date of Patent: April 30, 2013
    Assignee: Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, Inc.
    Inventors: Sherwin Yang, Nathan J. Hoffman, Gregory A. Johnson
  • Patent number: 8277543
    Abstract: Disclosed is a gaseous fossil fuel fired, indirectly heated, Brayton closed cycle comprising an alkali metal seeded noble gases that is rendered non-equilibrium, electrically conducting in a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electric power generator with zero emissions from the combustion products, including physical separation and sequestration of the carbon dioxide (CO2) what is emitted from the fossil fuel, with said cycle combined with a Rankine steam turbine bottoming cycle to compress the noble gas, while another optional new or existing Rankine steam cycle is placed in parallel and separate from the MHD cycle, and it is fired by the solid char remaining if the MHD cycle is fired with the devolatilized coal, and/or with solid coal culm, and/or unburned carbon in coal power plant waste ash, in order to achieve high efficiency at low capital, low operating, and low fuel costs.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 22, 2011
    Date of Patent: October 2, 2012
    Inventor: Bert Zauderer
  • Publication number: 20120240870
    Abstract: A gas-solid separator for a boiler includes a film divider defining first and second flue channels, an expanded cornering channel, a sealed collecting chamber, flue inlet and outlet provided at a front upper portion and a rear upper portion of the separator respectively, an even flow distributing tube set, and wear resistant connecting duct at the cornering channel, the upper and bottom portions of the even flow distributing tube set linked to the film bottom transverse tube collecting box and the collecting chamber transverse tube collecting box respectively, the upper and bottom portions of the wear resistant connecting duct linked to the film bottom transverse tube collecting box and the connecting duct transverse tube collecting box respectively. The boiler with low/medium circulating rate uses single stage inertial gravity separation. The boiler with high circulating rate uses a low temperature cyclone separator with the present invention when the flow rate at the second flue channel is relatively high.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 28, 2011
    Publication date: September 27, 2012
    Inventor: Sen Wang
  • Publication number: 20120237883
    Abstract: A method of feeding at least one of light, fine, volatile and moist fuel into a furnace of a circulating fluidized bed boiler. Fuel is introduced into the furnace and is combusted in the presence of a fluidized bed material to form flue gases. The fluidized bed material is circulated both inside the furnace in an internal circulation in which bed material returns along walls of the furnace down to the bottom of the furnace, and outside the furnace in an external circulation that includes at least a solids separator arranged in flow communication with the furnace. Bed material is separated from the flue gases in the separator. The flue gases are removed from the separator for further treatment. The separated bed material is returned to the furnace.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 29, 2010
    Publication date: September 20, 2012
    Applicant: FOSTER WHEELER ENERGIA OY
    Inventors: Marcin Klajny, Kari Kauppinen, Pertti Kinnunen, Jouni Miettinen, Kari Myöhänen, Pekka Lehtonen
  • Patent number: 8230901
    Abstract: An electronic device cooling apparatus includes a cooling unit that is thermally connected to an electronic device and is configured to induce heat generated from the electronic device to be conducted to a cooling medium that is channeled into the cooling unit; and a heat dissipating unit including a cooling chamber configured to cool the cooling medium that is heated by the heat conducted from the electronic device. The cooling unit and the heat dissipating unit are integrated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 2006
    Date of Patent: July 31, 2012
    Assignee: Fujitsu Limited
    Inventor: Satoshi Osawa
  • Patent number: 8211371
    Abstract: A device for heat transfer, particularly in fluidized bed equipment. Several layers of heat exchanger tubes are provided, with radial arms mounted in between to mix and loosen the product. In addition, a process is disclosed for heat transfer in high-temperature processes for bulk material, particularly granulates or powders, in fluidized bed units, where the heat is transferred to and absorbed by the fluidized bed on several levels, and by the fluidized bulk material being agitated mechanically between these levels. This allows transfer of high energy densities without the risk of bridging or local overheating.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 22, 2009
    Date of Patent: July 3, 2012
    Assignee: Andritz Technology and Asset Management GmbH
    Inventors: Klaus Stanke, Mathias von Lewinski, Paul Kröhl
  • Patent number: 8161917
    Abstract: A method, system and apparatus for a low bed pressure drop circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler associated with fast bed CFB combustion are disclosed. The CFB boiler may be operated according to the following set of conditions. In an upper area of a combustor of the boiler, a flow pattern of the two-phase gas-solid flow may be placed in a fast bed fluidization state. The combustor temperature may be within a range of 850° C.-930° C. The fluidizing air velocity may be within 4 m/s and 6.2 m/s. An average size of a bed material in the combustor may be smaller than 300 ?m. The gas-solid flow above of the secondary air inlet in the combustor may be kept in the fast bed fluidization state while maintaining a solid concentration of between 1 kg/m3 to 5 kg/m3. An inventory of bed material per unit area and/or the pressure drop in the combustor may be less than 8 kPa.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 3, 2008
    Date of Patent: April 24, 2012
    Assignee: Tsinghua University
    Inventors: Hairui Yang, Hai Zhang, Guangxi Yue, Junfu Lv, Qing Liu, Jiansheng Zhang
  • Patent number: 8141502
    Abstract: A fluidized bed boiler comprises a furnace whose lower part is equipped with a grate comprising means for supplying fluidizing air into the furnace. The furnace also comprises at least one heat transfer surface extending across the furnace and comprising elongated heat transfer tubes on top of each other. The heat transfer surface is supported on the grate from underneath, substantially over its whole length, in the section extending across the furnace.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 19, 2007
    Date of Patent: March 27, 2012
    Assignee: Metso Power Oy
    Inventors: Risto Eteläaho, Vesa Kainu
  • Publication number: 20120000849
    Abstract: A wastewater treatment system includes wastewater having nitrogen-containing compounds, an anoxic zone having denitrifying bacteria, and an aerobic zone having nitrifying bacteria. The anoxic zone is coupled to the aerobic zone, and wastewater flows from the anoxic zone to the aerobic zone or vice versa. The wastewater treatment system is configured to accept heat from a heat engine to heat the wastewater. Treating wastewater can include flowing wastewater having nitrogen-containing compounds into a biological reactor having an anoxic zone and an aerobic zone, and heating the wastewater with heat from a heat engine to facilitate denitrification reactions in the anoxic zone and to facilitate nitrification reactions in the aerobic zone. In some cases, the wastewater is heated with a three phase fluidized bed heat exchanger having porous particulates in contact with heat exchange tubes, with bacteria coupled to an interior of the porous particulates.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 22, 2011
    Publication date: January 5, 2012
    Inventor: Alexander Fassbender
  • Patent number: 8069824
    Abstract: A circulating fluidized bed boiler having improved reactant utilization. The circulating fluidized bed boiler includes a circulating fluidized bed having a dense bed portion and a lower furnace portion above the dense bed portion. At least one secondary air and recirculated flue gas injection device is downstream of the circulating fluidized bed for providing mixing of the reactant and the flue gas in the furnace above the dense bed. The present invention also includes methods of operating a fluidized bed boiler.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 19, 2008
    Date of Patent: December 6, 2011
    Assignee: Nalco Mobotec, Inc.
    Inventor: Brian S. Higgins
  • Patent number: 8069825
    Abstract: A method of operating a furnace having a circulating fluidized bed is described. Fuel is combusted in the fluidized bed. The fluidized bed includes a dense bed portion and a lower furnace portion adjacent to the dense bed portion. Reactant is injected in the furnace to reduce the emission of at least one combustion product in the flue gas. Secondary air is injected into the furnace above the dense bed. Using this method, the amount of reactant needed to reduce the emission of the at least one combustion product is reduced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 19, 2008
    Date of Patent: December 6, 2011
    Assignee: Nalco Mobotec, Inc.
    Inventor: Brian S. Higgins
  • Publication number: 20110226195
    Abstract: A wall construction for a boiler arrangement. The boiler arrangement is formed of at least a furnace and a separator. The furnace has a grid, a bottom part, and an upper part. The separator is arranged by conduits in flow communication with both the upper part and the bottom part of the furnace. The conduits, together with the separator, form an external circulation of bed material. The upper part of the furnace has four vertical walls, and the bottom part of the furnace has a height and four walls extending from the grid up to the vertical walls. The wall construction includes at least one hollow beam being attached to a wall of the bottom part of the furnace and extending substantially over the entire height of the bottom part, and the at least one hollow beam being in flow communication with the external circulation for returning bed material into the furnace.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 18, 2010
    Publication date: September 22, 2011
    Applicant: FOSTER WHEELER NORTH AMERICA CORP.
    Inventor: Arthur M. Hansen
  • Patent number: 8011424
    Abstract: A convective heat transfer system for use with a fluid with particles, including a fluid channel having a wall and being capable of transferring the fluid, and a field emitter operable to emit a time-varying field into the fluid channel such that, when the fluid is in the channel, the time varying field affects a portion of the particles to change the rate of heat transfer between the channel and the fluid. The fluid can be a slurry with suspended field reactive particles. The system can include a plurality of field emitters located along the walls of the fluid channel, to vary the field and manipulate the distribution of the particles within the slurry, thereby changing the heat transfer characteristics of the system. The field can be an electric field or a magnetic field. The fluid channel can be disposed in a heat transfer system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 9, 2006
    Date of Patent: September 6, 2011
    Assignee: The United States of America, as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventor: Mark M Murray
  • Patent number: 7938171
    Abstract: A heat exchanger system includes a first fluid layer defining a first flowpath for a gas, a second fluid layer defining a second flowpath for a liquid, a first vapor cycle layer located between the first fluid layer and the second fluid layer for enabling heat transfer between the first and second fluid layers, a first boundary wall defining a shared boundary between the first fluid layer and the first vapor cycle layer, and a second boundary wall defining a shared boundary between the second fluid layer and the first vapor cycle layer. The first vapor cycle layer includes a working medium configured to transfer heat through an evaporation and condensation cycle, and the working medium of the first vapor cycle layer is sealed between the first and second boundary walls.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 19, 2006
    Date of Patent: May 10, 2011
    Assignee: United Technologies Corporation
    Inventors: James W. Norris, Craig A. Nordeen
  • Publication number: 20110073050
    Abstract: A circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler includes a reaction chamber, where a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) is contained within an enclosure within the lower portion of the reaction chamber and contains an in-bed heat exchanger (IBHX) that occupies part of the reaction chamber floor. A plurality of in-bed secondary air nozzles comprise a plurality of tubes which are grouped together and run across the width of the BFB between the BFB enclosure wall and an outside wall of the CFB. The nozzles are positioned to prevent the deflection of solids falling onto the BFB from the CFB by the secondary air jets while avoiding a complicated structure that would interfere with gas and/or solids movement in the furnace. The nozzles' exit openings are flush, or almost flush, with the BFB enclosure wall.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 30, 2009
    Publication date: March 31, 2011
    Inventors: MIKHAIL MARYAMCHIK, Kiplin C. Alexander, Mark C. Godden, David L. Kraft
  • Publication number: 20110073049
    Abstract: A circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler comprising a reaction chamber. A bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) is contained within an enclosure within the lower portion of the reaction chamber and contains an in-bed heat exchanger (IBHX) that occupies part of the reaction chamber floor. At least one non-mechanical valve, which includes an opening between the CFB and BFB and independently controlled fluidizing means located both upstream and downstream of the opening, is used to control the heat transfer to the IBHX by controlling the solids discharge from the BFB to the CFB. The elevation of the bottom of the opening is at or above the elevation of the fluidizing means. A flow control barrier may be located downstream of the opening.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 30, 2009
    Publication date: March 31, 2011
    Inventors: Mikhail Maryamchik, Kiplin C. Alexander, Mark C. Godden, David L. Kraft
  • Patent number: 7896951
    Abstract: A system for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from gasses generated in burning fossil fuel, includes a vessel, separator and reheater. The upper portion of the vessel receives downward flowing, first type solid particles capable of absorbing heat from upward flowing gasses and second type solid particles capable of capturing carbon dioxide from the gasses. The separator separates the second type solid particles with the captured carbon dioxide from the gasses discharged from the first vessel discharge, and directs the separated second type solid particles with the captured carbon dioxide to a separator discharge. The reheater directs the first type solid particles and the second type solid particles with the captured carbon dioxide in a downwardly flow to a first reheater discharge, such that heat from the first type solid particles causes the captured carbon dioxide to be released from the second type solid particles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 16, 2009
    Date of Patent: March 1, 2011
    Assignee: ALSTOM Technology Ltd
    Inventors: Herbert E. Andrus, Jr., Glen D. Jukkola, Michael S. McCartney
  • Publication number: 20110042040
    Abstract: Heat-transfer device operating in a closed loop, comprising a container in which a heat-transfer fluid circulates in a closed loop, said heat-transfer fluid being capable of undergoing an increase in volume on solidifying, said container furthermore containing particles suspended in said heat-transfer fluid, in which at least some of the particles are compressible under the pressure of said fluid, as said fluid is solidifying, so as to at least partially compensate for the increase in volume of said fluid upon solidifying.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 27, 2010
    Publication date: February 24, 2011
    Applicant: THALES
    Inventors: Christian Tantolin, Claude Sarno
  • Patent number: 7765813
    Abstract: The present invention is an apparatus and process for cooling and de-steaming hot calcined stucco used in the production of gypsum boards or bagged plaster. The apparatus is a fluid bed stucco cooler and comprises a cooler housing having a plenum having a stucco inlet and stucco outlet. The stucco cooler includes a rotating disk in the plenum. The rotating disk includes nozzle for spraying fluid, and is attached to a rotable shaft extending from the side of the cooler also includes a fluidization pad and agitator to help to mix the air and the stucco powder to insure fluidization, prevent channeling, and prevent the stucco powder from building up on the various components. The air also forces steam from the hot calcined stucco out through an air outlet located at the top of the stucco cooler, thereby de-steaming the stucco. The stucco flows through the plenum and passes over the cooling coils, thereby cooling the stucco as it reaches the stucco outlet.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 15, 2004
    Date of Patent: August 3, 2010
    Assignee: United States Gypsum Company
    Inventors: Michael L. Bolind, Christopher R. Nelson, Bruce L. Petersen, Michael J. Porter
  • Patent number: 7760504
    Abstract: An apparatus, system, and method are disclosed for thermal conduction interfacing. The system for thermal conduction interfacing is provided with a first layer formed substantially of a pliable thermally conductive material. The system includes a second layer formed substantially of a pliable thermally conductive material and coupled at the edges to the first layer forming a pliable packet, wherein the first layer and the second layer conform to a set of thermal interface surfaces. Additionally, the system includes a plurality of thermally conductive particles disposed within the packet, wherein thermal energy is transferred from the first layer to the second layer through the thermally conductive particles. Beneficially, such a system would provide effective thermal coupling between a heat generating device and a heat dissipating device. Additionally, the system would be modular, reusable, and easy to install or replace without a significant mess.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 5, 2008
    Date of Patent: July 20, 2010
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Timothy S. Farrow, Dean F. Herring
  • Publication number: 20100059204
    Abstract: A device for heat transfer, particularly in fluidized bed equipment. Several layers of heat exchanger tubes are provided, with radial arms mounted in between to mix and loosen the product. In addition, a process is disclosed for heat transfer in high-temperature processes for bulk material, particularly granulates or powders, in fluidized bed units, where the heat is transferred to and absorbed by the fluidized bed on several levels, and by the fluidized bulk material being agitated mechanically between these levels. This allows transfer of high energy densities without the risk of bridging or local overheating.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 22, 2009
    Publication date: March 11, 2010
    Inventors: Klaus Stanke, Mathias von Lewinski, Paul Kröhl
  • Publication number: 20100028224
    Abstract: A process of converting oxygenates to light olefins is disclosed including an oxygenate feedstream with contacting catalyst inside a reactor and converting the oxygenate feedstream to said light olefins. The catalyst becomes spent as deposits from the reaction clog up pores on the catalyst surface. A portion of the spent catalyst is regenerated in a regenerator and a portion is circulated back to contact more of the oxygenate feedstream. A catalyst cooler attached to the reactor can cool the spent catalyst circulated through the cooler before the spent catalyst contacts more of the oxygenate feedstream. In an embodiment, all of the spent catalyst that enters the catalyst cooler is withdrawn from the bottom of the catalyst cooler.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 1, 2009
    Publication date: February 4, 2010
    Applicant: UOP LLC
    Inventor: Lawrence W. Miller
  • Publication number: 20100000474
    Abstract: A method for reducing corrosion of a superheater of a steam boiler. The superheater includes a superheater piping. The superheating piping includes a steam pipe where the steam to be superheated is directed. The steam pipe is separated by a protective shell having a surface settling in the flue gas space has a temperature that rises above an upper critical temperature, above which temperature in the flue gas space the compounds from the fuel are substantially in a gaseous form. A superheater of a steam boiler and a circulating fluidized bed boiler.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 27, 2005
    Publication date: January 7, 2010
    Applicant: KVAERNER POWER OY
    Inventors: Pertti Petänen, Kari Mäkelä, Kari Kuukkanen, Ari Kokko
  • Patent number: 7569086
    Abstract: A fluid bed reactor is configured to process a reactive material to form one or more products. The reactor includes a reaction vessel defining a compartment configured to receive the reactive material. A first cluster of heating conduits at least partially occupies the compartment and extends over a first vertical extent within the compartment. A second cluster of heating conduits partially occupies the compartment and extends over a second vertical extent within the compartment. The first cluster of heating conduits is vertically below the second cluster of heating conduits and spaced apart therefrom by a first separation distance. Feedstock inlets are configured to introduce the reactive material into a region that is vertically between the first and second clusters of heating conduits. The heating conduits in the first cluster have a first thickness while the heating conduits in the second cluster have a second thickness.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 24, 2006
    Date of Patent: August 4, 2009
    Assignee: ThermoChem Recovery International, Inc.
    Inventor: Ravi Chandran
  • Publication number: 20090151902
    Abstract: A moving bed heat exchanger (155) includes a vessel having an upper portion (200), a lower portion (210) with a floor (272) including a discharge opening therein, and an intermediate portion (205). The vessel directs a gravity flow of hot ash particles (140) received thereby from the upper portion (200) through the intermediate portion (205) to the floor (272) of the lower portion (210) of the vessel, where the hot ash particles (140) are collected. Tubes in the intermediate portion (205) of the vessel direct a flow of working fluid in a direction substantially orthogonal to the direction of the gravity flow of the hot ash particles (140) through the intermediate portion (205) of the vessel such that heat from the hot ash particles (140) is transferred to the working fluid thereby cooling the hot ash particles (140).
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 12, 2007
    Publication date: June 18, 2009
    Inventors: Robert V. Jacobs, Glen D. Jukkola, George D. Mylchreest, Bard C. Teigen, Richard E. Waryasz, John E. Ferguson, Laurie Ferguson
  • Publication number: 20090101310
    Abstract: A bed of particulate material 6 is supported by an air distribution bottom 5. Under the distribution bottom 5 exist one or more compartments 7, which each being supplied with cooling air from a fan installation 8. The distribution bottom 5 is sectionalised in a number of smaller areas 9. Each smaller distribution area 9 is connected to the compartment 7 by ducts 10, 11 and 12. The one duct 10 does have a fixed orifice area. The ducts 11 and 12 do have floaters 13A/13B end stop 14A/14B and bottom support 15A/15B. It is hereby obtained that the total pressure loss across the air distribution bottom can be reduced, and so that the flow of the treatment air through the material bed is distributed in a desirable manner across the entire air distribution bottom regardless of the composition of the material bed and the distribution thereon, and optimal heat exchange efficiency is obtained.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 8, 2006
    Publication date: April 23, 2009
    Applicant: FØNS TECHNOLOGY ApS
    Inventor: Mogens Juhl Fons
  • Patent number: 7520249
    Abstract: A circulating fluidized bed reactor is provided that includes a reaction chamber having a vertical partition wall forming two independent subchambers that include a combustion subchamber and a cooling subchamber. A combustion fluidizing gas is provided to the combustion subchamber to maintain a circulating fluidized bed therein. At least one centrifugal separator receives flue gas from the combustion subchamber and separates particles from the flue gas. At least one external bed receives the particles from the at least one centrifugal separator and provides the particles to the combustion subchamber. An external bed fluidizing gas is provided to the external bed to fluidize the particles therein. The cooling subchamber cools the external bed fluidizing gas received from the external bed. A heat exchanger cage receives the flue gas from the centrifugal separator and the external bed fluidizing gas from the cooling subchamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 29, 2006
    Date of Patent: April 21, 2009
    Assignee: ALSTOM Technology Ltd
    Inventors: Jean-Xavier Morin, Corinne Beal, Silvestre Suraniti, Emmanuel Flores, Daniel Baglione