And Filter Patents (Class 204/264)
  • Publication number: 20010040098
    Abstract: A plating system is composed of a transfer device for performing transfer of a wafer, a plating unit and a washing/drying unit provided around the transfer device. Each unit is structured to be detachable from the plating system. The plating unit is divided into a wafer transfer section and a plating section by a separator, and atmosphere of each section is independently set.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 1, 2001
    Publication date: November 15, 2001
    Inventors: Wataru Okase, Takenobu Matsuo
  • Patent number: 6312572
    Abstract: The present invention provides an ion exchange membrane type electrolyzer, which comprises electrodes at opposed positions via an ion exchange membrane, spacers are mounted in dot-like arrangement on openings of electrode surface to maintain spacing between the ion exchange membrane and surface of at least one of the electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 14, 2000
    Date of Patent: November 6, 2001
    Assignees: Chlorine Engineers Corp., Ltd., Tosoh Corporation
    Inventor: Shinji Katayama
  • Patent number: 6296744
    Abstract: There is disclosed an apparatus for the electrochemical treatment of a liquid medium, which allows the production of a sterilizing solution as well as the decontamination and purification of liquid mediums from toxic organic substances and other impurities. The apparatus contains a diaphragm-shaped electrolytic midstream cell, a feed line for the liquid medium being processed, a cathodic outlet line for carrying the liquid medium out of the cathode chamber to a place of collection or discharge, an anodic outlet line for carrying the liquid medium out of the anode chamber into a catalytic reactor for breaking down active chlorine, an exit line for carrying the liquid medium to the place of collection, and a bypass line, an additional exit line and a flow switching device. The apparatus can also be equipped with a flow switching device, a connecting line, a midstream expansion tank, a purification filter and other components.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 14, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 2, 2001
    Assignee: Sterilox Technologies International Limited
    Inventors: Nougzar Djeiranishvili, Sergei Boutine, Gennadii Evseevich Meerkop
  • Publication number: 20010011640
    Abstract: A substrate container includes a container housing having an opening for storing a substrate therethrough and a cover sealingly covering the opening, a fan motor mounted in the container housing for producing a circulating path of air in contact with the substrate in the container housing, and a particle removing filter and a gaseous impurity trapping filter which are disposed in the a portion of the circulating path which extends toward the substrate. A dehumidifying unit for dehumidifying a space in the container housing comprises a solid polymer electrolyte film disposed in the circulating path and voltage applying means for applying a voltage to the solid polymer electrolyte film to decompose water in air flowing in the circulating path thereby to dehumidify a space in the container housing.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 26, 2001
    Publication date: August 9, 2001
    Inventors: Yoko Suzuki, Akira Tanaka, Kazuo Okubo
  • Patent number: 6228251
    Abstract: Acid water containing hypochlorous acid is produced by an anode chamber of an electrolytic chamber, and alkali water is produced by a cathode chamber. The acid water is reserved in a reservoir tank and is returned into the anode chamber by actuating a return pump. The acid water returned into the anode chamber is subjected to further electrolysis, and fed in the cathode chamber through a first water supply line, an interconnection means and a second water supply line, so as to sterilize the interiors of the first water supply line, the interconnection and the second water supply line.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 25, 1999
    Date of Patent: May 8, 2001
    Inventor: Yoshiya Okazaki
  • Patent number: 6168692
    Abstract: An apparatus for generating alkali ion water includes an electrolytic cell. At least two electrodes are disposed in the electrolytic cell. A diaphragm disposed in the electrolytic cell extends between the electrodes. A dc voltage is supplied to the electrodes. A mean value of the dc voltage is varied at a given inclination. A first detecting device operates to detect an ac current and generate a signal representative thereof. The dc voltage is derived from the ac current. A second detecting device operates to detect the mean value of the dc voltage in response to the signal generated by the first detecting device. A third detecting device operates to detect an inclination in a variation in the mean value of the dc voltage in response to the mean value of the dc voltage which is detected by the second detecting device. The mean value of the dc voltage is controlled in response to the inclination detected by the third detecting device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 1, 1994
    Date of Patent: January 2, 2001
    Assignee: Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Toshisuke Sakai, Narumi Nagase
  • Patent number: 6126810
    Abstract: A recirculation system for electrochemically activated antimicrobial solutions returns antimicrobial solution which has been depleted of active antimicrobial species to a electrolytic cell for regeneration of the active species. Organic load, which frequently contaminates items to be sterilized or disinfected, such as medical instruments, rapidly depletes the active antimicrobial species in a conventional treatment system, reducing the effectiveness of microbial decontamination by electrochemically activated solutions. By recirculating the antimicrobial through the electrolytic cell, the concentration of active species is maintained at a level at which efficient sterilization is achieved.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 27, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 3, 2000
    Assignee: Steris Corporation
    Inventors: Christopher M. Fricker, Paul S. Malchesky, Brian C. Wojcieck, Jason M. Sell
  • Patent number: 6074537
    Abstract: A method and apparatus concentrates, collects and removes heavy metals, other cations, and anions from media permitting generation of electrical fields. The heavy metals and other cations are electrochemically concentrated and precipitated for rapid removal from the aqueous media. The media, which may be aqueous, soils or wastes, is filtered and passed through a cation or anion exchange resin beds. Metals or anions are captured and held in the resin beds. Current is then applied through the resin beds using opposing electrodes of opposite polarity. In the metal removal units, heavy metals and other cations are concentrated around the negative electrode and lifted to a top of the electrode chamber using hydrogen gas lift. The concentrated solution of heavy metals and cations are removed from the chamber above the negative electrode and are circulated to provide additional time for growth and precipitation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 29, 1997
    Date of Patent: June 13, 2000
    Assignee: Compliance Consultants, Inc.
    Inventors: Robert E. Marks, Stephen D. Field, Mary Madden Field
  • Patent number: 6056858
    Abstract: A device for gasifying water conducted in a subsystem of a technical installation with hydrogen includes an electrolysis unit connected in the subsystem for decomposing some of the water conducted therein into hydrogen and oxygen, and a dissipation system connected to the electrolysis unit for dissipating oxygen received therefrom.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 25, 1998
    Date of Patent: May 2, 2000
    Assignee: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventor: Anwer Puthawala
  • Patent number: 6007696
    Abstract: Disclosed is an apparatus for manufacturing an electrolytic ionic water for treating a substrate, comprising an electrolytic cell including an anodic chamber and a cathodic chamber partitioned from the anodic chamber by a porous membrane, a first carbon electrode housed in the anodic chamber, a second carbon electrode housed in said cathodic chamber, apparatus for supplying an electrolyte solution prepared by dissolving a supporting electrolyte in pure water or ultra pure water into the electrolytic cell, apparatus for applying a DC voltage between the first and second carbon electrodes and so as to electrolyze the electrolyte solution, thereby to form an oxidizing ionic water in the anodic chamber and a reducing ionic water in the cathodic chamber, a first discharge port for discharging the oxidizing ionic water from within the anodic chamber, and a second discharge port for discharging the reducing ionic water from within the cathodic chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 26, 1997
    Date of Patent: December 28, 1999
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba
    Inventors: Jun Takayasu, Naoto Miyashita
  • Patent number: 5993618
    Abstract: The invention relates to a device for generating oxygen or a mixture of ozone and oxygen from high-purity water by means of an electrochemical cell in which a buffer vessel is provided for the high-purity water and the high-purity water can be supplied from the buffer vessel to the electrochemical cell through a feed line and oxygen or ozone and oxygen as well as high-purity water is guided from the anode chamber of the cell through a drain line directly into the buffer vessel and a feed line for the oxygen or mixture of ozone and oxygen comes out from the buffer vessel, possibly with the addition of high-purity water, to a consumer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 19, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 30, 1999
    Assignees: Dirk Schulze, Wolfgang Beyer Bonn, Rheinbach
    Inventors: Dirk Schulze, Wolfgang Beyer
  • Patent number: 5989407
    Abstract: The present invention provides an ozone generation and delivery system that lends itself to small scale applications and requires very low maintenance. The system includes an anode reservoir and a cathode phase separator each having a hydrophobic membrane to allow phase separation of produced gases from water. The system may be configured to operate passively with no moving parts or in a self-pressurizing manner with the inclusion of a pressure controlling device or valve in the gas outlet of the anode reservoir. The hydrogen gas, ozone gas and water containing ozone may be delivered under pressure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 31, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 23, 1999
    Assignee: Lynntech, Inc.
    Inventors: Craig C. Andrews, Thomas D. Rogers, Oliver J. Murphy
  • Patent number: 5968326
    Abstract: A composite membrane is disclosed fabricated by depositing an inorganic ion-conducting thin film on a cation-selective organic polymer membrane substrate using Pulse Laser Deposition (PLD) or reactive magnetron sputtering. The fabricated membrane combines the advantages of the polymeric membrane including flexibility and low electrical resistance, with the advantages of the inorganic membrane film including resistance to fouling, high selectivity for alkali metal ions over hydrogen ions and resistance to oxidizing chemicals; electromembrane systems and processes for example alkali metal sensing electrodes and other membrane-based electrochemical detectors, electrolytic and electrodialytic systems incorporate such membranes thus improving their performance in terms of current efficiency, salt to acid conversion ratio, reliable operation and membrane life.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 8, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 19, 1999
    Assignees: Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada, Ecole Polytechnique
    Inventors: Arthur Yelon, Michael Paleologou, Dentcho Ivanov, Ricardo Izquierdo, Michel Meunier
  • Patent number: 5944978
    Abstract: Chlorine ion-containing water supplied from one of water discharge pipelines of an electrolysis vessel of an apparatus for continuously forming electrolyzed water is caused to flow backwardly to one of electrode chambers and a water supply branch pipe thereof, passed through a water supply branch pipe of the other of the electrode chambers and/or a water supply pipeline at the upstream thereof and discharged through the other of the electrode chambers and from the other of the water discharge pipe lines. In this state, water in the electrolysis vessel is electrolyzed while operating the electrode of the electrode chamber in which water is caused to flow backwardly as an anode, and the electrolysis vessel and water channels at the upstream thereof are cleaned and sterilized by electrolyzed cleaning water in which hypochlorous acid is formed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 21, 1997
    Date of Patent: August 31, 1999
    Assignee: Omco Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Yoshiya Okazaki
  • Patent number: 5938916
    Abstract: There is disclosed a method and apparatus for generating a sterilizing solution through the electrolytic treatment of an aqueous salt solution. An aqueous salt solution is passed, under pressure, into the working chamber of an electrolytic cell, which cell is divided into a working chamber and an auxiliary chamber by a permeable membrane. The solution is filtered through the membrane, and collected from an output of the auxiliary chamber. Gases, such as chlorine, liberated in the working chamber during electrolysis, are dissolved in a water supply, and this water supply is partially or fully mixed with the output of the auxiliary chamber so as to generate a sterilizing solution. The method and apparatus disclosed serves to generate a sterilizing solution with less expenditure of energy and raw materials than in the prior art.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 5, 1997
    Date of Patent: August 17, 1999
    Assignee: Solenzara International Limited
    Inventors: Julian Bryson, James Spickernell, Ian Woodcock, Nougzar Djeiranishvili, Sergei Boutine, Marina Kirk, Alexey Juryevich Popov
  • Patent number: 5876590
    Abstract: An electrochemical leaching system for cleaning contaminated fines. The system has a waste vessel for receiving and holding a contaminated fines and lixiviant mixture. On a side of the waste vessel is an anolyte vessel holding an anolyte fluid. An anolyte barrier separates the waste and anolyte vessels. On an opposite side of the waste vessel is a catholyte vessel holding a catholyte fluid. A catholyte barrier separates the waste and catholyte vessels. A potential between an anode in the anolyte vessel and a cathode in the catholyte vessel ionizes the fines contaminants into anionic and cationic contaminants in the lixiviant. The anolyte and catholyte barriers allow the anionic and cationic contaminants, respectively, to flow from the lixiviant and into the anolyte and catholyte fluids in their respective vessels without allowing bulk transfer therebetween. The anionic and cationic contaminants are then removed from the anolyte and catholyte fluids. A cleaner lixiviant and fines exits the system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 1996
    Date of Patent: March 2, 1999
    Assignee: The Scientific Ecology Group Inc.
    Inventors: Thomas S. Snyder, Dale L. Keairns
  • Patent number: 5833828
    Abstract: A method and an apparatus for thermal process control in electroforming stampers for the production of CD/LD data carriers or the like. The temperature of an electrolytic solution in an electroforming cell is maintained at a value nearest a specific maximum temperature by raising or lowering the temperature of the electrolytic solution in a storage tank provided outside of the electroforming cell as a function of the temperature measured in a cathode space of the electroforming cell. A temperature sensor is disposed in or near the cathode space adjacent an electrolyte injection nozzle in a space between the anode and cathode means for supplying signals to a control unit. The temperature sensor and the injection nozzle are preferably assembled into a single mounting unit. The electroforming process can thus be run with an optimum effectivity in the vicinity of a maximum permissible temperature of the electrolytic solution.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 16, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 10, 1998
    Assignee: Technotrans GmbH
    Inventor: Andreas Gubig
  • Patent number: 5720869
    Abstract: A high-purity water producing equipment comprises a primary purification treatment system, a primary deionized water tank, a secondary purification treatment system for producing high-purity water from a primary deionized water, a circulatory system pipe for returning the produced high-purity water to a primary deionized water tank and a branch water feed system branched off from the circulatory system for feeding the high-purity water to a use point. An electrolytic unit for producing the anolyte EIW (electrolytic ionized water) to be catholyte EIW from the electrolysis of the high-purity water is provided as a bypass midway along the circulatory system. The anolyte EIW is added to the circulatory pipe downstream of the branching point toward the use point, when cleaning of units is necessary.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 27, 1995
    Date of Patent: February 24, 1998
    Assignee: Organo Corporation
    Inventors: Koji Yamanaka, Takashi Imaoka, Takashi Futatsuki, Yukinari Yamashita
  • Patent number: 5693204
    Abstract: An apparatus for adjusting the pH of an electrolytically dissociated process stream is disclosed. The apparatus includes a matrix of pH adjusting chemical and an erosion rate modifier. The pH adjusting chemical is preferably citric acid and the erosion rate modifier is preferably polyethylene glycol. A porous material such as a sponge may be interposed between the matrix and the process stream to further modify the erosion rate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 13, 1995
    Date of Patent: December 2, 1997
    Assignee: Great Lakes Instruments Inc.
    Inventor: William J. Popp
  • Patent number: 5683564
    Abstract: A plating cell for plating a flat substrate, for example, a stamper for a high-density compact disk recording, employs a sparger to introduce a flow of electrolyte across the surface of the substrate to be plated. A fluid-powered rotary blade or wiper within the cathode chamber has a rotary blade with an edge spaced a small distance, preferably about three-eighths inch, from the substrate, and an annular turbine which rotates under a flow of the electrolytic fluid that is also being fed to the sparger. The rotary wiper is run at a speed between about 35 and 80 rpm and draws the electrolyte away from the substrate. This helps remove hydrogen bubble that form during electroplating. A semipermeable weir separates the cathode chamber from an anode chamber that contains an anode basket that is filled with plating material. The plating cell is provided with a backwash flow regime so that impurities and inclusions from the anode chamber are kept out of the plating bath.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 15, 1996
    Date of Patent: November 4, 1997
    Assignee: Reynolds Tech Fabricators Inc.
    Inventor: H. Vincent Reynolds
  • Patent number: 5672253
    Abstract: A hexagonal and pentagonal molecular structure water making apparatus includes an upper water reservoir disposed at a predetermined portion of the refrigerating chamber of the refrigerator, a hexagonal and pentagonal molecular structure water generating section for generating hexagonal and pentagonal molecular structure water by electrolysis of water from the upper water reservoir, a hexagonal and pentagonal molecular structure water storing section for storing hexagonal and pentagonal molecular structure water generated at the hexagonal and pentagonal molecular structure water generating section, and a freezing container for storing hexagonal molecular structure water after receiving water stored at the hexagonal molecular structure water storing reservoir of the hexagonal molecular structure water storing section through a connecting pipe. The hexagonal and pentagonal molecular structure water have useful effects for preventing adult diseases.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 30, 1996
    Date of Patent: September 30, 1997
    Assignee: Goldstar Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Gui Nan Hwang
  • Patent number: 5635053
    Abstract: Electric parts including semiconductor substrates, glass substrates and the like are washed with various cleaning solutions. After the cleaning, said parts are cleaned with either anolyte or catholyte electrolytic ionized water (EIW) produced from deionized water.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 27, 1995
    Date of Patent: June 3, 1997
    Assignees: NEC Corporation, Organo Corporation
    Inventors: Hidemitsu Aoki, Masaharu Nakamori, Koji Yamanaka, Takashi Imaoka, Takashi Futatsuki, Yukinari Yamashita
  • Patent number: 5635040
    Abstract: An electrochemical cell for the treatment of water and/or water solutions comprises an internal electrode having a middle section and a pin-end at each end thereof, the diameter of each pin-end being not more than 0.75 of the diameter of the middle section; an external electrode mounted around the internal electrode; and a coaxial ceramic diaphragm mounted in a separate inter-electrode space in an electrode chamber of the cell. The external electrode is mounted in lower and upper dielectric bushings. Both the internal electrode and the external electrode are connected with positive and negative poles of a power supply. The cell further includes an upper dielectric collector head and a lower dielectric collector head which each have an axial channel; each collector head being installed in the bushing slots and adapted for turning therein. The diaphragm being fastened by elastic gaskets mounted in the slots of the bushings.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 11, 1996
    Date of Patent: June 3, 1997
    Assignee: Rscecat, USA, Inc.
    Inventors: Vitold M. Bakhir, Jury G. Zadorozhny
  • Patent number: 5611904
    Abstract: The invention provides fittings for the ends of electrochromatography cols. Each fitting includes an annular electrode surrounding one end of the passage electrical fields to be applied. The fitting also contains a passageway for eluant flowing into or out of the column, an annular chamber for the electrode and a membrane separating the passageway from the annular electrode chamber. The membrane prevents gases and electrolytic products from entering the column eluent going through the chromatographic column. The membrane also isolate the electrodes from the compounds such as proteins and macromolecules being separated. A buffer solution was pumped through the electrode chamber to remove the gases and electrode products. The buffer flow through the electrode chamber maintains a constant pH and conductivity so that the electrical field applied by each electrode is constant. The buffer flow also serves to remove the heat generated in the electrode chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 9, 1995
    Date of Patent: March 18, 1997
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of Commerce
    Inventors: Kenneth D. Cole, Heriberto Cabezas, Jr.
  • Patent number: 5597460
    Abstract: A plating cell for plating a flat substrate, for example, a stamper for a high-density compact disk recording, employs an arcuate sparger to introduce a laminar flow of electrolyte across the surface of the substrate to be plated. In a preferred embodiment, the sparger occupies about 90 to about 120 degrees of arc. A semipermeable weir separates the main plating bath from an anode chamber that contains an anode basket that is filled with nuggets of nickel or other plating material. The plating cell is provided with a backwash flow regime so that impurities and inclusions from the anode chamber are kept out of the plating bath. The substrate can be positioned between vertical and about forty-five degrees from vertical, and can be supported with or without rotation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 13, 1995
    Date of Patent: January 28, 1997
    Assignee: Reynolds Tech Fabricators, Inc.
    Inventor: H. Vincent Reynolds
  • Patent number: 5536387
    Abstract: Effluent streams from photographic processes contain both silver and thiosulphate ions, and because of the formation of complex anions it is difficult to remove the silver. The silver may be removed using a cell (12) with a cathode (24) exposed to the effluent liquid, and an anode (25) separated from the liquid by a barrier (22) permeable at least to anions. Some silver sulphide is formed electrochemically at the cathode (24); at the anode (25) water is electrolysed and becomes acidic, so the complex anions migrating through the barrier (22) generate silver sulphide chemically. The resulting silver sulphide precipitate is separated from the liquid by a filter (14).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 27, 1995
    Date of Patent: July 16, 1996
    Assignee: United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority
    Inventors: Michael R. H. Hill, Mark D. Neville, Andrew D. Turner
  • Patent number: 5425857
    Abstract: The invention relates to a process for the electrolytic generation of arsine from an electrochemical cell provided with a cathode supplied with H.sup.+ and AsO.sub.2.sup.- ions where two concurrent reactions take place producing arsine and gaseous hydrogen respectively, and an anode where a reaction producing H.sup.+ ions takes place, the ratio of the H.sup.+ /As concentrations at the cathode being controlled and kept constant.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 14, 1994
    Date of Patent: June 20, 1995
    Assignee: L'Air Liquide, Societe Anonyme Pour L'etude et L'Exploitation des Procedes Georges Claude
    Inventors: Pascal Bouard, Philippe Labrune, Panayotis Cocolios
  • Patent number: 5322600
    Abstract: The present invention provides an improved method and apparatus for removing dissolved selenium from a wastewater solution. The apparatus treats heated selenium containing solution in a single, flow-through operation by employing both the anode chamber and cathode chamber of an electrolytic cell and a series of sub-micron filters. In operation, the present invention has proven to be very effective in treating selenium containing solution to meet or better the government toxicity characteristic specifications of .ltoreq.1 ppm.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 6, 1993
    Date of Patent: June 21, 1994
    Assignee: Pioneer Auto Parts & Service Co., Inc.
    Inventors: Robert A. Spitz, Mark Bricker
  • Patent number: 5318683
    Abstract: The present invention provides an electrodeposition apparatus and a method for reconditioning gravure cylinders through electrodeposition. The electrodeposition apparatus includes a container for holding an ionic fluid bath and a reservoir for holding a supply of deposition material in fluid communication with the ionic fluid bath. An object, such as a gravure cylinder, is held in contact with the ionic fluid bath. Charges of opposite polarity are applied to the object and to the supply of deposition material. A barrier member and a diffusion member disposed between the supply of electrodeposition material and the object prevent contaminants from moving into contact with the object and also facilitate the dispersion of ions moving through the fluid bath between the supply of electrodeposition material and the object.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 1, 1993
    Date of Patent: June 7, 1994
    Assignee: Quad/Tech, Inc.
    Inventors: Robert Smith, Ron E. Toby, John H. Germanson
  • Patent number: 5284704
    Abstract: Fibers comprising 10 to 100% of bicomponent fibers, composed of a core polymer covered by a sheath polymer, are heated to a temperature between the softening point and the melting point of the sheath polymer for 5 seconds to 5 minutes at a pressure of 0 to 2000 psi until the fibers are bonded together. The products are used for drive belts and seals, nib felts for marking pens, filter cloths for plate and frame filters, filtration cartridges, stamp pad ink reservoirs, and battery separators.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 15, 1992
    Date of Patent: February 8, 1994
    Assignee: American Felt & Filter Company
    Inventors: Francis F. Kochesky, Bryan F. Paschall
  • Patent number: 5183544
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for electrowinning metal from particulate waste metal material is provided whereby waste metal material is mixed with an electrolyte to form a suspension. The suspension is separated into portions. A first portion enters the anodic compartment and a second portion is filtered and enters the cathodic compartment where metal is electrowon onto a rotating cathode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 3, 1991
    Date of Patent: February 2, 1993
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventors: Joseph R. Weber, Ronald E. Bilak
  • Patent number: 5167786
    Abstract: A novel tidal and wave-power collection apparatus is disclosed which is adapted to produce hydrogen and/or oxygen gas. The apparatus is particularly well suited for oceanic installations. In the preferred embodiment, a matrix of gas producing units is easily assembled at sea, each being bridged and reinforced by catwalks extending therebetween which form trilateral gas producing modules having such units at each of the corners thereof. Each gas producing unit comprises a central tubular pilaster embedded in the ocean floor around which is disposed a toroidal float which moves up and down with the waves and tide and which acts to drive a DC generator while rising and falling. The output of the generator is utilized to electrolytically produce hydrogen and/or oxygen gas, which is compressed for storage in the float's chamber. The apparatus is efficient, economical and capable of capturing and storing large quantities of gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 25, 1991
    Date of Patent: December 1, 1992
    Inventor: William J. Eberle
  • Patent number: 5100528
    Abstract: A continuous silver refining cell comprises a tank containing an electrolyte, at least one vertical cathode disk mounted on a rotating horizontal shaft placed above the tank so that slightly less than half of the disk is immersed in the electrolyte, at least one anode basket containing impure silver anodes immersed in the electrolyte adjacent the cathode disk, and a diaphragm separating the cathode disk from the anode basket to form cathode and anode compartments. A scraper is provided for continuously removing pure silver crystals from the cathode and directing it to the side of the cell. A chain tubular conveyor may be provided for continuously or semi-continuously withdrawing a mud containing gold and other precious metals from the bottom of the cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 14, 1990
    Date of Patent: March 31, 1992
    Assignee: Noranda, Inc.
    Inventors: Pierre L. Claessens, Bernard H. Morrison, John L. Cromwell, Paul Spira
  • Patent number: 5064515
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for continuously removing liquid from an aqueous suspension; the apparatus consists of a filter housing; an electrofilter disposed within the housing to provide a crossflow chamber and filtrate chamber within the housing; an inlet for supplying a suspension to the crossflow chamber and an outlet for removing a suspension reduced in liquid content from the crossflow chamber; both the inlet and the outlet may be disposed so as to provide a crossflow of the suspension across the surface of the elecltrofilter or disposed to provide a batch process with optional stirring; and an outlet for removing liquid from the filtrate chamber. The filter material of the electrofilter is conductive so that the filter material functions as the first electrode as well as a filter. A second electrode is disposed on the filtrate side of the electrofilter.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 1989
    Date of Patent: November 12, 1991
    Assignee: Battelle Memorial Institute
    Inventor: Muralidhara Harapanahalli
  • Patent number: 5051161
    Abstract: An apparatus producing continuously electrolyzed water is so constructed that the ratio R.sub.2 /R.sub.1 of the intake amount of cathode water containing abundantly alcali ions to the intake amount of anode water containing abundantly acid ions with respect to that of city water supplied to the electrolytic cell is increased.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 28, 1990
    Date of Patent: September 24, 1991
    Assignee: Nippon Intek Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Shuji Yamaguchi, Shiroji Misawa, Giichi Asanuma
  • Patent number: 5007992
    Abstract: A semiconductor process chamber with electrolytic ceramic cell having one major surface in the chamber. A second major surface of the cell is outside the process chamber. When activated by heat and an electric current between the two major surfaces, the cell selectively removes oxygen from the processing chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 15, 1989
    Date of Patent: April 16, 1991
    Inventor: Daniel K. Weber
  • Patent number: 4963235
    Abstract: An electrolytic cell of the type to which electrolyte is continuously charged and from which a product or products of electrolysis is or are continuously removed, the electrolytic cell being associated in close proximity with an item or items of apparatus in which electrolyte may be treated prior to charging to the electrolytic cell and/or in which a product or products of electrolysis may be treated after removal from the electrolytic cell. Also, a plurality of such electrolytic cells and items of apparatus. Electrolyte may be purified in the items of apparatus associated in close proximity with the electrolytic cells prior to charging to the cells, and the product streams from the cells may be treated in the items of apparatus prior to combining the product streams.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 6, 1988
    Date of Patent: October 16, 1990
    Assignee: Imperial Chemical Industries plc
    Inventors: Keith Brattan, Morris N. Nevin, Stephen F. Kelham
  • Patent number: 4950371
    Abstract: A zero gravity phase separation water electrolysis system (FIG. 1) for producing hydrogen and oxygen in gaseous form from water, in which the hydrogen output (12), which includes proton water, is fed first to a hydrophilic separator (10), or some other form of a phase preferential, porous separator (such as a hydrophobic separator or a combination of the two; FIG. 5), and then to an electrochemical separator (100), for separating the hydrogen gas from the proton water, with no significant parasitic loss and without the need for venting. The two separators can be stacked and integrated together with the hydrophilic material layer (10A; FIG. 4) of the hydrophilic separator forming the top of the electrochemical separator. The electrochemical separator includes a solid polymer membrane (101) of a sulfonated fluorocarbon sandwiched between two platinum electrodes (102/103).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 24, 1989
    Date of Patent: August 21, 1990
    Assignee: United Technologies Corporation
    Inventor: James F. McElroy
  • Patent number: 4948489
    Abstract: An electrolytic treatment method and a unit in which such a method is practiced are provided wherein heavy metal hydrous oxides are precipitated and recovered from a dilute waste stream to render the waste stream suitable for discharge. The waste stream is passed into the cathode chamber of an anion exchange membrane delineated electrolytic cell and subjected to high current density electrolysis to promote the formation of regular, noncompressible metal hydrous oxide crystals. Fluoride ion is added to the precipitate-containing waste stream, the precipitate is filtered and the clarified liquid waste stream is split so that a portion is discharged and a portion is recycled into the metal ion-containing waste stream for further treatment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 19, 1989
    Date of Patent: August 14, 1990
    Assignee: Environmetal Recovery Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Bernard Greenberg
  • Patent number: 4702806
    Abstract: A cathode compartment is defined by a pair of filter walls between which a cathode or electrolyzing ionic solution of a metal is received. The electrolysis is forced through this compartment and the current density against an anode outside the compartment is sufficiently high to cause at least some of the metal in solution to deposit as a powder which accumulates in the cathode compartment and augments the effective surface area of the cathode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 23, 1986
    Date of Patent: October 27, 1987
    Assignee: Surfax (Societe a Responsabilite Limitee)
    Inventors: Gilles Miller, Yves Rivasson
  • Patent number: 4613415
    Abstract: An electrolytic cell for generating chlorine gas and caustic and delivering only these products of the electrolytic cell to the swimming pool. The electrolytic cell is vented above the catholyte, and a catholyte overflow conduit has its inlet at an upper part of the cathode chamber, the overflow conduit being connected to a Venturi. The catholyte overflow conduit has an inlet for chlorine connected to it, which inlet is above the anolyte in the anode chamber; preferably, the chlorine inlet and the catholyte overflow conduit are joined into a single chlorine gas and catholyte outflow conduit which is connected to the Venturi. The catholyte volume is between 41/4 and 43/4 gallons. A hydrometer is provided in the cathode chamber to signal an excess strength of catholyte. The anode is of pressed carbon, having a titanium connector plug. A cation membrane is secured between an annular flange and a ring.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 17, 1984
    Date of Patent: September 23, 1986
    Assignee: Sophisticated Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Clarence F. Wreath, Robert D. Keller, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4612093
    Abstract: A novel gold purification method is provided which comprises electrolyzing gold into a novel pregnant electrolyte, segregating the dissolved gold ions from the cathode by a semipermeable barrier, separating insoluble impurities from the gold-containing liquidus, and then selectively reducing the gold to metallic form from the liquidus by a selective chemical reducing agent. The electrolyte is impregnated with a catalyst for leveling the overvoltage of gold and preferably contains a peroxide or a nascent oxygen source. A unitary apparatus for the method is provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 31, 1985
    Date of Patent: September 16, 1986
    Assignee: Shor International Corporation
    Inventor: Peter S. Shor
  • Patent number: 4572774
    Abstract: An apparatus for the production of hydrogen peroxide is disclosed. In one preferred embodiment, high surface area circulating elements derivatized with a quinone catalyst are reduced in an electrolytic cell where the cathode may also be derivatized with a quinone catalyst and a solution quinone at low concentration is used as a mediator. Once reduced, the circulating elements are separated and used to form hydrogen peroxide from molecular oxygen in an aqueous, electrolyte-free, environment. The circulating elements can be cycled repeatedly. Particular, novel naphthoquinone compounds are also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 7, 1985
    Date of Patent: February 25, 1986
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Mark S. Wrighton, Robert M. Buchanan, Gary S. Calabrese
  • Patent number: 4484991
    Abstract: A chlorine generator and method of generating chlorine gas includes anode and cathode compartments releasably secured to one another and separated in part by an ion-permeable membrane, and exterior chambers and fluid passageways cooperating therewith to provide circulating fluids to cool and dissipate the heat generated by the anode and cathode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 2, 1983
    Date of Patent: November 27, 1984
    Assignee: Aqua Pura, Inc.
    Inventors: Arthur L. Angelo, Baboobhai S. Patel, Duc T. Bui
  • Patent number: 4397719
    Abstract: Nitrates, such as alkali metal nitrates and ammonium nitrate, are electrolytically reduced to the corresponding nitrites by a process wherein an aqueous solution containing a nitrate is supplied into a cathode chamber of an electrolytic cell including cathode and anode chambers separated by a cation exchange membrane and an electric current is applied to the electrolytic cell, while maintaining the pH of the aqueous solution at a value of at least about 4. This process can be advantageously applied not only to the manufacture of nitrites but, also, to the treatment of waste nitrates. In the treatment of waste ammonium nitrate, the ammonium nitrite so formed is conveniently further treated by subjecting the electrolytically reduced catholyte to thermal decomposition outside the electrolytic cell, and removing the so formed nitrogen and water from the reaction system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 14, 1981
    Date of Patent: August 9, 1983
    Assignees: Asahi Kasei Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha, Doryokuro Kakunenryo Kaihatsu Jigyodan
    Inventor: Mitsuo Yoshida
  • Patent number: 4293522
    Abstract: Methods, and apparatus for use therein, for determining organic carbon in aqueous solution which method comprises subjecting the aqueous solution to electrolysis, for generating oxygen from water, and simultaneously to ultraviolet radiation, for oxidation of substantially all organic carbon therein to carbon dioxide and subsequently measuring said carbon dioxide and relating the value to the concentration of organic carbon in said aqueous solution.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 21, 1979
    Date of Patent: October 6, 1981
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
    Inventor: H. Eugene Winkler
  • Patent number: 4229272
    Abstract: A chlorine generator is disclosed as including an assembly for an electrolytic cell generating the chlorine and a separate assembly for feeding the chlorine gas into a body of water. The cell assembly preferably includes two separate electrolytic solutions separated by an ion permeable membrane, such that an anode and a cathode are positioned on each side of the membrane. The gas feed assembly is in fluid communication with the cell housing by two separate conduits which accommodate the flow of gas from the cell to the feed assembly, within which the gases are accumulated and intermixed with a portion of water which has been diverted from the main body of water to flow through the feed assembly and then back to the main body of water.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 30, 1979
    Date of Patent: October 21, 1980
    Inventor: Dow Yates
  • Patent number: 4053386
    Abstract: An electrolytic filter, consisting of perforated conductive electrodes isolated by a separator, is adapted to filter at the first electrode or cathode suspended materials, including colloidal metal particles such a silver or gold made colloidal by borohydride, zinc, iron, etc., reduction or sulfide, etc., precipitation of metallic ion-containing solutions. The method of recovery involves use of the electrolytic filter and a composition including the finely divided metal containing waste solution in combination with floc forming compounds such as alkaline earth metal hydroxide, and negative charge imparting additives such as soluble phosphates and anionic resin flocculating agents. Preferably, the filter includes a floc circulating chamber in which the incoming liquid assumes a vertical toroidal flow pattern.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 4, 1975
    Date of Patent: October 11, 1977
    Assignee: Ametek, Inc.
    Inventor: Ferenc J. Schmidt