Abstract: Method and apparatus for electro-optically modulating the intensity of an incident light beam including a coupling prism with a high reflective index, a semiconductor substrate in optical contact with the coupling prism and having a conductive area formed therein, an organic electro-optic film formed on the substrate and covering at least a portion of the conductive area, and a transmission line disposed above the electro-optic film and cooperating with the conductive area to form electrodes for use in applying an electric field across the electro-optic film. Light directed through the substrate by the coupling prism couples with surface plasmons at the film-to-metal interface and is selectively reflected or absorbed depending upon whether or not an electric field is applied.
June 13, 1991
Date of Patent:
October 13, 1992
The Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University
Abstract: The TIR modulator has an electrode array distributed across an area of the reflecting surface of the electro-optic material. The electrode array has interdigitated electrodes extending inward from a rectangular-shaped outer electrode conducting block and outward from a diamond-shaped inner electrode conducting block. A diamond-shaped area with no electrodes is preferably symmetrically within the inner electrode conducting block of the electrode array on the reflecting surface. The uniform voltage difference between the electrodes and the varying lengths of the electrodes creates a fringe electrical field in the electro-optical material and an optical phase grating to diffract the incident light on the reflecting surface. The zero order nondiffracted light becomes the output beam. The optical phase grating will control the incident beam's optical profile at the modulator (near field) and hence the imaged spot size at a focus at the image plane (far field).
Abstract: A photorefractive system is disclosed containing interposed between electrodes an electrophotographic photoreceptor layer unit and a layer having a second order polarization susceptibility of greater than 10.sup.-9 electrostatic units comprised of organic polar aligned noncentrosymmetric molecular dipoles having an electron donor moiety linked through a conjugated .pi. bonding system to an electron acceptor moiety. The device can be employed to transfer information from one source of electromagnetic radiation to another.
August 20, 1990
Date of Patent:
May 19, 1992
Eastman Kodak Company
Jay S. Schildkraut, Michael Scozzafava, Dennis G. Howe