With Heater Or Cooler Patents (Class 204/262)
  • Patent number: 4773981
    Abstract: An apparatus comprising an electrolysis cell having a plurality of electrically energized gas conduits is combined with an internal combustion engine.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 19, 1987
    Date of Patent: September 27, 1988
    Assignee: Stephen Masiuk
    Inventor: Howard Bidwell
  • Patent number: 4714533
    Abstract: An inorganic gas separator which has a porosity between 30 and 70% and a pore diameter between 10 and 100 .mu.m, and which is gas impermeable when soaked-through with liquid, is mounted in a frame, divides a cell housing into two compartments, and is moistened by capillarity with liquid fed through channels extending in the frame. In each compartment are mounted a porous foil, an electrode, a pre-electrode, a metal plate and an insulating plate. On the cell-housing thermo-electric heat pumps are mounted for cooling and the unit formed by the housing and the pumps is surrounded by an outer casing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 18, 1986
    Date of Patent: December 22, 1987
    Assignee: Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie, S.C.K.
    Inventors: Andre Rahier, Rene D. W. Cornelissen, Aime Bruggeman
  • Patent number: 4639302
    Abstract: An electrolytic cell for recovery of metal from mineral ores or concentrates comprising a tank for holding a slurry of electrolyte and the mineral ore or concentrates. Vertical anodes are radially disposed in the tank and vertical cathodes enclosed in diaphragm bags are interposed between the anodes. Agitating means are located in the tank below the anodes and cathodes. Metal is removed from a central collecting container in the tank by pump means.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 26, 1984
    Date of Patent: January 27, 1987
    Assignee: Dextec Metallurgical Pty. Ltd.
    Inventor: Peter K. Everett
  • Patent number: 4530744
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for producing liquid hydrogen in which water is electrolyzed under pressure to generate separate streams of oxygen and hydrogen. A buffer cooling circuit is provided between two streams in order that heat can be removed safely from the hydrogen product stream by direct or indirect heat exchange with an inert medium flowing in the cooling circuit. At least some of cooling and/or work required in the cooling circuit is provided by expanding the oxygen stream. Preferably, heat is exchanged between at least some of the inert medium and the low pressure oxygen stream. The invention requires only compression of the feed water so avoiding the work necessary in prior art processes to comprise feed hydrogen gas. Also, use of the high pressure oxygen to provide work and or cooling required elsewhere in the plant.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 9, 1984
    Date of Patent: July 23, 1985
    Inventor: Eric M. Smith
  • Patent number: 4484991
    Abstract: A chlorine generator and method of generating chlorine gas includes anode and cathode compartments releasably secured to one another and separated in part by an ion-permeable membrane, and exterior chambers and fluid passageways cooperating therewith to provide circulating fluids to cool and dissipate the heat generated by the anode and cathode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 2, 1983
    Date of Patent: November 27, 1984
    Assignee: Aqua Pura, Inc.
    Inventors: Arthur L. Angelo, Baboobhai S. Patel, Duc T. Bui
  • Patent number: 4482440
    Abstract: An electrochemical cell for regenerating temperature sensitive solutions is described. In a preferred construction, the cell comprises a central electrode chamber and two counterelectrode chambers. To maintain the temperature of the electrolyte within a desired temperature range, the electrode in the electrode chamber is formed from at least one hollow tube through which a heat exchange medium flows. In a preferred construction, the electrode comprises a plurality of hollow tubes and a plurality of current collectors bonded to the tubes to form a grid-like structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 6, 1983
    Date of Patent: November 13, 1984
    Assignee: Olin Corporation
    Inventor: Igor V. Kadija
  • Patent number: 4443308
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for electrochemically synthesizing anhydrous HNO.sub.3 from an aqueous solution of HNO.sub.3 includes oxidizing a solution of N.sub.2 O.sub.4 /aqueous HNO.sub.3 at an anode, while maintaining a controlled potential between the N.sub.2 O.sub.4 /aqueous HNO.sub.3 solution and the anode. A potential of about 1.80V vs. SCE is preferred. Anhydrous or aqueous HNO.sub.3 may be disposed at the cathode within the electrochemical cell. Aqueous HNO.sub.3 having a water content of up to about 12% by weight is utilized to synthesize anhydrous HNO.sub.3.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 20, 1982
    Date of Patent: April 17, 1984
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by United States Department of Energy
    Inventors: Clifford L. Coon, Jackson E. Harrar, Richard K. Pearson, Raymond R. McGuire
  • Patent number: 4432902
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for electrochemically synthesizing N.sub.2 O.sub.5 cludes oxidizing a solution of N.sub.2 O.sub.4 /HNO.sub.3 at an anode, while maintaining a controlled potential between the N.sub.2 O.sub.4 /HNO.sub.3 solution and the anode. A potential of about 1.35 to 2.0 V vs. SCE is preferred, while a potential of about 1.80 V vs. SCE is most preferred. Thereafter, the N.sub.2 O.sub.5 is reacted with either 1.5-diacetyl-3,7-dinitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (DADN) or 1,3,5,7-tetraacetyl-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (TAT) to form cyclotetramethylenetetraamine (HMX).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 20, 1982
    Date of Patent: February 21, 1984
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Department of Energy
    Inventors: Raymond R. McGuire, Clifford L. Coon, Jackson E. Harrar, Richard K. Pearson
  • Patent number: 4369102
    Abstract: An electrolysis apparatus decomposes water into hydrogen gas and oxygen gas. The apparatus comprises a housing for the water to be decomposed, a plurality of symmetrically folded and edged unipolar electrodes for decomposing the water held in the housing, microporous membranes for separating each of the plurality of unipolar electrodes from one another, and an arrangement for wiring the plurality of unipolar electrodes in parallel. The apparatus also comprises separate outlets, collectors, and consumers for each gas. There is also a water supply, a water feed regulator, and a water inlet. A power source supplies electrical wattage to the parallel wiring arrangement. An electrolytic solution containing only about 2.2% or less KOH concentration by weight is used to help decompose the water. Invertible plates may be used either for diverting the free upward flow of hydrogen gas and oxygen gas laterally to separate gas outlets or for diverting the free downward fall of minerals laterally to a collection chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 25, 1980
    Date of Patent: January 18, 1983
    Assignee: Hydor Corporation
    Inventors: Daniel T. Galluzzo, Charles L. Dumler
  • Patent number: 4336122
    Abstract: An electrolysis apparatus is disclosed and comprises a plurality of cells connected in series both on the current flow path (an electrical course being connected across the end ones of the electrodes) and the electrolyte/gas flow path (electrolyte entering one end cell through one end electrode and gas issuing from the other end cell through the other end electrode), the cells including at least one series of gas generating cells followed by at least one cooling cell. The end electrodes of a series of cells may be short circuited so that these cells become cooling cells because they are not active to generate gas and instead the electrolyte and gas flowing through them undergoes cooling. The apparatus may be arranged for generating detonating gas or may be modified for generating oxygen and hydrogen at separate outlets.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 8, 1980
    Date of Patent: June 22, 1982
    Inventor: Ernst Spirig
  • Patent number: 4299681
    Abstract: Hydrochloric acid electrolyzers serve to decompose hydrochloric acid to hydrogen and chlorine with the aid of electric current.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 4, 1980
    Date of Patent: November 10, 1981
    Assignee: UHDE GmbH
    Inventors: Luciano Mose, Helmuth Schurig, Bernd Strasser
  • Patent number: 4280883
    Abstract: Disclosed is a method of operating a solid polymer electrolyte chlor-alkali cell at an elevated pressure with the recovery of liquid chlorine and brine. The liquid chlorine and depleted brine are recovered from the cell and separated. Thereafter, the brine may be dechlorinated, e.g., by cooling the brine to from chlorine hydrate, and separating the chlorine hydrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 23, 1979
    Date of Patent: July 28, 1981
    Assignee: PPG Industries, Inc.
    Inventor: Carl W. Raetzsch
  • Patent number: 4274938
    Abstract: An apparatus for producing hydrogen and oxygen or oxides wherein electrolysis of an aqueous system is carried out using, in the cathode compartment of the electrolysis cell, a hydride-forming liquid metal, the resulting hydride being thermally decomposed to produce the hydrogen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 28, 1979
    Date of Patent: June 23, 1981
    Assignee: Kernforschungsanlage Julich GmbH
    Inventors: Rudolf Schulten, Friedrich Behr, Helmut Wenzl
  • Patent number: 4230544
    Abstract: An improved process and apparatus for pH control in the anode compartments of membrane chlor-alkali cells is disclosed wherein an anode is used having an oxygen evolution efficiency substantially equivalent chemically to the hydroxide ion transfer efficiency of the membrane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 31, 1979
    Date of Patent: October 28, 1980
    Assignee: Ionics Inc.
    Inventor: Wayne A. McRae
  • Patent number: 4152238
    Abstract: A device for regulating drinking water includes an electrolyzer divided into a negative electrode chamber and a positive electrode chamber by an unglazed partition, and electrodes disposed in the chambers and adapted to be energized by direct current for a prescribed period of time for separating water in the electrolyzer into two components having a hydroxyl radical in different densities, due to the electrolysis and electroendosmose. The negative electrode has a heating element disposed in a hollow space formed in the negative electrode to warm up the water body in the electrolyzer at each time of the electrolysis. A thermistor, or the like, is electrically connected to the heating element to control the temperature of the water body in the electrolyzer and to prevent overheating of the negative electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 16, 1978
    Date of Patent: May 1, 1979
    Assignee: Kabushikigaisha OMCO
    Inventor: Tatsuo Okazaki
  • Patent number: 4085016
    Abstract: A method for the oxidation of organic material present in concentrated sulfuric acid is disclosed. The method comprises the steps of diverting a portion of a concentrated sulfuric acid stream, diluting the diverted stream with water to about 40-70% sulfuric acid concentration, passing the diluted stream through an electrolysis apparatus to oxidize some of the sulfuric acid to form a predetermined quantity of peroxosulfuric acids, and returning the diverted stream back to the main stream to oxidize the organic material and decolorize the main stream of concentrated sulfuric acid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 14, 1976
    Date of Patent: April 18, 1978
    Assignee: Noranda Mines Limited
    Inventors: Mohammad Barakat Ilahi Janjua, Pierre L. Claessens, Raouf O. Loutfy
  • Patent number: 4081347
    Abstract: A substantially sealed electrolyte container is provided for electroplating articles, and an evacuating means is provided for evacuating the space above the electrolyte surface in the electrolyte container. The article to be electroplated forms the anode or cathode electrode. The electrolyte container is subdivided by porous partitions, which do not disturb the electrical field of force, into cathode and anode chambers, and separate gas extraction means are provided for said chambers. Beneath the electrolyte level in the cathode and anode chambers electrolyte extraction and supply means are provided by means of which the electrolyte is extracted, degassed and returned to the cathode and anode chambers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 29, 1976
    Date of Patent: March 28, 1978
    Inventor: Otto Alfred Becker
  • Patent number: 4077862
    Abstract: A device for regulating drinking water includes an electrolyzer divided into a negative electrode chamber and a positive electrode chamber by an unglazed partition, and electrodes disposed in the chambers and adapted to be energized by direct current for a prescribed period time for separating water in the electrolyzer into two components having hydroxyl radical in different densities, due to the electrolysis and electroendosmose. The negative electrode has a heating element disposed in a hollow space formed in the negative electrode to warm up the water body in the electrolyzer at each time of the electrolysis.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 23, 1976
    Date of Patent: March 7, 1978
    Assignee: Okazaki Manufacturing Company Limited
    Inventor: Tatsuo Okazaki
  • Patent number: 4071431
    Abstract: An installation for the treatment of metals pickling solutions is disclosed. The invention provides for solutions to be treated by electrodialysis in a tank which is divided up to form sets of three compartments. Anode and cathode compartments in the form of removable cases are arranged alternately with spaces therebetween defining central compartments. In use, according to a preferred method of the invention, anolyte flows through the anode compartments while the picklng solution flows through the cathode and central compartments. Flow through the compartments may be either in series or in parallel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 18, 1976
    Date of Patent: January 31, 1978
    Assignee: Socomaten
    Inventors: Oliver Nicou, Roger Lumbroso
  • Patent number: 4040936
    Abstract: A wet chlorine generator for providing precisely controlled rates of gas flow for instrumentation purposes, characterized by a safe and reliable gas source provided by precisely controllable electrolysis of a metal chloride electrolyte to form chlorine gas that is then passed through a flow regulating device into a gas conduit that guides the gas from the generator to associated instrumentation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 2, 1976
    Date of Patent: August 9, 1977
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Edward D. Orth, John A. Roberts, Raymond J. D. Smith
  • Patent number: 3976556
    Abstract: Describes a diaphragm electrolysis cell and method of operation in which water vapor is continuously or intermittently condensed on the cathode side of the diaphragm surface to dilute and remove the hydroxide containing film which forms on the cathode side of the diaphragm surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 5, 1974
    Date of Patent: August 24, 1976
    Assignee: Oronzio de Nora Impianti Elettrochimici S.p.A.
    Inventor: Vittorio De Nora
  • Patent number: 3969285
    Abstract: Fluorinated cation exchange polymers are obtained from intermediate fluorinated polymers containing pendant sulfonyl halide groups which are reacted with a di- or polyamine and subjected to elevated temperature of the order of 170.degree. to 300.degree.C. The polymers are desirably employed with pendant side groups in the salt form. The polymers possess perm-selectivity giving desirable performance in electrolytic cells such as chlor-alkali cells as well as membrane ion exchanger and reverse osmosis devices.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 1973
    Date of Patent: July 13, 1976
    Assignee: E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company
    Inventor: Walther Gustav Grot
  • Patent number: 3969214
    Abstract: A generating cell for hydrogen and oxygen utilizes permanent magnets and electromagnets. Means are provided for removing gases from the electrodes. Mixing chambers are provided for water and the electrolyte used in the cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 31, 1973
    Date of Patent: July 13, 1976
    Inventor: Mack Harris