With Feeding And/or Withdrawal Means Patents (Class 204/255)
  • Patent number: 4830721
    Abstract: The present invention relates to an electrochemical process for deoxygenating deionized water utilizing a membrane electrolyzer and optionally a catalytic reactor, characterized in that operation is carried out at ambient temperature avoiding the need for the addition of substances, dangerous for the health of the operators, able to pollute the enviornment or cause undesired increase of the concentration of dissolved salts.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 22, 1988
    Date of Patent: May 16, 1989
    Assignee: S.E.R.E. S.r.l.
    Inventors: Giuseppe Bianchi, Giuseppe Faita
  • Patent number: 4828667
    Abstract: A filter press type electrolytic cell for continuous operation with renewable sacrificial electrodes. Said device enables cells of the filter press type to be fitted with a sacrificial electrode formed from metallic particles or generally from particles which are consumed during the electrolysis, and which can be continuously renewed.The modified cells according to the invention can be used successfully for electro-organic processes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 1988
    Date of Patent: May 9, 1989
    Inventors: Giuseppe Silvestri, Giuseppe Filardo, Salvatore Gambino
  • Patent number: 4828666
    Abstract: An electrode for a flow-through type electrolytic cell which comprises:a frame spacer formed with a plate made of an insulating material and textile fabric made of carbon fibers disposed in the inner space of the spacer;said spacer and said textile fabric being held between a membrane and a collector plate so that an reactant flows through the inside the texture of the above textile fabric in one direction or in the reverse direction;said textile fabric being composed of thicker yarns of not finer than 5 metric counts and yarns finer than said thicker yarns which are disposed so as to cross said thicker yarns; andsaid textile fabric being fixed so that the thicker yarns are substantially in parallel with the flow direction of an aqueous solution of an reactant.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 16, 1988
    Date of Patent: May 9, 1989
    Assignee: Toyo Boseki Kabushiki Kaisha (trading under Toyo Co., Ltd.)
    Inventors: Yasuhiro Iizuka, Makoto Inoue, Takeshi Mitomi
  • Patent number: 4824534
    Abstract: In this process for electrically separating the electrolyte-bearing main from the electrolyte spaces of an electrochemical cell pile, the electrolyte is passed via drop sections directly from the main into the electrolyte space or directly from the electrolyte space into the main.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 6, 1987
    Date of Patent: April 25, 1989
    Assignee: Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Karl-Heinz Tetzlaff, Dieter Schmid, Jurgen Russow
  • Patent number: 4822461
    Abstract: An electrolytic cell which is preferably of the filter press type and which comprises at least one anode and at least one cathode, an inlet through which liquor may be charged to the electrolytic cell and an outlet through which liquor may be removed from the electrolytic cell, and means for recirculating liquor to the electrolytic cell, in which said recirculating means comprises a unit formed of a plurality of shaped sheets whch are preferably planar and together form at least one channel inside of said unit, said channel connecting the inlet and outlet of the electrolytic cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 16, 1987
    Date of Patent: April 18, 1989
    Assignee: Imperial Chemical Industries PLC
    Inventors: Keith Brattan, Stephen J. Hornby, Govinder S. Sehmi
  • Patent number: 4789443
    Abstract: An electrolysis cell comprising a housing containing a plurality of alternating anode units and cathode units and an ion permeable membrane sheet disposed therebetween and having in direct contact with the opposite sides of the membrane sheet a porous anode and a porous cathode, said cathode units comprising a pair of spaced foraminous cathodes of the same polarity forming a space for catholyte therebetween and means for flowing aqueous electrolyte through the catholyte space of the cathode unit and means for removing electrolysis products, the anode units comprising a pair of spaced foraminous anodes forming a space for anolyte therebetween, means for flowing aqueous halide solution through the said anolyte space and means for removing electrolysis products therefrom and means for uniformly compressing the units and membranes together and to a novel method of generating halogens by electrolysis of aqueous halide solutions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 20, 1986
    Date of Patent: December 6, 1988
    Assignee: Oronzio deNora Impianti Elettrochimici S.p.A.
    Inventors: Oronzio deNora, Placido M. Spaziante
  • Patent number: 4767519
    Abstract: The present invention relates to an electrolyzer comprising at least an intermediate electrodic structure interposed between two electrodic end-structures, a separate on each side of the intermediate electrodic structure, device for impressing electrolysis current to the electrolyzer and means for feeding electrolytes to and withdrawing electrolysis products from the electrolyzer compartments. The intermediate electrodic structure comprises a current conducting and distributing core (1) of at least one highly conductive metal sheet; a series of substantially parallel, projecting ribs (2, 10) provided or not onto both surfaces of said core (1); a liner (3) on each side of the core (1) and made of a corrosion resistant metal. These liners (3) are formed by cold- or hot-pressing to fit to the ribs (2, 10) in case core ribs are provided, or have parallel ribs (10') fixed thereto in case core (1) has no ribs. The liners (3) have peripheral projecting flanges (4) parallel to the liners.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 17, 1986
    Date of Patent: August 30, 1988
    Assignee: Oronzio de Nora Impianti Elettrochimici
    Inventor: Oronzio de Nora
  • Patent number: 4758322
    Abstract: Apparatus for the electrolysis of solutions. The apparatus comprises bipolar elements formed of a conductive plate peripherally surrounded by an insulating frame provided with feeding and discharging channels along peripheral zones of the frame. A cavity is formed with the conductive plate as the bottom and the frame as wall. Separating elements can be inserted between the bipolar elements. The separating elements consist of a porous diaphragm and an insulating frame also having feeding and discharging channels. Electrodic structures, consisting of cut and expanded metal sheets, nets or other material having high internal porosity may fill up the remaining space between two lateral bipolar elements and a central separating element.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 16, 1986
    Date of Patent: July 19, 1988
    Assignee: Metkon S.A.
    Inventor: Giancarlo Sioli
  • Patent number: 4743350
    Abstract: An electrolytic membrane cell for the electrochemical production of an alkali metal hydrosulfite by the reduction of an alkali metal biosulfite component of a circulated aqueous catholyte solution is provided. The cell utilizes an improved extended surface multipass porous cathode, an improved catholyte flow path and a hydrophilically treated separator mesh that separates the cation exchange membrane from the anode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 19, 1986
    Date of Patent: May 10, 1988
    Assignee: Olin Corporation
    Inventors: David W. Cawlfield, James M. Ford, Kenneth E. Woodard, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4738763
    Abstract: Monopolar, bipolar, and hybrid filter press electrolytic cells for electrolytic processes utilizing a novel method of introducing and removing electrical energy are disclosed. The invention contemplates a novel low pressure, high surface contact area connecting means for joining the anode element and cathode element of electrode assemblies. The invention also contemplates a low pressure, high surface contact area contact of the current distributor member to the back plate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 19, 1986
    Date of Patent: April 19, 1988
    Assignee: Eltech Systems Corporation
    Inventors: Donald W. Abrahamson, Marilyn J. Harney, Elvin W. Vauss, Jr., Andrew J. Niksa, James J. Stewart
  • Patent number: 4729822
    Abstract: An electrolytic cell of the filter-press type which comprises plate-like anodes, cathodes, and gaskets of an electrically-insulating material, and an ion-exchange membrane between each anode and adjacent cathode to form in the cell a plurality of anode compartments and cathode compartments, the gaskets, and optionally the anodes and cathodes, each containing apertures therein which form headers from which liquors may be charged to the anode and cathode compartments of the cell and to which products of electrolysis may be removed from the anode and cathode compartments of the cell, and in which the gaskets, and optionally the anodes and cathodes, each comprise an aperture therein which together form a compartment lengthwise of the cell which is in communication only with the anode compartments of the cell, or which is in communication only with the cathode compartments of the cell, and which serves as a balancing header.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 7, 1986
    Date of Patent: March 8, 1988
    Assignee: Imperial Chemical Industries PLC
    Inventor: Stephen R. James
  • Patent number: 4713160
    Abstract: An electrolytic cell comprising at least one anode and at least one cathode and pipework for charging liquor to the electrolytic cell and pipework for discharging liquor from the electrolytic cell, in which at least one of the pipeworks is made in part of an electrically non-conducting material and which also comprises an electrically conducting electrode material positioned in the pipework, e.g. a section of pipework made of a metallic electrode material, and in which the electrode material is electrically connected directly or indirectly to the anode or cathode by means of an electrical connection external of the electrolytic cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 13, 1985
    Date of Patent: December 15, 1987
    Assignee: Imperial Chemical Industries PLC
    Inventor: Peter J. Moreland
  • Patent number: 4713162
    Abstract: A bipolar electrolytic cell comprises a plurality of side-by-side cell units, each unit having parallel anode and cathode plates spaced by a centerboard and electrically connected by a bipolar connection comprising a plurality of copper rods extending through the centerboard and shielded at their opposite ends from electrolyte in the cell by protective covers projection welded to opposite sides of the centerboard. The cover for one end of each rod comprises a cup having the base of its opening shaped to conform closely to the one end and frictionally welded thereto.A plurality of similar spacer and ring assemblies are arranged over opposite sides of the centerboard. Each assembly comprises a spacer projection welded to an associated side of the centerboard and to the inner periphery of a ring extending around the spacer. The spacers at one side of the centerboard may comprise the protective covers at said one side.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 29, 1986
    Date of Patent: December 15, 1987
    Assignee: The Dow Chemical Company
    Inventor: John R. Pimlott
  • Patent number: 4698143
    Abstract: The present invention is a circular structural frame particularly suitable for use in an electrochemical cell. The frame comprises an organic plastic or metallic member with a plurality of horizontally and vertically spaced-apart shoulders protruding outwardly from opposing generally spherical anolyte and catholyte surfaces of the plastic member. Each of the shoulders annularly encircles and supports an electrically conductive insert extending from an exterior face of a shoulder on the catholyte surface of the plastic member, through the plastic member, to an exterior face of a shoulder on the anolyte surface of the plastic member.An electrically conductive substantially completely hydraulically impermeable anolyte cover is matingly affixed to the anolyte surface of the plastic member and adapted to minimize contact between the anolyte and the plastic member. The anolyte cover is resistant to the corrosive effects of the anolyte.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 25, 1986
    Date of Patent: October 6, 1987
    Assignee: The Dow Chemical Company
    Inventors: Gregory J. E. Morris, H. Gene Newton
  • Patent number: 4695359
    Abstract: An electrolytic cell is provided with electrodes which are inserted within electrode frames with internal flow conduits and which are formed by metallurgical bonding, and the use of adhesives and an electrical resistance lowering conductive compound between contact surfaces.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 2, 1986
    Date of Patent: September 22, 1987
    Assignee: Olin Corporation
    Inventors: Kenneth E. Woodard, Jr., Robert A. Dean, David L. Fair, Julius C. Fister, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4655896
    Abstract: By Ferric Ion Treatment of crushed and/or pulverized coal, the ash content of a coal can be significantly and efficiently reduced. This treatment of coal, preferably in an acidic medium, creates an increase in osmotic pressure inside the pores and crevices of the coal matrix until they open up, allowing the ash-forming mineral matter to be released from the coal. Also, the ferric ions preferentially attack the sessile bonds of the coal molecule and help open up the pores. The liberated mineral matter is then separated from the coal to obtain a clean coal. A flow-through reactor, utilizing working, reference and counter electrodes, and a loosely-packed coal bed through which the electrolyte flows, is particularly effective in facilitating the Ferric Ion Treatment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 8, 1986
    Date of Patent: April 7, 1987
    Inventors: Roe-Hoan Yoon, A. Dilo Paul
  • Patent number: 4648953
    Abstract: An electrolytic cell of the filter press type comprising a plurality of anodes, cathodes and gaskets, and ion-exchange membranes positioned between each adjacent anode and cathode to form in the cell a plurality of anode compartments and cathode compartments, the cell having two inlet headers from which electrolyte may be charged to the anode compartments of the cell and from which liquors may be charged to the cathode compartments of the cell, and two outlet headers from which products of electrolysis may be removed from the anode compartments and cathode compartments of the cell, the cell being provided with a common chamber in communication with each of the anode compartments and/or a common chamber in communication with each of the cathode compartments, said chamber(s) being provided with means for recirculating liquors to the anode compartments and/or to the cathode compartments, and said chamber(s) being in communication with the outlet headers from the anode compartments and/or the outlet headers from
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 9, 1984
    Date of Patent: March 10, 1987
    Assignee: Imperial Chemical Industries plc
    Inventors: Ian Wardle, Keith Brattan
  • Patent number: 4643818
    Abstract: A multi-cell electrolyzer comprising a plurality of unit cells, each of which is composed of an anode chamber containing an anode and a cathode chamber containing a cathode and a cation exchange membrane for partitioning said unit cell into said anode chamber and said cathode chamber, and each of which is adapted to have an internal pressure maintained at a level higher than the atmospheric pressure in operation of the electrolyzer, said plurality of unit cells being arranged in series and adapted to be energized through a plurality of current lead plates, and rigid multi-contact electrically conductive means provided between the adjacent unit cells and/or between each current lead plate and the unit cell adjacent thereto, thereby establishing electrical connection between the adjacent unit cells and/or between each current lead plate and the unit cell adjacent thereto.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 31, 1985
    Date of Patent: February 17, 1987
    Assignee: Asahi Kasei Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Maomi Seko, Reiji Takemura, Hideharu Miyamori
  • Patent number: 4625440
    Abstract: A tentering apparatus for tensioning a sheet-like member, for example, a membrane used in an electrolyzer. The tentering apparatus includes four clamping assemblies arranged in a picture frame shape configuration with four corner members and a connector member for connecting the clamping assemblies to the corner members and adapted for tensioning the sheet-like member.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 29, 1985
    Date of Patent: December 2, 1986
    Assignee: The Dow Chemical Company
    Inventors: Hiep D. Dang, Roy L. Hicks, Joel F. M. Leathers
  • Patent number: 4622113
    Abstract: Process or producing caustic alkalis or alkali hydroxides by electrolysis, employing a double electrode-type electrolysis tank in which a cation exchange membrane is provided to divide the inside of the tank into cathode and anode compartments, supplying to the anode compartment an alkali chloride, supplying water or a dilute solution of an alkali hydroxide into the cathode compartment, and taking away the alkali hydroxide and the hydrogen gas produced by electrolysis, in a mixed state of gas and liquid from the cathode compartment. The electrolysis tank comprises a number of finger-anodes extending from one of the walls of the tank and a number of finger-like hollow cathodes extending from the other wall of the tank, into which the finger-anodes project to form a gap therebetween, and a cation exchange membrane extending through the gap to divide the inside of the tank into cathode and anode compartments.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 19, 1984
    Date of Patent: November 11, 1986
    Assignees: Toyo Soda Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Chlorine Engineers Corp., Ltd.
    Inventors: Takao Satoh, Masaki Murakami, Nobuhiro Kawasaki, Teruo Ichisaka, Shinji Katayama
  • Patent number: 4601805
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to an apparatus for preparing a lead or copper metal by electrolysis in a cell having a cathode and an anode which are separated by a diaphragm. The surface of the cathode is arranged in a substantially vertical direction and has a sufficiently low density of sites of nucleation so that metallic particles which are formed from the sites keep their individuality in relation to the adjacent particles, until the particles reach a dimension of at least 100 micrometers. An electrolyte is circulated between the cathode and an anode parallel to the surface of the cathode at a flow rate in a laminar to weakly turbulent manner so that under the action of the weight of the particles and the force exercised by the flow of the electrolyte the metallic particles are detached and fall into the electrolyte and are collected and are removed from the bottom of the cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 26, 1984
    Date of Patent: July 22, 1986
    Assignee: Societe Miniere et Metallurgique de Penarroya
    Inventors: Claude Palvadeau, Claude Scheidt
  • Patent number: 4584080
    Abstract: In this electrolysis apparatus, the anode and the gas diffusion cathode are arranged to be separated from one another by means of a partition. At least one element (6) which has the form of a twin trough is located between two half-shells (1, 2) which are located at the ends and of which one carries an anode (4) and the second carries a cathode (5). This twin trough is formed by a common plate (7) and a lateral wall (8), the height of which is divided by the plate and the edges of which are provided with flanges (9, 10). The anode (4) and the cathode (5) are electrically conductively connected to the wall (8) and to struts (13) which protrude vertically from the plate on both sides. In order to form a cavity (16) between the partition (14) and the cathode (5), a sealing element is arranged between these two.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 29, 1985
    Date of Patent: April 22, 1986
    Assignee: Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Rudolf Staab, Kurt Hannesen
  • Patent number: 4578885
    Abstract: A tentering apparatus for tensioning a sheet-like member, for example, a membrane used in an electrolyzer. The tentering apparatus includes four clamping assemblies arranged in a picture frame shape configuration adapted for clamping at least a portion of its periphery of a sheet-like member. One pair of clamping assemblies have studs at each end rotatably mounted at the ends of the second pair of clamping assemblies. A planar sheet-like member is tensioned by clamping the periphery of the sheet-like member and applying a pulling force generally outwardly and normal to the second pair of clamping assemblies and rotating the first pair of clamping assemblies to cause a pulling force generally normal to the first pair of clamping assemblies.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 29, 1985
    Date of Patent: April 1, 1986
    Assignee: The Dow Chemical Company
    Inventors: Hiep D. Dang, Roy L. Hicks, Joel F. M. Leathers
  • Patent number: 4571288
    Abstract: A process for electrolysis of an electrolyte, e.g. aqueous alkali metal chloride solution in an electrolytic cell comprising a plurality of anodes and cathodes and separators positioned between adjacent anodes and cathodes to form in the cell a plurality of anode compartments and cathode compartment, the process comprising charging the electrolyte to the anode compartments, electrolyzing the electrolyte, and removing the products of electrolysis from the anode and cathode compartments, the anodes and cathodes comprising an electroconducting electrocatalytically-active portion affixed to a frame member of an electrically non-conducting plastics material, and the frame members being bonded directly or indirectly to each other. Also an electrolytic cell for use in the process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 7, 1984
    Date of Patent: February 18, 1986
    Assignee: Imperial Chemical Industries PLC
    Inventor: Thomas W. Boulton
  • Patent number: 4564433
    Abstract: A bipolar electrode has plate-like anode and cathode parts. The anode and cathode parts are secured together, edge-to-edge, to form a single element in one plane by an intermediate connecting piece. The intermediate connecting piece itself is a composite element having parts of materials which are compatible with the respectively adjacent anode and cathode. The two parts of the composite element are joined together by hot isostatic pressure, explosion-plating or diffusion-welding into the composite body, the resultant composite body then permitting welding of the respective anode and cathode plates to the respective anode part and cathode part of the composite element or body.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 21, 1984
    Date of Patent: January 14, 1986
    Assignee: Heraeus Elektroden GmbH
    Inventors: Waltraud Werdecker, Peter Fabian
  • Patent number: 4557816
    Abstract: A chlor-alkali electrolytic cell with a cation exchange membrane is improved, with respect to eliminating local differences of electrolyte, by providing a duct to facilitate downward flow of electrolyte. The duct of this invention serves, without increase of current leakage, with results comparable to conventional forced circulation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 24, 1983
    Date of Patent: December 10, 1985
    Assignee: Asahi Kasei Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Muneo Yoshida, Yoshitomo Tamura
  • Patent number: 4517067
    Abstract: An electrochemical bipolar reactor has numerous conductive particles held in a fixed relationship to one another with non-conductive material wedged between at least some of the particles to electrically insulate those particles from other particles. In one embodiment, the conductive particles are separated into discrete layers by layers of non-conductive material. In another embodiment, the conductive particles are each partially covered with a layer of non-conductive material. In either case, the non-conductive material is pervious so that electrolyte can readily contact the conductive particles. The reactor has a low void volume and current leakage is minimized. The reactor of the present invention is particularly suited to process high volume wastes and can be constructed easily without machine parts. Also, the reactor can be operated over a wide range of conditions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 26, 1983
    Date of Patent: May 14, 1985
    Inventors: John J. Byerley, Kurt Enns
  • Patent number: 4500403
    Abstract: A divided electrochemical cell assembly comprises stacked bipolar substantially square parallel planar electrodes and membranes. The corners and edges of the electrodes with bordering insulative spacers in juxtaposition with the chamber walls define four electrolyte circulation manifolds. Anolyte and catholyte channeling means permit the separate introduction of anolyte and catholyte into two of the manifolds and the withdrawal of anolyte and catholyte separately from at least two other manifolds. The electrodes and membranes are separated from one another by the insulative spacers which are also channeling means disposed to provide electrolyte channels across the interfaces of adjacent electrodes and membranes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 8, 1983
    Date of Patent: February 19, 1985
    Assignee: Monsanto Company
    Inventor: Christopher J. H. King
  • Patent number: 4496441
    Abstract: A system for desulfurization of sulfur-containing coal comprises apparatus for comminuting sulfur-containing coal, a gas/solid reactor having an inlet and an outlet, a connection or conduit for supplying the comminuted sulfur-containing coal to the reactor inlet, and an oxidant gas generator constructed in accordance with U.S. Pat. No. 4,248,681 connected to supply an oxidant gas to the reactor. The oxidant gas produced from concentrated salt solutions contains substantial amounts of chlorine dioxide, while the oxidant gas produced from dilute salt solutions contains other oxygen-containing gases. The oxidant gas is introduced at pressures which may range from sub-atmospheric to super-atomospheric and the comminuted coal is mixed or agitated to insure efficient gas/solid contact. The oxidant gas oxidizes the sulfur contaminants of the coal to gaseous sulfur oxides which are removed from the reactor. The desulfurized comminuted coal may be slurried for pipeline transmission.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 17, 1983
    Date of Patent: January 29, 1985
    Assignee: Tetravalent Inc.
    Inventors: Charles T. Sweeney, John K. Bird
  • Patent number: 4472255
    Abstract: An electrochemical cell having dished electrodes received in rectangular frame members, and arranged to form a bipolar stack. Electrolyte inlets and outlets open into plenum chambers defined between the dished electrodes and the frame members. A turbulence promoter substantially fills the flowpath between the electrolyte inlet and electrolyte outlet.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 4, 1982
    Date of Patent: September 18, 1984
    Assignee: The Electricity Council
    Inventors: James P. Millington, Ian McCrady Dalrymple
  • Patent number: 4465579
    Abstract: A bipolar electrolytic cell has a plurality of unit cells electrically aligned in series, each of the unit cells being divided into an anode chamber and a cathode chamber by an ion-exchange membrane, and each of the anode and cathode chambers having a supply pipe and a discharge pipe which are respectively connected at one end to common headers. The other end of each of the supply or discharge pipes in the anode or cathode chambers is inserted deep into the respective electrode chamber so that at least 50% of the electrical resistance of the liquid in each pipe exists in the electrode chamber, and the wall of the inserted portion of each pipe electrically insulates the liquid in the pipe from a liquid in the electrode chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 14, 1982
    Date of Patent: August 14, 1984
    Assignee: Tokuyama Soda Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Sinichiro Mataga, Makoto Takenaka
  • Patent number: 4463064
    Abstract: A galvanic element in the form of a flat, high power cell, especially a ml-air-cell, which is cooled with cooling water, and can be assembled to a battery which comprises a plurality of cells. The flat cell comprises bipolar electrodes which have a consumable metal electrode in flat form as an anode, a cathode (oxygen electrode), and a liquid electrolyte. It is an object of the present invention to be able to control the temperature, especially for cooling, of each individual electrode directly by means of a medium which is independent of the liquid electrolyte. For this purpose, the bipolar electrodes are electrically interconnected, and between them is arranged a gasket which forms a cooling chamber. As a result, the heat balance and temperature of not only the anode but also of the cathode can be controlled directly.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 10, 1983
    Date of Patent: July 31, 1984
    Assignee: Accumulatorenwerke Hoppecke Carl Zoellner & Sohn GmbH & Co. KG
    Inventors: Jean Ruch, Detlef Katryniok, Hugo Pack, Heinz-Gunter Tillmann
  • Patent number: 4432856
    Abstract: Chlorine dioxide is produced by electrolysis of a solution of chlorite and by using a compact apparatus which provides continuously a uniform concentration of chlorine dioxide, which can be operated easily, which discharges a spent electrolyte that can be treated easily and which achieves highly efficient use of chlorite and high current efficiency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 28, 1981
    Date of Patent: February 21, 1984
    Assignee: The Japan Carlit Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Katsuyuki Murakami, Kaoru Hirakata, Fumio Ishizaka, Shinichi Shimoda, Reiichi Itai
  • Patent number: 4430179
    Abstract: A method for assembling a filter press type of electrolytic cell is disclosed wherein tightening apparatus is employed at preferably multiple points about the periphery of the stacked electrodes to substantially simultaneously apply a substantially uniform pressure to compress the cell to permit the compressed stack of electrodes to be retained in this compressed state while the cell is assembled in a fluid-tight manner.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 3, 1981
    Date of Patent: February 7, 1984
    Assignee: Olin Corporation
    Inventors: James M. Ford, David B. Wright
  • Patent number: 4411749
    Abstract: A process for electrolyzing an aqueous solution of an alkali metal chloride by feeding said aqueous solution of an alkali metal chloride into the central space of a hollow quadrilateral frame holding an anode therein, defining an anode compartment, and feeding water or a dilute aqueous solution of an alkali metal hydroxide into the central space of a hollow quadrilateral frame holding a cathode therein, defining a cathode compartment, said anode compartment and said cathode compartment being separated by a cation exchange membrane, in a filter-press type electrolytic cell wherein:(a) each hollow quadrilateral frame is provided with an inlet passage to the central space of said frame for the introduction of an electrolyte and an outlet passage from the central space of said frame for removal of an electrolyzed product;(b) an anode or a cathode is held in each said frame and electrically connected to a power source or an adjacent counter electrode, each said anode or cathode being respectively made of a metal p
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 20, 1981
    Date of Patent: October 25, 1983
    Assignee: Asahi Glass Company Ltd.
    Inventors: Kimihiko Sato, Yasuo Sajima, Makoto Nakao, Takeshi Morimoto
  • Patent number: 4402810
    Abstract: An electrolytic cell of the filter press type comprising a monopolar cell unit having a plurality of substantially vertical alternating anodes and cathodes each anode being partitioned from the adjacent cathode or cathodes by a separator to form in the cell unit a plurality of anode and cathode compartments, the electrolytic cell comprising two or more such units mounted one above the other, the anodes of the cell unit at the top or bottom being attached to electrical conductors, the cathodes of the cell unit at the bottom or top being attached to electrical conductors, and the anodes and cathodes of adjacent cell units which are not attached to the said conductors being connected by means of a bipolar electrical connection or connections between the anodes of one cell unit and the cathodes of the adjacent cell unit positioned above or below the said cell unit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 14, 1981
    Date of Patent: September 6, 1983
    Assignee: Imperial Chemical Industries Limited
    Inventors: Thomas W. Boulton, Brian J. Darwent
  • Patent number: 4402809
    Abstract: Discloses a permionic membrane bipolar electrolyzer for the electroylsis of aqueous alkali metal chlorides. The electrolyzer is characterized by having a minimum anode to cathode gap, e.g., the anode and cathode both in contact with the permionic membrane, and by having means to prevent the diffusion of nascent hydrogen between adjacent electrolytic cells.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 3, 1981
    Date of Patent: September 6, 1983
    Assignee: PPG Industries, Inc.
    Inventors: Colonel R. Dilmore, Carl W. Raetzsch, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4389289
    Abstract: A bipolar diaphragm electrolyzer particularly suitable for electrolysis of alkali metal halide aqueous solutions wherein the bipolar wall separating the electrode compartments is formed of at least two sheets made of different metals, suitable pressure being applied against the metal sheets to provide for electrical continuity across the bipolar wall, said pressure being exerted either by means of resilient elements which are compressed when the electrolyzer is closed or by maintaining the electrode compartments under a sufficient hydrostatic pressure during the electrolytic process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 14, 1981
    Date of Patent: June 21, 1983
    Assignee: Oronzio deNora Impianti Elettrochimici S.p.A.
    Inventor: Oronzio deNora
  • Patent number: 4377445
    Abstract: Electrochemical systems having a plurality of cells which are hydraulically and electrically connected in series develop shunt currents in the electrolyte of adjacent cells. The shunt currents are reduced or eliminated by the placing of an electrical bypass across two adjacent intercell conduits, and applying a protective current through the electrical bypass in a direction of the shunt currents and of a magnitude that can effectively reduce the shunt currents.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 7, 1980
    Date of Patent: March 22, 1983
    Assignee: Exxon Research and Engineering Co.
    Inventor: Patrick G. Grimes
  • Patent number: 4371433
    Abstract: Shunt currents which flow between the electrodes of adjacent cells through the moving conductive fluid and the fluid pool in the manifold of a bipolar cell assembly are minimized by introducing the conductive fluid at the top of an elongated outlet manifold. This results in cascaded flow which interrupts the current path. Shunt currents between the fluid manifold walls of the conductive bipolar elements in the series connected electrochemical cell assemblies are minimized by insulating the manifold walls with insulating, elastomeric sealing grommets. This prevents current flow between the manifold walls through the electrically conductive fluid in the manifold and provides an edgeseal between bipolar plates.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 14, 1980
    Date of Patent: February 1, 1983
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Edward N. Balko, Lawrence C. Moulthrop
  • Patent number: 4357224
    Abstract: Disclosed is an energy efficient electrolyzer for the production of hydrogen. The electrolyzer consists of an inner container, a plurality of electrolytic cells within the container and means for passing electric current in series through the electrolytic cells. Each cell consists of the anode half of one inert impervious conducting bipolar plate, in contact with an inert conductive anode bed of large surface area separated from the facing cathode half of another inert impervious conducting bipolar plate by a porous insulating separator. The anode is impregnated with an anolyte of about 10 to about 60% aqueous sulfuric acid saturated with sulfur dioxide and the cathode is bathed in a catholyte of about 10 to about 60% aqueous sulfuric acid. The anode is preferably carbon pellets which have been obtained from vegetable matter and which contain about 1 to about 5% platinum.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 7, 1981
    Date of Patent: November 2, 1982
    Assignee: Westinghouse Electric Corp.
    Inventors: Carl C. Hardman, George R. Folser
  • Patent number: 4339322
    Abstract: A bipolar current collector-separator for electrochemical cells consists of a molded aggregate of electro-conductive graphite and a thermoplastic fluoropolymer particles reinforced with carbon fibers to increase the strength and maintain high electrical conductivity. The graphite and the thermoplastic fluoropolymer are combined in weight ratio ranging from 2.5:1 to 16:1. The carbon fibers may constitute from 10 to 80 weight percent of the conductive graphite. The bulk resistivity of such a molded bipolar current collector is less than 4.times.10.sup.-3 ohm inches (.sigma. in.) It has excellent corrosion resistance to a variety of feed stocks such as brine, aqueous HCl, water, etc. and to various electrolysis products, such as caustic, chlorine, hydrogen, etc.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 21, 1980
    Date of Patent: July 13, 1982
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Edward N. Balko, Richard J. Lawrance
  • Patent number: 4312735
    Abstract: Shunt currents can be eliminated in electrochemical devices by introducing nulling currents via auxiliary electrodes. The invention teaches the reduction or elimination of these shunt currents in such devices with minimized power consumption. Shunt current nulling tunnels are provided which interconnect with electrolyte supply channels feeding the cells of the electrochemical device. Power consumption for the shunt current-nulling tunnels is reduced by designing the tunnels to have an increasing electrical resistance towards their mid-portions. Another embodiment of the invention features an increasing electrical resistance towards the mid-portion of the tunnels and a decreasing electrical resistance towards the mid-portion of the manifolds.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 16, 1980
    Date of Patent: January 26, 1982
    Assignee: Exxon Research & Engineering Co.
    Inventors: Patrick G. Grimes, Markus Zahn, Richard J. Bellows
  • Patent number: 4312736
    Abstract: An electrolysis cell for water electrolysis, consisting of a synthetic polymer foil as a solid substance electrolyte having attached on both sides thereof finely porous and coarsely porous substances serving as electrodes, and two bipolar plates serving to provide electricity, whereby the finely porous substance carries the anode catalyst on the oxygen side and the solid electrolyte carries the cathode catalyst on the hydrogen side.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 2, 1980
    Date of Patent: January 26, 1982
    Assignee: BBC Brown, Boveri & Company, Limited
    Inventors: Anton Menth, Rene Muller, Samuel Stucki
  • Patent number: 4311577
    Abstract: A method of assembling an electrolytic membrane cell is disclosed. The method includes the steps of assembling a vertical stack of horizontal electrode frames with a horizontal membrane sheet between each pair of frames, then applying pressure to vertically compress the vertical stack, then rotating the compressed vertical stack from a vertical orientation to a horizontal orientation in which orientation of the stack is called a "pack" and then connecting the pack into an electrical circuit and to raw material supply lines and product withdrawal lines and then electrically operating the pack while maintaining the pack in a horizontal orientation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 21, 1980
    Date of Patent: January 19, 1982
    Assignee: Olin Corporation
    Inventor: Morton S. Kircher
  • Patent number: 4308117
    Abstract: An electrolytic generator is disclosed having three sealed compartments, separated by two spaced ion-permeable membranes, one being a cation exchange membrane and the other being an anion exchange membrane, having a cathode in one end compartment, adjacent to the cation exchange membrane, and an anode in the other end compartment, adjacent to the anion exchange membrane. A bipolar electrode is positioned in the middle compartment between the anion and cation exchange membranes. When the cell is filled with brine and energized, hydrogen is evolved from the cathode-containing compartment and a chlorine/chlorine dioxide mixture from the anode-containing compartment for use in bleaching or in treating bodies of water, such as, swimming pools, baths, reservoirs, sewage, etc. The anode, cathode and bipolar electrode are preferably flat plate electrodes, although other configurations, such as, cylindrical electrodes may be used. The generator is characterized by a rapid start up when energized with electricity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 25, 1980
    Date of Patent: December 29, 1981
    Inventor: Charles T. Sweeney
  • Patent number: 4299681
    Abstract: Hydrochloric acid electrolyzers serve to decompose hydrochloric acid to hydrogen and chlorine with the aid of electric current.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 4, 1980
    Date of Patent: November 10, 1981
    Assignee: UHDE GmbH
    Inventors: Luciano Mose, Helmuth Schurig, Bernd Strasser
  • Patent number: 4285786
    Abstract: An apparatus and method of monitoring temperature in a multicell electrolyzer used to produce a gaseous product from a liquid phase electrolyte by placing a single temperature sensing means in the common product collection means is disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 9, 1980
    Date of Patent: August 25, 1981
    Assignee: Allied Chemical Corporation
    Inventor: Eric H. Larson
  • Patent number: 4280883
    Abstract: Disclosed is a method of operating a solid polymer electrolyte chlor-alkali cell at an elevated pressure with the recovery of liquid chlorine and brine. The liquid chlorine and depleted brine are recovered from the cell and separated. Thereafter, the brine may be dechlorinated, e.g., by cooling the brine to from chlorine hydrate, and separating the chlorine hydrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 23, 1979
    Date of Patent: July 28, 1981
    Assignee: PPG Industries, Inc.
    Inventor: Carl W. Raetzsch
  • Patent number: 4279731
    Abstract: A bipolar diaphragm or membrane electrolyzer comprising a housing containing an end anode element, an end cathode element and a plurality of bipolar elements with their major dimensions lying in a substantially vertical plane and comprised of a bipolar wall separating the anode compartment and the cathode compartment and vertical foraminous electrodes parallel positioned a certain distance from the bipolar wall, diaphragms or membranes separating the anodes and cathodes a series of baffles distributed along the entire width of the electrode compartment and extending from the bipolar wall to the foraminous electrode to form a series of vertical flow channels extending over a large portion of the height of the wall, the said baffles being alternately inclined one way and the other way with respect to the vertical plane normal to the bipolar wall plane and spaced from one another whereby the ratio of the electrode surface intercepted by the edges of two baffles laterally defining a vertical flow channel to the f
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 10, 1980
    Date of Patent: July 21, 1981
    Assignee: Oronzio deNora Impianti Elettrichimici S.p.A.
    Inventor: Alberto Pellegri