By Microwave Arrangement Patents (Class 374/122)
  • Patent number: 5370458
    Abstract: A monolithic integrated circuit power sensor provides a monolithic integrated circuit substrate a conversion element formed either on or in the substrate for converting microwave energy into heat, an electrically insulating dielectric layer affixed to the conversion element, and an integrated circuit, heat sensitive element formed in sufficiently close proximity to the conversion element to be thermally coupled thereto through the dielectric layer for sensing temperature changes in the conversion element.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 9, 1990
    Date of Patent: December 6, 1994
    Assignee: Lockheed Sanders, Inc.
    Inventor: Miles E. Goff
  • Patent number: 5302024
    Abstract: A monolithic integrated circuit power sensor provides a monolithic integrated circuit substrate, a conversion element formed either on or in the substrate for converting microwave energy into heat, and a thermally sensitive diode junction formed in sufficiently close proximity to the conversion element to be thermally coupled thereto.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 26, 1993
    Date of Patent: April 12, 1994
    Assignee: Lockheed Sanders, Inc.
    Inventor: Michael W. Blum
  • Patent number: 5254820
    Abstract: An apparatus is suitable for use in a microwave oven. An artificial dielectric is located adjacent or within a food product cooking stack in the microwave oven. A support media supports the artificial dielectric in the cooking stack at a desired distance from the oven shelf. The artificial dielectric has properties suitable so that the cooking stack can be positioned in the microwave oven to achieve desired cooking performance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 19, 1990
    Date of Patent: October 19, 1993
    Assignee: The Pillsbury Company
    Inventors: Peter S. Pesheck, Ronald R. Lentz
  • Patent number: 5209355
    Abstract: A method and an apparatus for sorting particulate solids material. The material is subjected to a microwave field and absorbs energy to an extent depending upon the dielectric properties of the individual particles. The absorbed energy heats the particles, and pyrodetectors detect the heat radiation. Detector output signals control pressurized air jets to remove particles from the waste material which are detected to be colder than the remainder of the bulk.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 10, 1991
    Date of Patent: May 11, 1993
    Inventor: Kurt-Henry Mindermann
  • Patent number: 5176146
    Abstract: The device comprises a microwave detector, a short-circuit microwave, a first modulator, or microwave-switch, a circulator with three successive channels, at least two sources of internal reference temperatures, a second modulator or microwave-switch, possibly an attenuator, a synchronization command circuit acting both on the first modulator and on the second modulator to obtain at least four different successive outgoing signals, a microwave detector, advantageously a microwave amplifier, and a calculator connected to the output of synchronization command circuit, said at least four successive signals being detected to deduce therefrom the temperature at the detector level, independently of the coefficient of reflection of the detector with respect to the region of the losses and of the modulators and of the cables.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 1, 1991
    Date of Patent: January 5, 1993
    Assignee: Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale
    Inventors: Maurice Chive, Jean-Pierre Sozanski, Yves Moschetto, Daniel VanLoot
  • Patent number: 5149198
    Abstract: Disclosed are the following three improvements to apparatus employing a microwave radiometer to measure the temperature of a specimen: By situating a low-loss, high-temperature dielectric microwave antenna, which may be composed of low-loss alumina ceramic, within a high-loss-high-temperature antenna sheath, which may be a ceramic composed of an alumina-graphite mixture, a microwave radiometer may be employed to continuously measure the temperature of a material at high temperature, such as molten steel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 2, 1991
    Date of Patent: September 22, 1992
    Assignee: MMTC, Inc.
    Inventor: Fred Sterzer
  • Patent number: 5119034
    Abstract: A method of measuring dielectric material constants, which includes steps of forming a dielectric resonator by providing a plurality of coupling terminals for input and output of signals, on a shield case, with a dielectric sample being disposed within the shield case, constituting an oscillation circuit together with the dielectric resonator by connecting a positive feed-back circuit including an amplification circuit, between the signal output coupling means and the signal output coupling means, and measuring variation in an oscillation frequency of the oscillation circuit by heating the dielectric sample through injection of a high frequency power into the particular coupling terminal, so as to obtain a specific material constant of the dielectric sample based on the variation of the oscillation frequency, and, also a measuring device employed for effecting the measuring method.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 9, 1990
    Date of Patent: June 2, 1992
    Assignee: Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Youhei Ishikawa, Hidekazu Wada, Jun Hattori, Hiroyuki Kubo, Taiyo Nishiyama
  • Patent number: 5110216
    Abstract: Fiberoptic sensors of various configurations are provided for measuring the magnitude of the electric or magnetic fields, and thereby the power, at local points within a relatively high-power electromagnetic heating environment such as occurs, for example, in a microwave oven or an industrial microwave processing chamber. Each type of sensor includes one element that is heated by either the oscillating electric or magnetic field, and an optical temperature measuring element positioned to be heated by the first element, its temperature being optically determined by an instrument to which an opposite end of the optical fiber length is connected.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 30, 1990
    Date of Patent: May 5, 1992
    Assignee: Luxtron Corporation
    Inventors: Kenneth A. Wickersheim, Mei H. Sun, James H. Kim
  • Patent number: 5014010
    Abstract: A dual frequency microwave water cut monitor includes a microwave source which provides microwave energies at two different frequencies to a circulator which in turn provides the microwave energies to an antenna. The antenna provides the microwave energies to a petroleum stream and also receives reflected microwave energy back from the stream. The reflected microwave energy is provided by the antenna to the circulator which in turn provides the reflected microwave energies as test microwave energies. A detector assembly connected to the circulator detects the intensities of the test microwave energies and provides a corresponding intensity signal. Indicator apparatus connected to the circulator to the microwave source and to the detector assembly provides an indication of the water cut of the petroleum stream in accordance with the intensity signal and the phase difference between one of the source provided microwave energies and its corresponding test microwave energy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 10, 1989
    Date of Patent: May 7, 1991
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: David A. Helms, Michael G. Durrett, Gregory J. Hatton
  • Patent number: 5001434
    Abstract: A variable mode microwave water cut monitor includes a test cell which contains a fluid sample. Apparatus controls the provision and removal of the fluid sample to effect different modes of operation for the monitor, a normal test mode and at least two calibration modes. A source provides microwave energy to one of a first antenna which in turn provides the fluid sample in the test cell with microwave energy. A second antenna receives the microwave energy that has passed through the fluid sample. A detector detects the received microwave energy and provides a signal corresponding thereto. An indicator provides an indication of the water cut of the fluid sample in accordance with the received signal power, a phase difference between the source provided microwave energy and the received microwave energy and internally recorded calibration data for water alone and oil alone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 10, 1989
    Date of Patent: March 19, 1991
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: John D. Marrelli, David J. Stavish
  • Patent number: 4899671
    Abstract: An improved method for measuring temperature of hot gases inside a vessel which radiates microwave energy, which method comprises sensing the energy at a frequency above about 100 gigahertz whereby the effect on said measurement of any solids entrained in the gases and of the vessel is minimized. The method is particularly suited to determining rapidly fluctuating temperatures.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 9, 1988
    Date of Patent: February 13, 1990
    Assignee: Shell Oil Company
    Inventor: Ronald M. Bass
  • Patent number: 4850713
    Abstract: A device is provided for measuring the intensity of a radiative flux and optionally also a convective flux, including a thin support made from an insulating material; a thin continuous strip of meandering shape made from a first conducting material; a series of discontinuous deposits made from a second conducting material having a thermoelectric power different from that of the first material and a high electric conductivity, the whole of the deposits and of the associated underlying strip portion forming an elementary thermocouple and having, in the transverse direction with respect to the direction of extension of the strip, a width which varies between its two ends, the variation in width being in the same direction for the successive deposits along the strip; and a coating with high emissivity intimately covering at least the successive deposits. The device may also include a heat conducting layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 14, 1987
    Date of Patent: July 25, 1989
    Assignee: Agence Nationale De Valorisation de la Recherche
    Inventors: Pierre Thery, Didier Leclercq, Philippe Herin
  • Patent number: 4715727
    Abstract: A non-invasive temperature monitoring apparatus used in association with a guided wave member that may be for the purpose of sterilization and that is adapted for microwave heating of a substance that is absorptive at microwave frequencies and that is held in some type of container or connector that is transparent at microwave frequencies. The apparatus comprises a length of waveguide. A coupling aperture is defined in the guided wave member. The length of waveguide is supported with one end thereof about the coupling aperture. A microwave radiometer detection circuit is also coupled from the length of waveguide for detecting on a continuing basis the temperature of the substance which is usually liquid being heated by the microwave energy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 5, 1984
    Date of Patent: December 29, 1987
    Assignee: M/A-Com, Inc.
    Inventor: Kenneth L. Carr
  • Patent number: 4705409
    Abstract: A method and apparatus is provided for reducing and measuring carbon content in fly ash. The invention employs microwave energy as the method of heating for inducing combustion of the carbon in a fly ash sample. Measurement of the carbon content can be accomplished in accordance with the present invention by measuring temperature differential of an excess energy absorber in the form of water before and after the fly ash is exposed to microwave radiation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 5, 1986
    Date of Patent: November 10, 1987
    Inventor: Douglas N. Trerice
  • Patent number: 4693614
    Abstract: An apparatus for detecting slag outflow when a molten metal covered by molten slag is poured from one vessel to another by receiving the thermal radiation energy at the microwave frequencies emitted from the pouring stream of the molten metal from said one vessel to another to measure a change in thermal radiation energy caused by the difference in the emissivity of the molten metal and of the molten slag is disclosed. The apparatus comprises; a microwave-focusing mechanism which has a focal point at the measuring target point; a waveguide means one end of which is connected to said microwave-focusing mechanism and which receives the thermal radiation energy from said microwave-focusing mechanism; and a radiometer connected to the other end of said waveguide means to measure the thermal radiation energy at microwave frequencies received through said waveguide means.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 6, 1986
    Date of Patent: September 15, 1987
    Assignee: Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Akio Hatono, Sumio Kobayashi
  • Patent number: 4677988
    Abstract: The invention relates to an impedance adaptation control process in low noise reception chains and a miniature microwave thermometer of application of the said process. The process is used mainly in order to measure internal temperature by microwave thermography. The thermal radiation is picked up by means of an aerial (1) which provides a signal (2). This signal (2) is sent alternatively with a signal (5) coming from a standard source to a hyperfrequency amplifier (3) in order to compare the said signals (2,5) and to adjust the source (4) in consequence. According to the invention, in parallel, an additional impedance (15) is placed by intermittance in parallel to the input of the amplifier (3). By means of a synchronous detection (18) of the resulting signal (7), the impedance of the standard source (4) is adjusted so as to equal that of the aerial (1).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 21, 1985
    Date of Patent: July 7, 1987
    Assignee: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique
    Inventors: Eugene Constant, Yves Leroy, Jean-Claude Van De Velde
  • Patent number: 4673298
    Abstract: A tire temperature measurement apparatus comprising a microwave receiver (9 or 11) sensitive to electromagnetic radiation in a waveband in the frequency spectrum 10 to 100 GHz and a directional antenna (5 or 7) coupled to the receiver input and responsive to radiation from a predetermined surface area only of the tire (1 or 3).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 3, 1984
    Date of Patent: June 16, 1987
    Assignee: GEC Avionics Limited
    Inventors: Ian Hunter, Graham Mason, Michael Scorer
  • Patent number: 4645358
    Abstract: The invention embodies a system and procedure for independently determining the surface emissivity of a mesh membrane material 12. The system is a closed one with respect to unwanted or uncorrected radiation outside the system and is composed of a radiometer 11 connected to a horn antenna 13, a test section 15 sealed to the horn antenna 13 and a cryogenically cooled matched load 17 exposed to the interior of the system. The material 12 is enclosed in a convection test chamber 14 within test section 15, heated within test chamber 14 and allowed to radiate within the system such that a component of the radiation energy of material 12 is measured by the radiometer 11 in terms of brightness temperature. The matched load 17 serves as the stabilizing source of uncorrelated radiation within the system by radiating within the system at a constant cryogenic temperature. The actual physical temperature of the material 12 is also measured during the heating process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 3, 1985
    Date of Patent: February 24, 1987
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Administrator of the National Aeronautics & Space Administration
    Inventor: Hans-Juergen C. Blume
  • Patent number: 4627743
    Abstract: The temperature of an object within a heating furnace is accurately measured, even in a contaminated atmosphere, by receiving microwaves within a specific 1 to 10 cm wavelength range by means of an antenna provided near the wall of the furnace facing the surface of the object to be measured. The temperature of the object is obtained by amplifying, and converting the relative intensity of the microwaves. The antenna is preferably in the form of a parabolic antenna having a heat insulating material applied to its front surface to maintain a constant temperature, and a circuit added to compensate for any sensitivity fluctuation due to temperature changes in the parabolic antenna.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 19, 1984
    Date of Patent: December 9, 1986
    Assignees: Educational Foundation Daido Gakuen, Daido Tokushuko Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Takahiro Okabe, Masashi Mizuno
  • Patent number: 4605012
    Abstract: An applicator for supplying radio-frequency energy (rf energy) to or from a high-loss material, preferably live tissue, to which a delimiting face of the applicator is to be applied in flat relationship, a double line being provided for transporting the energy, is characterized in that at least one conductor (3) of the double line extends substantially in parallel to the delimiting face and at least in its proximity. An applicator of this type is easy to produce (FIG. 1).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 9, 1984
    Date of Patent: August 12, 1986
    Assignee: Odam, Societe Anonyme
    Inventors: Victor Ringeisen, Maurice Chive, Serge Toutain
  • Patent number: 4583869
    Abstract: To measure the temperature of a sub-surface volume of a body, for example, living tissue, in microwaves, at least two probes are placed on or near the surface of the body to pick up thermal noise in the microwave range. The two probes are positioned so that the volumes of the body from which the respective probes receive thermal noise signals overlap to provide a common volume from which both of the probes receive thermal noise signals. The signals received by the probes are processed so as to be amplified and to accentuate the signals emitted by the common volume relative to the signals omitted by the remainder of the volumes from which the probes receive thermal noise signals. In one form of apparatus, the two probes are connected in parallel to a correlator the output of which is connected to an amplifier-receiver. In another form of apparatus the probes are connected to an amplifier-receiver, one being connected through a phase shifter.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 4, 1982
    Date of Patent: April 22, 1986
    Assignee: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique
    Inventors: Maurice Chive, Eugene Constant, Yves Leroy, Ahmed Mamouni, Michele Robillard, Jean-Claude Van de Velde
  • Patent number: 4573805
    Abstract: A method for measuring temperatures of a hydrocarbon stratum subjected to RF electromagnetic energy includes in one embodiment sensing the temperature at different positions within an inner conductor of an applicator used to radiate the RF electromagnetic energy into the hydrocarbon stratum. In another embodiment, the temperature measurements are made from a borehole which is utilized to obtain hydrocarbon fluids resulting from the retorting of the hydrocarbon stratum in which the sensing is done in different positions within the producing borehole and in the vicinity of the hydrocarbon stratum. Electrical signals representative of the sensed temperatures are provided. The electrical signals are conducted from the sensing positions to the surface of the earth. An RF voltage which combines with the electrical signals is decoupled from the electrical signals. An indication of the temperatures is provided in accordance with the decoupled electrical signals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 28, 1983
    Date of Patent: March 4, 1986
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Kerry D. Savage, Donald J. Dowling, Vernon L. Heeren, deceased, Brian C. Considine
  • Patent number: 4568199
    Abstract: A method of and apparatus for measuring the temperature of hot gases and/or particulate matter inside of a heated vessel is provided. The apparatus senses microwave energy emitted by the hot gases from the heated vessel, converts the sensed microwave energy into a signal indicative thereof, and measures the amplitude of the signal as an indication of the temperature of the gas inside of the heated vessel. The antenna of the apparatus may be located interior of the pressure wall of the vessel, and may also contain refractory material in it. Any refractory material between the antenna and the source of microwaves is transparent to microwave radiation. The heated vessel may also have a refractory wall, which may contain the waveguide and/or antenna.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 6, 1983
    Date of Patent: February 4, 1986
    Assignee: Shell Oil Company
    Inventor: Thomas R. Schmidt
  • Patent number: 4568200
    Abstract: Disclosed is a method of measuring the surface temperature of a metallic body. The method comprises: disposing a reflecting member such that the reflecting member constitutes a resonator in cooperation with a substantially flat surface of the metallic body; measuring the mean reflectivity of the resonator over a predetermined frequency band having a center frequency coinciding with the resonance frequency of the resonator, as well as the luminance temperature of the resonator; and computing the surface temperature of the metllic body from these measured values. Disclosed also is an apparatus for carrying out this measuring method. The method and apparatus are suited particularly to the measurement of the surface temperature of a steel sheet heated to a temperature ranging between 500.degree. and 800.degree. C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 10, 1982
    Date of Patent: February 4, 1986
    Assignee: Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Akio Hatono, Sumio Kobayashi, Toshiyuki Sugimura, Shunji Mihayara
  • Patent number: 4532939
    Abstract: A noncontacting method and apparatus which uses heat to destroy tumor cells in living tissue. A bidirectionally focused beam of electromagnetic energy, having a pair of electrically and thermally related, spaced focal regions, is positioned so that one of its focal regions embraces a tumor site within living tissue and the other focal region embraces a simulated tumor which is disposed in a liquid medium contained in a tank. Thermal conditions occurring in the focal region embracing the simulated tumor are monitored to reflect thermal conditions occurring within the tumor site. Positioning of the beam is continued until preselected time and temperature conditions are attained which indicate that cell death has occurred within the tumor site.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 18, 1982
    Date of Patent: August 6, 1985
    Inventor: Tex Yukl
  • Patent number: 4499470
    Abstract: A wideband passive synthetic-aperture multichannel receiver (20) with an antenna (15) is mounted on a satellite 10 which travels in an orbit above the Earth passing over large bodies of water (12) e.g. the Atlantic Ocean. The antenna is scanned (16) to receive signals over a wide frequency band from each incremental surface area (pixel) of the water (P1, P2, etc.) which are related to the pixel's sea temperature. The received signals are fed to a plurality of channels (C1-C10) which are tuned to separate selected frequencies (f1-f10). Their outputs are fed to a processor (25) with a memory (30) for storage therein. As the antenna points to pixels (footprint FP 1-1, etc.) within a calibration area (A1) around a buoy (B1) of known coordinates, signals are likewise received and stored. From the buoy exactly measured sea temperature is received.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 6, 1982
    Date of Patent: February 12, 1985
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
    Inventor: Joseph M. Stacey
  • Patent number: 4416552
    Abstract: Correlation thermography permits high resolution passive remote thermal radiation sensing for non-invasive temperature measurement of the interior of a body. At least two directional transducers are coupled to the surface of the body at different locations about the body in such a manner that their directional receiving patterns intersect. These transducers may be acoustic or electromagnetic transducers, but in any case are capable of receiving thermally-generated energy from inside the body and generating corresponding electrical signals. The intersection of the receiving patterns of the transducers defines a common volume which is relatively small, and the signals at each transducer originating from this common volume within the body exhibit a high degree of correlation. A multiplier receives the electrical signals produced by the transducers. A fixed or variable delay is interposed between at least one of the transducers and the multiplier.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 15, 1981
    Date of Patent: November 22, 1983
    Assignees: Robert A. Hessemer, Jr., Lloyd J. Perper, Theodore Bowen
    Inventors: Robert A. Hessemer, Jr., Lloyd J. Perper
  • Patent number: 4407292
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for noncontacting measurement and imaging of subcutaneous temperature distributions for the early detection of tumors. The (black-body) thermal electromagnetic radiation emitted by hyperthermic tumorous tissues is collected, focussed and detected within several frequency bands from 8 GHz to 36 GHz using a specially designed light-weight elliptical reflector and a highly sensitive broadband radiometer which are scanned in a raster type fashion over the supine patient. Direct indication of subcutaneous temperatures, microcomputer-aided data processing, and color or grey scale image display provide clinically usable subcutaneous thermograms at several depths which, together with conventional cutaneous infrared thermograms, can be utilized for the early detection and mass screening of tumors such as breast cancer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 21, 1981
    Date of Patent: October 4, 1983
    Inventor: Jochen Edrich
  • Patent number: 4346595
    Abstract: A method and apparatus are provided for indicating the altitude of the tropopause or of an inversion layer wherein clear air turbulence (CAT) may occur, and the likely severity of any such CAT, which includes directing a passive microwave radiometer on the aircraft at different angles with respect to the horizon. The microwave radiation measured at a frequency of about 55 GHz represents the temperature of the air at an "average" range of about 3 kilometers, so that the sine of the angle of the radiometer times 3 kilometers equals the approximate altitude of the air whose temperature is measured. A plot of altitude (with respect to the aircraft) versus temperature of the air at that altitude, can indicate when an inversion layer is present and can indicate the altitude of the tropopause or of such an inversion layer. The plot can also indicate the severity of any CAT in an inversion layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 12, 1981
    Date of Patent: August 31, 1982
    Inventors: Robert A. Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, with respect to an invention of Frosch, Bruce L. Gary
  • Patent number: RE33791
    Abstract: A non-invasive temperature monitoring apparatus used in association with a guided wave member that may be for the purpose of sterilization and that is adapted for microwave heating of a substance that is absorptive at microwave frequencies and that is held in some type of container or connector that is transparent at microwave frequencies. The apparatus comprises a length of waveguide. A coupling aperture is defined in the guided wave member. The length of waveguide is supported with one end thereof about the coupling aperture. A microwave radiometer detection circuit is also coupled from the length of waveguide for detecting on a continuing basis the temperature of the substance which is usually liquid being heated by the microwave energy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 22, 1989
    Date of Patent: January 7, 1992
    Assignee: M/A-COM, Inc.
    Inventor: Kenneth L. Carr