Particular Electrolyte Layer Patents (Class 359/270)
  • Patent number: 6639708
    Abstract: An electrochromic device is achieved that exhibits the characteristics of impact-resistant safety glass by subjecting a solid electrolyte sheet material and a peripheral sealant material sandwiched between substrates to heat and pressure such that the electrolyte bonds to the surfaces of the substrates with an adhesion of at least 1.8 kg/linear cm width causing the electrolyte to exhibit a tensile strength of at least 5 kg/cm2.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 12, 2002
    Date of Patent: October 28, 2003
    Assignees: Schott North America, Inc, Magna Donnelly Corporation
    Inventors: Yasser Elkadi, Anoop Agrawal, Torsten Holdmann
  • Patent number: 6639709
    Abstract: The invention is a matrix addressable electrochromic display device comprising a top electrode structure comprising at least one transparent or semi-transparent and substantially ionically isolative, electrically conductive electrode, a bottom electrode structure comprising at least one substantially ionically isolative, electrically conductive electrode, wherein at least one of the top or bottom electrode structures comprises two or more of said electrodes and the top and bottom electrode structures are positioned to form at least two separate regions where the top electrodes are positioned above the bottom electrodes and between the top electrode structure and the bottom electrode structure is positioned an active layer comprising an electrolyte and an electrochromic material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 19, 2002
    Date of Patent: October 28, 2003
    Assignee: Dow Global Technologies Inc.
    Inventors: John B. Vincent, Derrick W. Flick
  • Patent number: 6620342
    Abstract: The disclosure relates to a reversible, electrically controllable light transmission (RECLT) film, article of manufacture composition, process and product produced by the process, comprising a conductive narrow composition distribution polyvinylidene fluoride copolymer in combination with an electrolyte and an RECLT material. The narrow composition distribution polyvinylidene fluoride copolymer has low solubility, high thermal stability and strength, and very high optical clarity. The polyvinylidene fluoride copolymer comprises a nonporous or porous copolymer of vinylidene fluoride preferably with either hexafluoropropylene or tetrafluoroethylene or chlorotrifluoroethylene, or vinyl acetate, or combinations thereof. The RECLT material includes organic or inorganic compounds known in the art. Typical RECLT materials include electrochromic materials, reversible metal electrodeposition materials, liquid crystal materials and dispersed particle materials.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 23, 2000
    Date of Patent: September 16, 2003
    Assignee: Atofina Chemicals, Inc.
    Inventors: Michael Timothy Burchill, Marina M. Despotopoulou
  • Publication number: 20030165743
    Abstract: A gel electrolyte contains at least a gelling agent and a material of high ion conductivity which is liquid at working temperature. The gel electrolyte is stably serviceable for a long period of time, and high in mechanical strength and electroconductivity.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 14, 1999
    Publication date: September 4, 2003
    Inventors: TOMONARI HORIKIRI, YOSHIHIKO KIKUCHI
  • Patent number: 6614578
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to an electrochromic medium for use in an electrochromic device comprising at least one solvent, an anodic material, a cathodic material, wherein both of the anodic and cathodic materials are electroactive and at least one of the anodic and cathodic materials is electrochromic, and an ultraviolet stabilizing material, wherein the ultraviolet stabilizing material includes a solublizing moiety which serves to increase solubility of the ultraviolet stabilizing material relative to the same without the solublizing moiety.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 2, 2002
    Date of Patent: September 2, 2003
    Assignee: Gentex Corporation
    Inventors: Punam Giri, Leroy J. Kloeppner, Kelvin L. Baumann, Jeffrey R. Lomprey, Thomas F. Guarr
  • Patent number: 6606183
    Abstract: A method for producing a cell for an electrochromic mirror which comprises a step of applying a epoxy-based sealant containing beads by a method selected from the group consisting of dispensing or screen-printing on a predetermined position of the surface peripheral edge of at least one of two electrically conductive substrates; and a step of superposing the two substrates such that the width of the applied sealant is made 2 mm or less.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 22, 2000
    Date of Patent: August 12, 2003
    Assignees: Nippon Oil Corporation, Kabushiki Kaisha Honda Lock
    Inventors: Keizo Ikai, Tsuyoshi Asano, Masaaki Kobayashi, Yoshinori Nishikitani
  • Patent number: 6605239
    Abstract: An electrochromic system having a first electrode disposed on a transparent or translucent substrate and a second electrode, an electrolyte, an electron donor and a nanoporous-nanocrystalline film of a semiconducting metallic oxide having a redox chromophore adsorbed thereto being intermediate the first and second electrodes. Such a system has a very rapid electrochromic effect.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 12, 2001
    Date of Patent: August 12, 2003
    Assignee: University College Dublin
    Inventors: Donald Fitzmaurice, S. Rao Nagaraja, Rachel Cinnsealach, Brendan Enright
  • Patent number: 6587250
    Abstract: A supported or self-supporting electrochromic device is provided having (a) at least one electrochromic element comprising (i) at least one material that is electrically conducting in at least one material that is electrically conducting in at least one oxidation state and (ii) at least one electrochromic material, wherein said materials (i) and (ii) can be the same or different, (b) at least one layer of a solidified electrolyte which is in direct electrical contact with said electrochromic element, and (c) at least two electrodes adapted to be electrically connected to a voltage supply so as to create a difference in potential therebetween, with each of said electrodes being in direct electrical contact with at least one of said electrolyte layer(s) and not in direct electrical contact with said electrochromic element. Displays incorporating such a device, as well as processes for the production of such a device are contemplated. A method for addressing an electrochemically active element also is provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 2002
    Date of Patent: July 1, 2003
    Assignee: Acreo AB
    Inventors: Mårten Armgarth, Thomas Kugler, Rolf M. Berggren, Tommi M. Remonen
  • Publication number: 20030112489
    Abstract: An improved electrochromic rearview mirror for motor vehicles, the mirror incorporating thin front and rear spaced glass elements having a thickness ranging from about 0.5 to about 1.5. A layer of transparent conductive material is placed onto the mirror's second surface, and either another layer of transparent conductive material or a combined reflector/electrode is placed onto the mirror's third surface. A chamber, defined by the layers on the interior surfaces of the front and rear glass elements and a peripheral sealing member, contains a free-standing gel comprising a solvent and a crosslinked polymer matrix. The chamber further contains at least one electrochromic material in solution with the solvent and interspersed in the crosslinked polymer matrix.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 3, 2002
    Publication date: June 19, 2003
    Inventors: Kevin L. Ash, William L. Tonar, Frederick T. Bauer, Kathy E. Roberts
  • Publication number: 20030103256
    Abstract: The invention relates to an electrochromic contrast plate which is either arranged as a discrete unit in front of the screen or is connected to the outer surface of the screen through a common sheet, consisting of a pair of transparent glass or plastic sheets which are provided, on one side each, with an electroconductive, transparent coating, and which are joined together on the sides of their conductive coating via a sealing ring, and in which the volume formed by the two sheets and the sealing ring is filled with an electrochromic medium, characterized in that the electrochromic medium is a liquid, a gel or a polymer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 18, 2001
    Publication date: June 5, 2003
    Inventors: Horst Berneth, Wolfgang Jacobsen, Serguei Kostromine, Ralf Neigl
  • Publication number: 20030099872
    Abstract: A highly conductive polymer based solid gel membrane is disclosed. The membrane is especially well suited for use in such electrochemical devices as, for example, aluminum/air, zinc/air, Zn/MnO2, Ni/Cd and hydrogen fuel cells, as well as in electrochromic devices such as smart windows and flat panel displays. In accordance with the principles of the invention, anion- and cation-conducting membranes are formed. The gel composition of the membrane contains the ionic species within its solution phase such that the species behaves as in a liquid electrolyte, while at the same time, the solid gel composition prevents the solution phase from diffusing into the device. Methods of forming polymer based solid gel membranes of the present invention are also disclosed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 26, 1999
    Publication date: May 29, 2003
    Inventors: MUGUO CHEN, TSEPIN TSAI, WAYNE YAO, YUEN-MING CHANG, LIN-FENG LI, KAREN TOM
  • Patent number: 6563625
    Abstract: The invention relates to an eclectrochromic glass component, particularly for motor vehicle mirrors, which contains a doped ion-conducting basic polymer (4) as the ion-conducting layer. The electrochromic glass component consists, for example of a glass substrate (1) as well as a layer system having an electrochromic layer (2), a mirror layer (3), a doped polymer membrane (4), for example of polybenzimidazole polymer, a proton store (5), a rear electrode (6) and a polyester film (7). The layer system is sealed by a seal (8) which closes the coating system towards the glass substrate (1).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 16, 2001
    Date of Patent: May 13, 2003
    Assignee: Magna Auteca Zweigniederlassung der Magna Holding
    Inventors: Wolfgang Athenstaedt, David Macher, Heinz Zorn, Thomas Soczka-Guth
  • Patent number: 6545794
    Abstract: An electrochromic device comprising: a first glass element having an electrically conductive material associated therewith, wherein said first element comprises a height (h1), a width (w1), a thickness (t1), an inner surface, and an outer surface; a second element having an electrically conductive material associated therewith, wherein said second element comprises a height (h2), a width (w2) , and a thickness (t2), an inner surface, and an outer surface; a cell spacing (c) which comprises a distance between said inner surface of said first element and said inner surface of said second element; a gelled electrochromic medium contained within a chamber positioned between said first and second elements; wherein (h1), (w1), (t1), (h2), (w2), (t2), and (c) are numerical values in millimeters; and wherein (h1), (w1), and (t1) of said first element, and (h2), (w2), and (t2) of said second element and (c) comprise numerical values such that the following inequality is satisfied:
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 2000
    Date of Patent: April 8, 2003
    Assignee: Gentex Corporation
    Inventors: Kevin L. Ash, William L. Tonar, Frederick T. Bauer, Kathy E. Roberts, David A. Theiste
  • Patent number: 6538792
    Abstract: An electrochromic element composed of an ionically conductive substance layer containing a specified electrochromic substance sandwiched between two electrically conductive substrates at least one of which is transparent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 19, 2000
    Date of Patent: March 25, 2003
    Assignee: Nippon Mitsubishi Oil Corporation
    Inventors: Masaaki Kobayashi, Izuru Sugiura, Yoshinori Nishikitani
  • Publication number: 20030053187
    Abstract: An electrochromic device comprising: a first substantially transparent substrate having an electrically conductive material associated therewith; a second substrate having an electrically conductive material associated therewith; and an electrochromic medium contained within a chamber positioned between the first and second substrates which comprises: at least one solvent; an anodic material; a cathodic material, wherein both of the anodic and cathodic materials are electroactive and at least one of the anodic and cathodic materials is electrochromic, and wherein at least one of the anodic and cathodic materials is slow-diffusing; and an electron shuttle, wherein the electron shuttle serves to decrease switching time of the electrochromic device relative to the same without the electron shuttle.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 30, 2002
    Publication date: March 20, 2003
    Inventors: Kathy E. Roberts, Rongguang Lin, Kelvin L. Baumann, Thomas F. Guarr, David A. Theiste
  • Patent number: 6532098
    Abstract: An electrochromic element composed of an ionically conductive substance layer containing a specified electrochromic substance sandwiched between two electrically conductive substrates at least one of which is transparent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 15, 2000
    Date of Patent: March 11, 2003
    Assignee: Nippon Mitsubishi Oil Corporation
    Inventors: Masaaki Kobayashi, Izuru Sugiura, Yoshinori Nishikitani
  • Patent number: 6529308
    Abstract: An electrochemical device has at least one carrier substrate (1) provided with a stack (2) of functional layers, including at least one electrochemically active layer (4), which is capable of reversibly and simultaneously inserting ions and electrons and is arranged between two electroconductive layers. The device can be of the electrochromic type. The functionality of at least one of the functional layers, with the exception of one of the electroconductive layers (3,8), is locally inhibited so as to delimit inactive peripheral or non-peripheral regions in the stack (2).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 26, 2001
    Date of Patent: March 4, 2003
    Assignee: Saint-Gobain Glass France
    Inventors: Fabien Beteille, Jean-Christophe Giron
  • Patent number: 6514431
    Abstract: An ion conductive material comprising a mixture of a solvent, a supporting electrolyte, and an ultraviolet absorber and alternatively a polymerizable monomer and having an ion conductivity at 25° C. of 1×10−7 or greater; the ultraviolet absorber being contained in the ion conductive material in such an amount that the transmissivity of electromagnetic rays having a wavelength from 300 to 360 nm and transmitting through an layer of the ion conductive material of 0.2 mm in thickness can be maintained 0.1% or below. The ion conductive material is suitable for use in various electrochromic devices.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 13, 2000
    Date of Patent: February 4, 2003
    Assignee: Nippon Mitsubishi Oil Corporation
    Inventors: Yoshinori Nishikitani, Hiroshi Imafuku, Shinji Ohshima
  • Patent number: 6496294
    Abstract: Anodic electrochromic materials for use in an electrochromic device comprising a first moiety, wherein the first moiety comprises a metallocene or a substituted metallocene, and a second moiety, wherein the second moiety comprises at least one constituent which serves to increase the solubility of the first moiety in an associated solvent relative to solubility of the first moiety without the second moiety.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 17, 2001
    Date of Patent: December 17, 2002
    Assignee: Gentex Corporation
    Inventors: Jeffrey R. Lomprey, Thomas F. Guarr
  • Publication number: 20020171907
    Abstract: The invention is a matrix addressable electrochromic display device comprising a top electrode structure comprising at least one transparent or semi-transparent and substantially ionically isolative, electrically conductive electrode, a bottom electrode structure comprising at least one substantially ionically isolative, electrically conductive electrode, wherein at least one of the top or bottom electrode structures comprises two or more of said electrodes and the top and bottom electrode structures are positioned to form at least two separate regions where the top electrodes are positioned above the bottom electrodes and between the top electrode structure and the bottom electrode structure is positioned an active layer comprising an electrolyte and an electrochromic material.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 19, 2002
    Publication date: November 21, 2002
    Inventors: John B. Vincent, Derrick W. Flick
  • Publication number: 20020154379
    Abstract: According to one embodiment of the present invention, an electrochromic rearview mirror assembly for a vehicle includes an electrochromic mirror having a variable reflectivity, a glare sensor for sensing levels of light directed towards the front element from the rear of the vehicle, an ambient sensor for sensing levels of ambient light, a display positioned behind the partially transmissive, partially reflective portion of the reflector for displaying information therethrough; and a control circuit coupled to the sensors and the display. The control circuit determines whether daytime or nighttime conditions are present as a function of the ambient light level sensed by the ambient sensor. During daytime conditions, the control circuit responds to light levels sensed by the glare sensor to control a contrast ratio of light originating from the display and light reflecting from the partially transmissive, partially reflective area of the reflector.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 3, 2002
    Publication date: October 24, 2002
    Inventors: William L. Tonar, Jeffrey A. Forgette, John S. Anderson, David J. Cammenga, Robert R. Turnbull, Philip B. Hall, Mark D. Bugno, Alan R. Watson
  • Publication number: 20020141033
    Abstract: The present invention comprises an apparatus for and method of creating electrically modifiable images using a computer printer. In one embodiment, one or more ink reservoirs of a printer cartridge are filled with an electrochromic ink. The printer thus prepared can be used to print electrochromic patterns on a surface using standard ink application methods. In certain embodiments, more than one ink reservoir is filled with electrochromic ink. In these embodiments, separate reservoirs are filled with separate ink formulations so that the characteristics of the electrochromic pattern can be varied.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 11, 2002
    Publication date: October 3, 2002
    Inventors: John P. Ferraris, Thuc H. Dam, David Meeker
  • Publication number: 20020136898
    Abstract: The electrochromic devices have an ion conductive layer formed by curing a composition comprising a bipyridinium compound represented by the formula 1
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 3, 2002
    Publication date: September 26, 2002
    Applicant: NIPPON MITSUBISHI OIL CORPORATION
    Inventors: Yoshinori Nishikitani, Masaaki Kobayashi, Hiroshi Imafuku
  • Publication number: 20020126365
    Abstract: A supported or self-supporting electrochromic device is provided, comprising:
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 7, 2002
    Publication date: September 12, 2002
    Inventors: Marten Armgarth, Thomas Kugler, Rolf M. Berggren, Tommi M. Remonen
  • Patent number: 6445486
    Abstract: An electrochromic medium for use in an electrochromic device comprising: at least one solvent; a cathodic electroactive material; an anodic electroactive material; an optional beneficial agent; wherein at least one of the cathodic and anodic electroactive materials is electrochromic; and wherein at least one of the cathodic electroactive material, anodic electroactive material, and/or optional beneficial agent is associated with a solubilizing moiety which serves to increase solubility of the associated material or agent relative to the same without the solubilizing moiety.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 28, 2000
    Date of Patent: September 3, 2002
    Assignee: Gentex Corporation
    Inventors: Jeffrey R. Lomprey, Thomas F. Guarr, Kelvin L. Baumann, Punam Giri
  • Patent number: 6441942
    Abstract: A display and projection apparatus includes an electrochromic material and a photoconductive material deposited in tandem used in conjunction with a light filtering means for filtering light transmitted through the electrochromic material. When an electric field is applied across the electrochromic material and the photoconductive material, light that is incident onto the photoconductive material through the surface of the projection apparatus causes the photoconductive material to conduct current locally in proportion to the amount of light incident on the photoconductive material. The flow of current causes the underlying portions of the electrochromic material to switch from an opaque state to a clear or transmissive state, thereby allowing back-light to propagate through the electrochromic material to create a visible image on the surface of the projection apparatus.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 25, 1998
    Date of Patent: August 27, 2002
    Assignee: Midwest Research Institute
    Inventors: Howard M. Branz, David K. Benson
  • Patent number: 6417951
    Abstract: This invention relates to an electrochromic system containing at least one oxidizable substance RED1 and at least one reducible substance OX2 linked covalently by a bridge that are suitable for use in electrochromic devices.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 15, 2000
    Date of Patent: July 9, 2002
    Assignee: Bayer Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Horst Berneth, Serguei Kostromine
  • Publication number: 20020080463
    Abstract: An electrochromic mirror is disclosed for use in a vehicle rearview mirror assembly having a light source positioned behind the electrochromic mirror for selectively projecting light through the mirror. The electrochromic mirror includes front and rear spaced elements each having front and rear surfaces and being sealably bonded together in a spaced-apart relationship to define a chamber, a layer of transparent conductive material disposed on the rear surface of the front element, at least one solution-phase electrochromic material contained within the chamber, and a second electrode overlying the front surface of the rear element in contact with the electrochromic material. The second electrode includes a layer of reflective material and a coating of electrically conductive material that is at least partially transmissive and is disposed over substantially all of the front surface of the rear element.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 26, 2001
    Publication date: June 27, 2002
    Inventors: William L. Tonar, Jeffrey A. Forgette, John S. Anderson, Jon H. Bechtel, John W. Carter, Joseph S. Stam
  • Patent number: 6403741
    Abstract: UV-stabilized electrochromic assemblies having a layer structure, characterized in that one layer contains an electrically conductive, electrochromic polydioxythiophene and a further layer contains an inorganic ion-storage compound based on metal oxides or a mixture of such ion-storage compounds, where the gel electrolyte contains a mixed-in UV absorber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 27, 1999
    Date of Patent: June 11, 2002
    Assignee: Bayer Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Helmut-Werner Heuer, Rolf Wehrmann
  • Patent number: 6400491
    Abstract: A reversible electrochemical mirror (REM) includes a first electrode and a second electrode, one of which is substantially transparent to at least a portion of the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation. An essentially nonaqueous electrolytic solution, disposed between the first and second electrodes, contains ions of an electrodepositable metal having a molar concentration of more than 0.5 M. The electrolytic solution also contains halide and/or pseudohalide anions having a total molar concentration ratio of at least 2:1 relative to the concentration of the electrodepositable metal cations. A negative electrical potential applied to the first electrode causes deposited metal to be dissolved from the second electrode into the electrolytic solution and to be electrodeposited from the solution onto the first electrode to form a mirror deposit, thereby affecting the reflectivity of the REM device for electromagnetic radiation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 18, 2000
    Date of Patent: June 4, 2002
    Assignee: Innovative Technology Licensing, LLC
    Inventors: D. Morgan Tench, Leslie F. Warren, Jr., Petra V. Rowell
  • Publication number: 20020055045
    Abstract: The invention concerns novel ionic compounds with low melting point whereof the onium type cation having at least a heteroatom such as N, O, S or P bearing the positive charge and whereof the anion includes, wholly or partially, at least an ion imidide such as (FX1O)N−(OX2F) wherein X1 and X2 are identical or different and comprise SO or PF, and their use as solvent in electrochemical devices. Said composition comprises a salt wherein the anionic charge is delocalised, and can be used, inter alia, as electrolyte.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 9, 2001
    Publication date: May 9, 2002
    Inventors: Christophe Michot, Michel Armand, Michel Gauthier, Nathalie Ravet
  • Publication number: 20020051278
    Abstract: Electrochromic compositions suitable for use in electrochromic media in electrochromic devices contain minimally two electrochromic compounds of the same redox type, whose redox potentials are greater than 30 mV.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 2, 2001
    Publication date: May 2, 2002
    Inventors: Harlan J. Byker, Thomas F. Guarr, Derick D. Winkle
  • Patent number: 6372159
    Abstract: This invention relates to UV-protected electrochromic solutions suitable for use in electrochromic devices and containing at least one oxidizable substance RED1 and at least one reducible substance OX2 linked by a bridging group and a UV absorber component.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 14, 2000
    Date of Patent: April 16, 2002
    Assignee: Bayer Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Horst Berneth, Helmut-Werner Heuer, Ralf Neigl
  • Patent number: 6365301
    Abstract: The invention concerns novel ionic compounds with low melting point whereof the onium type cation having at least a heteroatom such as N, O, S or P bearing the positive charge and whereof the anion includes, wholly or partially, at least an ion imidide such as (FX1O)N−(OX2F) wherein X1 and X2 are identical or different and comprise SO or PF, and their use as solvent in electrochemical devices. Said composition comprises a salt wherein the anionic charge is delocalized, and can be used, inter alia, as electrolyte.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 7, 1999
    Date of Patent: April 2, 2002
    Assignees: ACEP, Inc., Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite de Montreal
    Inventors: Christophe Michot, Michel Armand, Michel Gauthier, Nathalie Ravet
  • Patent number: 6361709
    Abstract: Optically transparent polymeric solid electrolytes comprising a polymeric binder, a filler, a conductive salt, an ion-solvating plasticizer and, if desired, further additives and auxiliaries, a process for the preparation of solid electrolytes of this type, by compounding and thermoplastic shaping, and their use in electrochromic systems and displays.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 23, 2000
    Date of Patent: March 26, 2002
    Assignee: BASF Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Stephan Bauer, Bernd Bronstert, Helmut Möhwald, Michael Neuss, Uwe Burkhardt
  • Publication number: 20020018938
    Abstract: The present invention provides a solid polymer electrolyte; a polymerizable composition having low viscosity and excellent processability for obtaining the solid polymer electrolyte; and a polymerizable compound having low viscosity, and good polymerizability and stability for use in the polymerizable composition. The present invention also provides primary and secondary batteries capable of working with high capacity and current; an electric double-layer capacitor ensuring high output voltage, large takeout current, and good processability; and an electrochromic device favored with high response speed. Each thereof use the solid polymer electrolyte of the present invention and are ensured with long life, excellent safety free of liquid leakage, high reliability and production at a low cost.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 10, 2001
    Publication date: February 14, 2002
    Applicant: SHOWA DENKO KABUSHIKI KAISHA
    Inventors: Masataka Takeuchi, Shuichi Naijo, Ayako Nishioka
  • Patent number: 6327070
    Abstract: Electrochromic assemblies having a layer structure, characterized in that one layer is an electrically conductive, electrochromic polydioxythiophene and a further layer is an ion-storage compound of the formula (I) LiMeO3  (I) where Me represents a metal of transition group V of the Mendeleev Periodic Table.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 27, 1999
    Date of Patent: December 4, 2001
    Assignee: Bayer Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Helmut-Werner Heuer, Rolf Wehrmann
  • Patent number: 6327069
    Abstract: Electrochromic devices and processes for preparing the same are provided which do not require a separate process step of ion intercalation by employing an electrochromically-inert reducing or oxidizing additive in the electrochemically active material or the electrolyte of the electrochromic devices.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 8, 1999
    Date of Patent: December 4, 2001
    Assignee: Donnelly Corporation
    Inventors: Pierre-Marc Allemand, Barbara A. Bigelow, F. Randall Grimes, Anoop Agrawal
  • Patent number: 6323988
    Abstract: The invention relates to electrochromic assemblies having a layer structure, characterized in that one layer is an electrically conductive, electrochromic polydioxythiophene and a further layer is an ion-storage compound selected or a mixture of ion-storage compounds of the formulae (I) to (XIV). Me1O (I) Me1(OH)2 (IX) Me1OX (II) Me1O(OH) (X) MXMe1O (III) MMe1O2 (XI) MXMe1O2 (IV) Me1O2 (XII) MxMe1Oy (V) Me12O3 (XIII) Me2O3 (VI) Me12O3.H2O (XIV) MXMe2O3 (VII) MXMe2(1−x)O3 (VIII) where Me1 and Me2 each represent a metal transition group VI or VII of the Mendeleev Periodic Table, M represents a metal of main group I of the Mendeleev Periodic Table or a proton, x represents a number from 0.001 to 5, y represents a number from 0.001 to 5.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 27, 1999
    Date of Patent: November 27, 2001
    Assignee: Bayer Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Helmut-Werner Heuer, Rolf Wehrmann
  • Publication number: 20010030794
    Abstract: An electrochromic device comprising two plates or films, of which at least one is transparent and which are provided with a conductive layer on the sides facing one another, where at least one of the conductive layers is transparent, where the plates or films and a sealing ring define a volume in which an electrochromic medium is located comprising at least one reducible compound OX2 and at least one oxidizable compound RED1 which convert into their respective redox states RED2 and OX, by taking up electrons at the negative electrode or by releasing electrons at the positive electrode, where, after charge equalization between RED2 and OX1, the original redox states OX2 and RED1 are in each case re-formed, wherein at least one RED1 or OX2 is an electrochromic compound in which two identical or different coloring units are connected via at least one bridge in such a way that, on oxidation or reduction, a &sgr;-bond is formed or broken between the two units with a color change of the compound in question, is dis
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 8, 2001
    Publication date: October 18, 2001
    Inventors: Horst Berneth, Siegfried Hunig, Christoph Alexander Briehn, Sevn Aldenkortt
  • Publication number: 20010031403
    Abstract: An electrochemical device comprising at least one substrate (1, 7), at least one electroconductive layer (2, 6) at least one electrochemically active layer (3, 5) capable of reversibly injecting ions, and an electrolyte (4), wherein the electrolyte (4) is a layer or a multilayer stack comprising at least one layer (4b) made of an ionically conductive material capable of reversibly injecting said ions but whose overall degree of oxidation is maintained essentially constant.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 23, 2001
    Publication date: October 18, 2001
    Applicant: SAINT-GOBAIN VITRAGE
    Inventor: Jean-Christophe Giron
  • Patent number: 6301038
    Abstract: An electrochromic system with a first electrode disposed on a transparent or translucent substrate and a second electrode, an electrolyte, an electron donor and a nanoporous-nanocrystalline film of a semiconducting metallic oxide having a redox chromophore absorbed thereto being intermediate the first and second electrodes. Such a system has a very rapid electrochromic effect.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 26, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 9, 2001
    Assignee: University College Dublin
    Inventors: Donald Fitzmaurice, S. Rao Nagaraja, Rachel Cinnscalach, Brendan Enright
  • Patent number: 6301039
    Abstract: Reversible electrochemical mirror (REM) devices typically comprise a conductive oxide mirror electrode that is substantially transparent to radiation of some wavelengths, a counter electrode that may also be substantially transparent, and an electrolyte that contains ions of an electrodepositable metal. A voltage applied between the two electrodes causes electrodeposition of a mirror deposit on the mirror electrode and dissolution of the mirror deposit on the counter electrode, and these processes are reversed when the polarity of the applied voltage is changed. Such REM devices provide precise control over the reflection and transmission of radiation and can be used for a variety of applications, including smart windows and automatically adjusting automotive mirrors. According to the present invention, measurements of the sheet resistance of the mirror electrode in a REM device are correlated with the thickness of electrodeposited mirror metal and can be used to monitor the reflectance of the device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 13, 2000
    Date of Patent: October 9, 2001
    Assignee: Rockwell Technologies, LLC
    Inventor: D. Morgan Tench
  • Patent number: 6285486
    Abstract: An electrochromic mirror (10) comprises an reflective electrically conductive substrate and a transparent electrically conductive substrate, a layer of an ion conductive material (14) disposed therebetween and at least one electrochromic chromogenic layer (13) disposed either between the ion conductive material layer and the reflective electrically conductive substrate or between the ion conductive material layer and the transparent electrically conductive substrate, said electrochromic chromogenic layer containing a compound having a viologen structure represented by the formula wherein X− and Y− may be the same or different and each indicate a counter anion selected from the group consisting of a halogen anion, ClO4−, CH3COO−, and CH3(C6H4)SO3−. The inventive mirror can be put in a various applications such as an antiglare mirror for an automobile and a decorative mirror for out door use.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 31, 2000
    Date of Patent: September 4, 2001
    Assignee: Nippon Oil Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Masaaki Kobayashi, Yoshinori Nishikitani
  • Patent number: 6268950
    Abstract: An improved electrochromic rearview mirror for motor vehicles, the mirror incorporating thin front and rear spaced glass elements having a thickness ranging from about 0.5 to about 1.5. A layer of transparent conductive material is placed onto the mirror's second surface, and either another layer of transparent conductive material or a combined reflector/electrode is placed onto the mirror's third surface. A chamber, defined by the layers on the interior surfaces of the front and rear glass elements and a peripheral sealing member, contains a free-standing gel comprising a solvent and a crosslinked polymer matrix. The chamber further contains at least one electrochromic material in solution with the solvent and interspersed in the crosslinked polymer matrix.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 28, 2000
    Date of Patent: July 31, 2001
    Assignee: Gentex Corporation
    Inventors: Kevin L. Ash, William L. Tonar, Frederick T. Bauer, Kathy E. Roberts
  • Patent number: 6266177
    Abstract: Electrochromic devices incorporate reversible oxidizers to improve device kinetics, incorporate counterelectrodes composed of an alkali metal oxide and vanadium oxide to improve stability, and doped tungsten or molybdenum oxide in the electrochromic layer to improve UV durability.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 18, 1999
    Date of Patent: July 24, 2001
    Assignee: Donnelly Corporation
    Inventors: Pierre Marc Allemand, Andrew Ingle, John P. Cronin, Steven R. Kennedy, Yongjin Yao, Juan Carlos Lopez Tonazzi, Jonathan M. Boulton, Anoop Agrawal
  • Patent number: 6262832
    Abstract: Anodic electrochromic materials for use in an electrochromic device comprising a first moiety, wherein the first moiety comprises a metallocene or a substituted metallocene, and a second moiety, wherein the second moiety comprises at least one constituent which serves to increase the solubility of the first moiety in an associated solvent relative to solubility of the first moiety without the second moiety.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 3, 1999
    Date of Patent: July 17, 2001
    Assignee: Gentex Corporation
    Inventors: Jeffrey R. Lomprey, Thomas F. Guarr
  • Patent number: 6259549
    Abstract: A laminated glass pane assembly with electrically controllable reflectivity, especially for controlling the entry of sunlight and solar heat into vehicles or buildings. The laminated glass pane comprises a first glass pane, an electroreflective functional layer made of an alloy of the hydride of a rare earth metal and magnesium, an antioxidation layer made of a proton-conducting transparent oxide or fluoride, an anhydrous proton-conducting solid electrolyte, a proton storage layer, a transparent conducting coating, and a second glass pane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 3, 1999
    Date of Patent: July 10, 2001
    Assignee: Dornier GmbH
    Inventors: Andreas Leupolz, Monika Golly, Thomas Kränzler, Werner Scherber
  • Publication number: 20010006430
    Abstract: A method for producing a cell for an electrochromic mirror which comprises a step of applying a epoxy-based sealant containing beads by a method selected from the group consisting of dispensing or screen-printing on a predetermined position of the surface peripheral edge of at least one of two electrically conductive substrates; and a step of superposing the two substrates such that the width of the applied sealant is made 2 mm or less.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 22, 2000
    Publication date: July 5, 2001
    Applicant: Nippon Mitsubishi Oil Corporation, Central
    Inventors: Keizo Ikai, Tsuyoshi Asano, Masaaki Kobayashi, Yoshinori Nishikitani
  • Patent number: 6256135
    Abstract: A reversible electrochemical mirror device includes a substantially transparent first electrode having a textured surface, and a second electrode which may be distributed in localized areas. An electrolytic solution, disposed between the first and second electrodes, contains ions of a metal which can electrodeposit on the electrodes. A negative electrical potential applied to the first electrode causes deposited metal to be dissolved from the second electrode into the electrolytic solution and to be electrodeposited from the solution onto the textured surface of the first electrode, thereby affecting the reflectivity of the device for electromagnetic radiation. Because of the textured surface, light striking the first electrode is diffusely reflected, making the device desirable for architectural and automotive glass applications. A surface modification layer applied to the first electrode ensures that the electrodeposit is substantially uniform.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 1999
    Date of Patent: July 3, 2001
    Assignee: Rockwell Science Center, LLC
    Inventors: D. Morgan Tench, Leslie F. Warren, Jr., Michael A. Cunningham