With Injection Of Electrically Charged Or Accelerated Particles Patents (Class 376/127)
  • Patent number: 9959941
    Abstract: A fusion reactor includes an enclosure having a first end, a second end opposite the first end, and a midpoint substantially equidistant between the first and second ends of the enclosure. The fusion reactor includes two internal magnetic coils suspended within the enclosure and positioned on opposite sides of the midpoint of the enclosure, one or more encapsulating magnetic coils positioned on each side of the midpoint of the enclosure, two mirror magnetic coils positioned on opposite sides of the midpoint of the enclosure, and one or more support stalks for supporting the two internal magnetic coils suspended within the enclosure. The one or more encapsulating magnetic coils and the two mirror magnetic coils are coaxial with the internal magnetic coils. The magnetic coils are operable, when supplied with electric currents, to form magnetic fields for confining plasma within the enclosure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 2, 2014
    Date of Patent: May 1, 2018
    Assignee: Lockheed Martin Corporation
    Inventor: Thomas John McGuire
  • Patent number: 9934876
    Abstract: In one embodiment, a fusion reactor includes two internal magnetic coils suspended within an enclosure, a center magnetic coil coaxial with the two internal magnetic coils and located proximate to a midpoint of the enclosure, a plurality of encapsulating magnetic coils coaxial with the internal magnetic coils, and two mirror magnetic coil coaxial with the internal magnetic coils. The encapsulating magnetic coils preserve the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability of the fusion reactor by maintaining a magnetic wall that prevents plasma within the enclosure from expanding.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 2, 2014
    Date of Patent: April 3, 2018
    Assignee: Lockheed Martin Corporation
    Inventor: Thomas John McGuire
  • Patent number: 9928926
    Abstract: A fusion reactor includes an enclosure having a first end, a second end, and a midpoint substantially equidistant between the first and second ends of the enclosure. The fusion reactor includes two internal magnetic coils suspended within the enclosure and positioned on opposite sides of the midpoint of the enclosure, one or more encapsulating magnetic coils positioned on each side of the midpoint of the enclosure, two mirror magnetic coils positioned on opposite sides of the midpoint of the enclosure, and one or more cooling lines within each of the internal magnetic coils. The cooling lines carry a coolant and are operable to remove heat from the internal magnetic coils. The one or more encapsulating magnetic coils and the two mirror magnetic coils are coaxial with the internal magnetic coils. The magnetic coils are operable, when supplied with electric currents, to form magnetic fields for confining plasma within the enclosure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 2, 2014
    Date of Patent: March 27, 2018
    Assignee: Lockheed Martin Corporation
    Inventor: Thomas John McGuire
  • Patent number: 9881698
    Abstract: The systems and methods described herein relate to the use of electrostatic elements to confine and circulate ions in trapped orbits so as to facilitate ion-ion and ion-neutral collisions resulting in nuclear fusion reactions. The systems employ a disc shaped cloud of ions wherein the turning region for the recirculating ions are located in a circular space around the periphery of the disc-shaped ion cloud, thereby maximizing the turning space region to increase the number of ions trapped in the device compared to discrete beam devices, which in turn enables higher fusion yield compared to prior art devices.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 4, 2014
    Date of Patent: January 30, 2018
    Inventor: Daniel R Knapp
  • Publication number: 20140219407
    Abstract: A fusion device produces fusion of neutral atoms and ions in an “aneutronic fusion” manner without neutrons as products utilizes strong ion-neutral coupling at high neutral densities. Ions and neutrals rotate together in a cylindrical chamber due to frequent collisions. High magnetic forces make the attainment of high rotation energy possible; the magnetic field in a medium can be set at very high values because of the absence of magnetic charges. The repeated acceleration by strong magnetic forces in the azimuthal direction makes possible very high ion velocity. Fusion takes place mainly between neutral particles. This approach can be applied to fusion with neutrons as well. Conventional fusion schemes and neutron sources can be realized using the principles described above in the generation of neutrals of high energies and densities.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 11, 2014
    Publication date: August 7, 2014
    Inventor: Alfred Y. Wong
  • Publication number: 20120281798
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for rapidly producing a plasma jet on demand. A particular application is the production of such a jet and its injection into a magnetically confined target plasma for the purpose of mitigating an emerging disruption event. The apparatus includes a gas source cartridge having concentric inner and outer electrically nonconductive containment tubes, which contain a solid mixture of titanium hydride and fullerene in the annular cylindrical volume between them. The mixture is resistively heated by application of a high power electrical current to produce a gaseous mixture of hydrogen and fullerene within a few tens of microseconds. The resulting mixture of hydrogen and fullerene is introduced radially into an accelerator tube passing through the gas cartridge, where the gas mixture is ionized, accelerated and injected as a plasma jet into the target plasma.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 4, 2011
    Publication date: November 8, 2012
    Inventors: John Robert Thompson, Ioan-Niculae Bogatu
  • Patent number: 8130893
    Abstract: A magnetohydrodynamic simulator that includes a plasma container. The magnetohydrodynamic simulator also includes an first ionizable gas substantially contained within the plasma container. In addition, the magnetohydrodynamic simulator also includes a first loop positioned adjacent to the plasma container, wherein the first loop includes a gap, a first electrical connection on a first side of the gap, a second electrical connection of a second side of the gap, and a first material having at least one of low magnetic susceptibility and high conductivity. The first loop can be made up from an assembly of one or a plethora or wire loop coils. In such cases, electrical connection is made through the ends of the coil wires. The magnetohydrodynamic simulator further includes an electrically conductive first coil wound about the plasma container and through the first loop.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 15, 2010
    Date of Patent: March 6, 2012
    Inventor: Nassim Haramein
  • Publication number: 20120027150
    Abstract: High flux neutron generator for fast neurons is invented, using a cylindrical inertial electrostatic confinement (Cylindrical IECF) fusion reactor. In order to achieve high flux (more than 1016 neutrons/sec), the existing IECF device is modified in following four points: 1) cylindrical shape, instead of spherical, 2) ring high voltage terminal at the center, instead of spherical grid, 3) internal ion injection, instead of glow discharge or external injection, 4) under magnetic field operation. The geometrical shapes and locations of the electrodes and the ion injection housing, including their voltages, are optimized by computer simulations. According to the simulations, ˜1016 neutrons/sec can be generated for the d+t fusion reaction with 1 ampere of ion injection under the vacuum pressure better than 10?8 torr.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 2, 2010
    Publication date: February 2, 2012
    Inventor: Ryoichi Wada
  • Publication number: 20120027151
    Abstract: A system and apparatus for controlled fusion in a field reversed configuration (FRC) magnetic topology and conversion of fusion product energies directly to electric power. Preferably, plasma ions are magnetically confined in the FRC while plasma electrons are electrostatically confined in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by the nuclear force, thus forming fusion products that emerge in the form of an annular beam. Energy is removed from the fusion product ions as they spiral past electrodes of an inverse cyclotron converter. Advantageously, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement and energy conversion system include advanced (aneutronic) fuels.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 3, 2011
    Publication date: February 2, 2012
    Inventors: Vitaly Bystriskii, Euseblo Garate, Yuanxu Song, Michael Anderson
  • Patent number: 8073094
    Abstract: A magnetohydrodynamic simulator that includes a plasma container. The magnetohydrodynamic simulator also includes an first ionizable gas substantially contained within the plasma container. In addition, the magnetohydrodynamic simulator also includes a first loop positioned adjacent to the plasma container, wherein the first loop includes a gap, a first electrical connection on a first side of the gap, a second electrical connection of a second side of the gap, and a first material having at least one of low magnetic susceptibility and high conductivity. The first loop can be made up from an assembly of one or a plethora or wire loop coils. In such cases, electrical connection is made through the ends of the coil wires. The magnetohydrodynamic simulator further includes an electrically conductive first coil wound about the plasma container and through the first loop.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 24, 2007
    Date of Patent: December 6, 2011
    Inventor: Nassim Haramein
  • Publication number: 20110200153
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for confining and fusing charged particles. The charged particles have positive and negative ions from neutronic and aneutronic fuels. For confining radially charged particles, at least two, preferably six, magnetic fields to form a cusp region for injecting charged particles. An electric field at the cusp region for accelerating charged particles, and an opposite electric field for trapping longitudinally charged particles allowing only charged products to escape. The charged products are worthwhile for spacecraft propulsion and direct electricity conversion. The electrostatic acceleration method can reach great kinetic energy (7 billion ° C.) at low energy consumption. The preferred embodiment achieves a true three-dimensional confinement plus a three-dimensional charged particles injection.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 16, 2008
    Publication date: August 18, 2011
    Inventor: Moacir L. Ferreira, JR.
  • Patent number: 7869556
    Abstract: A method for the operation of a plasma device (100) is described in which particles (2) are arranged in a plasma, wherein a generation of electric travelling waves (1) is provided, under whose effective action the particles (2) in the plasma device (100) perform a directed movement to at least one pre-determined collection area (20, 20A). A plasma device for carrying out the method is also described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 9, 2005
    Date of Patent: January 11, 2011
    Assignee: Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Forderung der Wissenschaften e.V.
    Inventors: Gregor Morfill, Uwe Konopka, Hubertus M. Thomas, Wolfgang Jacob, Beatrice Annaratone, Martin Fink, Noriyoshi Sato, Tetsuji Shimizu, Timo Stuffler
  • Patent number: 7831008
    Abstract: A system for fueling a plasma includes a gyrotron for radiating microwave energy into a waveguide. Also included is a module having a deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel pellet, a diamond, quartz or sapphire window, and a pusher medium located between the pellet and window that is made of frozen deuterium (D2) and metallic particles. With the module in the waveguide, the gyrotron is activated. Radiation from the gyrotron is then directed into the waveguide and through the window to cause the inducement of current in the metal particles, causing the particles to become hot. The absorbed microwave energy is then transferred to the pusher medium by conduction resulting in a gaseous expansion of the pusher medium. This ejects the pellet from the waveguide and into the plasma.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 12, 2008
    Date of Patent: November 9, 2010
    Assignee: General Atomics
    Inventors: Paul B. Parks, Francis W. Perkins
  • Patent number: 7709819
    Abstract: A long-term antimatter storage device that may be energized by a low power magnetron and can function autonomously for hundreds of hours on the energy provided by batteries. An evacuated, cryogenic container is arranged with a source of positrons and a source of electrons positioned in capture relation to one another within the container so as to allow for the formation of a plurality of positronium atoms. A microwave resonator is located within the container forming a circularly polarized standing wave within which the plurality of positronium atoms rotate. Radioactive sources for small stores and low energy positron accelerators for large stores are used to efficiently fill the device with positronium in seconds to minutes. The device may also be arranged to provide for the extraction of positrons. A method for storing antimatter is also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 18, 2008
    Date of Patent: May 4, 2010
    Assignee: Positronics Research LLC
    Inventor: Gerald A. Smith
  • Publication number: 20090220039
    Abstract: A system and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions ions are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 13, 2009
    Publication date: September 3, 2009
    Inventors: Norman Rostoker, Michi Binderbauer, Artan Qerushi, Hooshang Tahsiri
  • Publication number: 20090028282
    Abstract: A system for fueling a plasma includes a gyrotron for radiating microwave energy into a waveguide. Also included is a module having a deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel pellet, a diamond, quartz or sapphire window, and a pusher medium located between the pellet and window that is made of frozen deuterium (D2) and metallic particles. With the module in the waveguide, the gyrotron is activated. Radiation from the gyrotron is then directed into the waveguide and through the window to cause the inducement of current in the metal particles, causing the particles to become hot. The absorbed microwave energy is then transferred to the pusher medium by conduction resulting in a gaseous expansion of the pusher medium. This ejects the pellet from the waveguide and into the plasma.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 12, 2008
    Publication date: January 29, 2009
    Inventor: Paul B. Parks
  • Publication number: 20080187086
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for controlling charged particles. The charged particles comprise electrons and positive ions. A magnetic field having only point cusps is used to confine energetic injected electrons and so to generate a negative potential well. Positive ions injected into or created within the negative potential well are trapped therein. The magnetic field is generated by current-carrying elements arranged at positions spaced from but closely adjacent and parallel to edges of a polyhedron which has an even number of faces surrounding each vertex or corner. The current-carrying elements are spaced apart at their corners (the vertices of the polyhedron) so as not to touch, and the containing structures for the current-carrying coils of the magnetic-field-providing system are conformal to the fields so produced. Preferably, the coils are placed on the outboard side of the confining coils so as to increases electron confinement.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 27, 2007
    Publication date: August 7, 2008
    Inventors: Robert W. Bussard, Dolly H. Gray-Bussard
  • Patent number: 7391160
    Abstract: A system and apparatus for controlled fusion in a field reversed configuration (FRC) magnetic topology and conversion of fusion product energies directly to electric power. Preferably, plasma ions are magnetically confined in the FRC while plasma electrons are electrostatically confined in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by the nuclear force, thus forming fusion products that emerge in the form of an annular beam. Energy is removed from the fusion product ions as they spiral past electrodes of an inverse cyclotron converter. Advantageously, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement and energy conversion system include advanced (aneutronic) fuels.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 4, 2004
    Date of Patent: June 24, 2008
    Assignees: Regents of the University of California, University of Florida Research Foundation
    Inventors: Hendrik J. Monkhorst, Norman Rostoker
  • Patent number: 7230201
    Abstract: Among the embodiments of the present invention, are apparatus, systems, and methods for managing energetic charged particles emitted nearly isotropically from a fusion device. One apparatus of the present invention includes a fusion device in a container and an electric current carrying winding disposed about the container to provide a magnetic field to direct charged particles generated by the device. A pair of electric current carrying coils are positioned within the container to control the strength of the magnetic field in a region between these coils, such that effects on fusion plasma can be minimized. In other forms, charged particles provided from a fusion device are directed along a magnetic channel to an energy converter to provide electric power. One such form includes a magnetic expander and an electron-ion separator to provide a net electric current.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 24, 2003
    Date of Patent: June 12, 2007
    Assignee: NPL Associates
    Inventors: George Miley, Hiromu Momota
  • Patent number: 6870498
    Abstract: A system for generating electromagnetic radiation comprising a flux generator for generating a high intensity current and conversion means in the form of a reflex triode or a plasma focus device for converting said current into a high energy radiation beam.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 6, 1989
    Date of Patent: March 22, 2005
    Assignee: MBDA UK Limited
    Inventors: David Morgan, Lee Miller, David E T F Ashby, John G. Morgan
  • Patent number: 6850011
    Abstract: A system and apparatus for controlled fusion in a field reversed configuration (FRC) magnetic topology and conversion of fusion product energies directly to electric power. Preferably, plasma ions are magnetically confined in the FRC while plasma electrons are electrostatically confined in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by the nuclear force, thus forming fusion products that emerge in the form of an annular beam. Energy is removed from the fusion product ions as they spiral past electrodes of an inverse cyclotron converter. Advantageously, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement and energy conversion system include advanced (aneutronic) fuels.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 9, 2003
    Date of Patent: February 1, 2005
    Assignees: The Regents of the University of California, University of Florida Research Foundation
    Inventors: Hendrik J. Monkhorst, Norman Rostoker
  • Patent number: 6680480
    Abstract: A fusion device consisting of two colliding ion beams, each produced by a high power, femtosecond regime, chirped pulsed amplification (CPA) laser acceleration device. The CPA laser creates an ionized plasma and subsequently accelerates electrons to multi-MeV energies, thus creating electric fields due to separation of electrons and ions, of sufficient magnitude to accelerate the plasma ions to energies ranging from multi-keV to multi-MeV levels. The magnetic fields created by the laser pulses, as well as the electrons and/or ions, also helps confine the ions to the region of the size of the laser beam focal spot diameter, and thus enhance the collision probability of the counter-streaming ions and provide a sizable population of fusion events. Ion beam generation by high powered, short pulse CPA lasers has been previously demonstrated in thin foil targets.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 14, 2001
    Date of Patent: January 20, 2004
    Inventor: Neil C. Schoen
  • Patent number: 6667487
    Abstract: A containment apparatus for containing a cloud of charged particles comprises a cylindrical vacuum chamber having a longitudinal axis. Within the vacuum chamber is a containment region. A magnetic field is aligned with the longitudinal axis of the vacuum chamber. The magnetic field is time invariant and uniform in strength over the containment region. An electric field is also aligned with the longitudinal axis of the vacuum chamber and the magnetic field. The electric field is time invariant, and forms a potential well over the containment region. One or more means are disposed around the cloud of particles for inducing a rotating electric field internal to the vacuum chamber. The rotating electric field imparts energy to the charged particles within the containment region and compress the cloud of particles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 31, 2003
    Date of Patent: December 23, 2003
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
    Inventors: William Herbert Sims, III, James Joseph Martin, Raymond A. Lewis
  • Publication number: 20030183783
    Abstract: The invention provides a container for transporting antiprotons including a dewar having an evacuated cavity and a cryogenically cold wall. A plurality of thermally conductive supports are disposed in thermal connection with the cold wall and extend into the cavity. An antiproton trap is mounted on the extending supports within the cavity. A sealable cavity access port selectively provides access to the cavity for selective introduction into and removal from the cavity of the antiprotons. The container is capable of confining and storing antiprotons while they are transported via conventional terrestrial or airborne methods to a location distant from their creation.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 1, 2003
    Publication date: October 2, 2003
    Inventors: Gerald A. Smith, Raymond A. Lewis, Steven D. Howe
  • Patent number: 6593539
    Abstract: Among the embodiments of the present invention, are apparatus, systems, and methods for managing energetic charged particles emitted nearly isotropically from a fusion device. One apparatus of the present invention includes a fusion device in a container and an electric current carrying winding disposed about the container to provide a magnetic field to direct charged particles generated by the device. A pair of electric current carrying coils are positioned within the container to control the strength of the magnetic field in a region between these coils, such that effects on fusion plasma can be minimized. In other forms, charged particles provided from a fusion device are directed along a magnetic channel to an energy converter to provide electric power. One such form includes a magnetic expander and an electron-ion separator to provide a net electric current.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 26, 2001
    Date of Patent: July 15, 2003
    Inventors: George Miley, Hiromu Momota
  • Patent number: 6576916
    Abstract: The invention provides a container for transporting antiprotons including a dewar having an evacuated cavity and a cryogenically cold wall. A plurality of thermally conductive supports are disposed in thermal connection with the cold wall and extend into the cavity. An antiproton trap is mounted on the extending supports within the cavity. A sealable cavity access port selectively provides access to the cavity for selective introduction into and removal from the cavity of the antiprotons. The container is capable of confining and storing antiprotons while they are transported via conventional terrestrial or airborne methods to a location distant from their creation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 24, 2002
    Date of Patent: June 10, 2003
    Assignee: Penn State Research Foundation
    Inventors: Gerald A. Smith, Raymond A. Lewis, Steven D. Howe
  • Publication number: 20020179858
    Abstract: The invention provides a container for transporting antiprotons including a dewar having an evacuated cavity and a cryogenically cold wall. A plurality of thermally conductive supports are disposed in thermal connection with the cold wall and extend into the cavity. An antiproton trap is mounted on the extending supports within the cavity. A sealable cavity access port selectively provides access to the cavity for selective introduction into and removal from the cavity of the antiprotons. The container is capable of confining and storing antiprotons while they are transported via conventional terrestrial or airborne methods to a location distant from their creation.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 24, 2002
    Publication date: December 5, 2002
    Inventors: Gerald A. Smith, Raymond A. Lewis, Steven D. Howe
  • Patent number: 6414331
    Abstract: The invention provides a container for transporting antiprotons including a dewar having an evacuated cavity and a cryogenically cold wall. A plurality of thermally conductive supports are disposed in thermal connection with the cold wall and extend into the cavity. An antiproton trap is mounted on-the extending supports within the cavity. A sealable cavity access port selectively provides access to the cavity for selective introduction into and removal from the cavity of the antiprotons. The container is capable of confining and storing antiprotons while they are transported via conventional terrestrial or airborne methods to a location distant from their creation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 27, 2000
    Date of Patent: July 2, 2002
    Inventors: Gerald A. Smith, Raymond A. Lewis, Steven D Howe
  • Patent number: 6160263
    Abstract: The invention provides a container for transporting antiprotons including a dewar having an evacuated cavity and a cryogenically cold wall. A plurality of thermally conductive supports are disposed in thermal connection with the cold wall and extend into the cavity. An antiproton trap is mounted on the extending supports within the cavity. A sealable cavity access port selectively provides access to the cavity for selective introduction into and removal from the cavity of the antiprotons. The container is capable of confining and storing antiprotons while they are transported via conventional terrestrial or airborne methods to a location distant from their creation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 27, 1999
    Date of Patent: December 12, 2000
    Inventors: Gerald A. Smith, Raymond A. Lewis, Steven D. Howe
  • Patent number: 5977554
    Abstract: The invention provides a container for transporting antiprotons including a dewar having an evacuated cavity and a cryogenically cold wall. A plurality of thermally conductive supports are disposed in thermal connection with the cold wall and extend into the cavity. An antiproton trap is mounted on the extending supports within the cavity. A sealable cavity access port selectively provides access to the cavity for selective introduction into and removal from the cavity of the antiprotons. The container is capable of confining and storing antiprotons while they are transported via conventional terrestrial or airborne methods to a location distant from their creation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 23, 1998
    Date of Patent: November 2, 1999
    Assignee: The Penn State Research Foundation
    Inventors: Gerald A. Smith, Raymond A. Lewis, Steven D. Howe
  • Patent number: 5930313
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for transporting a positive ion beam to a distant target. An ion channel is created as a path to the target, and the beam injected into the channel at a mildly-relativistic beam velocity. Because the beam is mildly-relativistic, the electric field caused by its positive charge propagates well in advance of the beam, attracting free electrons in the plasma channel and pulling them into the beam along its axis of propagation. The current which is initiated by this precursor electron flow, is sustained during the duration of the beam, and is then a combination of the beam current and additional current carried by the electrons within the channel. As a result, a magnetic flux circulates annularly about the beam of a sufficient magnitude to pinch the beam.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 3, 1991
    Date of Patent: July 27, 1999
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Steven P. Slinker, Richard F. Hubbard, Martin Lampe, Glenn Joyce
  • Patent number: 5339336
    Abstract: An ion ring accelerator employs a pulsed magnetic field to accelerate a charge neutralized ion ring. The accelerator includes a plurality of accelerator modules arranged either in a linear or a recirculating manner, each of which cause an incremental acceleration of the ion ring. As the ion ring enters one of the accelerator modules, a pulse is applied to a coil or resonant cavity in the module which increases in magnitude and synchronism with the passage of the ion ring. As a result, the ion ring is exposed to an increasing magnetic field in the module which compresses the ring, thereby adiabatically increasing its energy. As the ion ring exits the module and is no longer exposed to the increase in magnetic field, it expands, thereby releasing energy and accelerating in an axial direction. The repetition rate of the high current ion ring accelerator will be determined by the power supplies for the modules.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 17, 1993
    Date of Patent: August 16, 1994
    Assignee: Cornell Research Foundation, Inc.
    Inventor: Ravindra N. Sudan
  • Patent number: 5272731
    Abstract: The process for containing a deuterium gas plasma discharge includes providing a cylindrical zone having a cylinder axis; supplying D.sub.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 30, 1992
    Date of Patent: December 21, 1993
    Inventor: Norman D. Greene
  • Patent number: 5118950
    Abstract: A cluster ion synthesis process utilizing a containerless environment to grow in a succession of steps cluster ions of large mass and well defined distribution. The cluster ion growth proceeds in a continuous manner in a plurality of growth chambers which have virtually unlimited storage times and capacities.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 29, 1989
    Date of Patent: June 2, 1992
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Air Force
    Inventors: John T. Bahns, William C. Stwalley
  • Patent number: 5106570
    Abstract: A method for generating a beam of negatively charged hydrogen ions is described which comprises the steps of providing a source of metal hydride, heating the hydride to extract either atomic hydrogen or negative hydrogen ions directly therefrom, directing an electron beam onto the hydride or applying electrical charge to the hydride in order to ionize the hydrogen atoms or to prevent the ions from losing charge, and electrically accelerating the negative hydrogen ions so produced as a directed beam.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 2, 1990
    Date of Patent: April 21, 1992
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Air Force
    Inventor: Charles Stein
  • Patent number: 5051582
    Abstract: The method of producing specific cluster ions utilizing an ionization source to produce ions which are then sorted or resolved according to velocity and mass. The selected ions are passed through a growth chamber containing a gaseous vapor of a specified element and are coated by the vapor to provide coated cluster ions. The coated cluster ions are mass selected and held in an ion trap.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 6, 1989
    Date of Patent: September 24, 1991
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Air Force
    Inventors: John T. Bahns, William C. Stwalley
  • Patent number: 4906896
    Abstract: A coupled-cavity linear accelerator for accelerating charged particles to velocities greater than about one-third the speed of light. The accelerator includes a first tank for accelerating charged particles at a first velocity to a second velocity and a second tank for accelerating the particles to a higher third velocity. A bridge coupler for focusing a beam formed by the charged particles joins the first and second tanks. Each tank is substantially symmetrical about an axis and includes a generally cylindrical tank outer wall having an inner surface and an outer surface. A series of axially spaced disks are positioned inside the tank and bear on the inside tank surface. Each disk has an outer diameter greater than the as-manufactured inside diameter of the tank wall so that each disk causes an annular indentation in the inner surface of the outer wall. At least one washer is supported by each of alternating disks.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 3, 1988
    Date of Patent: March 6, 1990
    Assignee: Science Applications International Corporation
    Inventor: Donald A. Swenson
  • Patent number: 4899084
    Abstract: The invention provides an accelerator for ions and charged particles. The plasma is generated and confined in a magnetic mirror field. The electrons of the plasma are heated to high temperatures. A series of local coils are placed along the axis of the magnetic mirror field. As an ion or particle beam is directed along the axis in sequence the coils are rapidly pulsed creating a space charge to accelerate and focus the beam of ions or charged particles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 25, 1988
    Date of Patent: February 6, 1990
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventor: Richard F. Post
  • Patent number: 4853173
    Abstract: A method of producing fusion reactions comprises the steps of bringing deuterium ions from an ion source to run in a substantially closed path for accumulation of the ions to a predetermined density, whereupon the ions are deflected towards a reaction center inside this closed path. An apparatus for a fusion reactor includes two annular, coaxially disposed magnets (12,20) which are disposed to produce magnetic fields in a vacuum tank. The inner magnet (20) produces a homogenous field transversely to the plane in which deuterium ions are intended to circulate prior to reaction, and the outer magnet (12,14) produces an inhomogenous field which decreases outwardly in radial direction and is also directed transversely to said plane. Electrodes (16,18) are provided to produce a radial electric field in the area having said inhomogenous magnetic field, which electric field is directed transversely to this inhomogenous field.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 24, 1987
    Date of Patent: August 1, 1989
    Inventor: Rolf Stenbacka
  • Patent number: 4826646
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for controlling charged particles. The charged particles comprise electrons and positive ions. A magnetic field having only point cusps is used to confine injected electrons and so to generate a negative potential well. Positive ions injected into the negative potential well are trapped therein. The preferred means for generating the magnetic field is current-carrying elements arranged at positions corresponding to the edges of any of several truncated regular polyhedrons.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 29, 1985
    Date of Patent: May 2, 1989
    Assignee: Energy/Matter Conversion Corporation, Inc.
    Inventor: Robert W. Bussard
  • Patent number: 4793961
    Abstract: A high concentration of positive molecular ions of hydrogen or deuterium gas is extracted from a positive ion source having a short path length of extracted ions, relative to the mean free path of the gas molecules, to minimize the production of other ion species by collision between the positive ions and gas molecules. The ion source has arrays of permanent magnets to produce a multi-cusp magnetic field in regions remote from the plasma grid and the electron emitters, for largely confining the plasma to the space therebetween. The ion source has a chamber which is short in length, relative to its transverse dimensions, and the electron emitters are at an even shorter distance from the plasma grid, which contains one or more extraction apertures.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 26, 1983
    Date of Patent: December 27, 1988
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Department of Energy
    Inventors: Kenneth W. Ehlers, Ka-Ngo Leung
  • Patent number: 4782235
    Abstract: The ion source comprises a cathode, an intermediate electrode and an anode with two ionization chambers between these electrodes, means for producing an axial magnetic field, means for applying a DC voltage between an intermediate electrode and the anode, ion extraction means and an alternating voltage generator between the cathode and the intermediate electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 1, 1986
    Date of Patent: November 1, 1988
    Assignee: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique
    Inventors: Claude Lejeune, Jean P. Gilles
  • Patent number: 4780647
    Abstract: A system for providing a compact, high power particle accelerator powered by a modulated intense relativistic electron beam. In a preferred embodiment a first source develops a high power intense relativistic electron beam (IREB). A modulating apparatus modulates the IREB with a low power level RF signal to produce a high power MIREB. All of the kinetic energy from the high power MIREB is then stored as a high level of electromagnetic or RF energy in an accelerating apparatus. A particle beam from a source is modulated with the RF signal to establish a phase coherency between the modulated particle beam and the stored RF energy before it is passed through the accelerating apparatus. This phase coherent particle beam is accelerated by the stored RF energy as it drains this energy from the accelerating apparatus during its passage through the accelerating apparatus.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 18, 1987
    Date of Patent: October 25, 1988
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Moshe Friedman, Victor Serlin
  • Patent number: 4743804
    Abstract: An IREB is guided through a curved path by ionizing a channel in a gas with electrons from a filament, and confining the electrons to the center of the path with a magnetic field extending along the path. The magnetic field is preferably generated by a solenoid extending along the path.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 25, 1986
    Date of Patent: May 10, 1988
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventors: Charles A. Frost, Brendon B. Godfrey, Paul D. Kiekel, Steven L. Shope
  • Patent number: 4729865
    Abstract: The present invention is a nuclear fusion reactor serving to contain a totally organized tritium-deuterium plasma by guiding the self-bombarding particles in a resonating path of a particular wavelength and frequency, similar to a radio wave. Under these conditions the electrons tend to remain cooler, which reduces plasma radiation energy losses. Energy may be added to the plasma by axially distributed oscillators of the proper frequency, raising the plasma to ignition temperature and densities. Finally the ignited plasma directs its high energy neutrons into strategically located lithium blankets and the ionic energy levels are controlled by causing the plasma to generate an alternating electric current. Various types of alternate fusion reactions are briefly considered.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 3, 1986
    Date of Patent: March 8, 1988
    Inventor: Merrill P. Busch
  • Patent number: 4724117
    Abstract: Method and apparatus for highly polarizing a fast beam of particles by collisional pumping, including generating a fast beam of particles, and also generating a thick electron-spin-polarized medium positioned as a target for the beam. The target is made sufficiently thick to allow the beam to interact with the medium to produce collisional pumping whereby the beam becomes highly polarized.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 19, 1984
    Date of Patent: February 9, 1988
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventors: J. Warren Stearns, Selig N. Kaplan, Robert V. Pyle, L. Wilmer Anderson, Lawrence Ruby, Alfred S. Schlachter
  • Patent number: 4650631
    Abstract: A container device for a fusion plasma which has a beam of charged particles accelerating system feeding an ion or plasma beam into a polytron magnetic device. The polytron is formed from a succession of magnetic cusps joined point to point around a torus. The accelerating system introduces an ion or plasma beam into the polytron through a magnetic junction. A second accelerating system may introduce a second beam of different velocity creating an instability and turbulent mixing of the two beams, which are favorable for a fusion reaction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 14, 1984
    Date of Patent: March 17, 1987
    Assignee: The University of Iowa Research Foundation
    Inventor: George E. Knorr
  • Patent number: 4649273
    Abstract: A variable energy, high flux atomic oxygen source (10) comprising means (48) for producing a high density beam of molecules which will emit O.sup.- ions when bombarded with electrons; means (44) for producing a high current stream of electrons at a low energy level passing through the high density beam of molecules to produce a combined stream (54) of electrons and O.sup.- ions; means (32) for accelerating the combined stream to a desired energy level; means (12) for producing an intense magnetic field to confine the electrons and O.sup.- ions; means (56, 58) for directing a multiple pass laser beam (62) through the combined stream to strip off the excess electrons from a plurality of the O.sup.- ions to produce ground-state O atoms within the combined stream; electrostatic deflection means (68, 70) for deflecting the path of the O.sup.- ions and the electrons in the combined stream; and, means (78) for stopping the O.sup.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 10, 1986
    Date of Patent: March 10, 1987
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
    Inventors: Ara Chutjian, Otto J. Orient
  • Patent number: 4642206
    Abstract: Methods for producing large, highly nuclear spin-polarized thermonuclear fuels HD, D.sub.2, HT and DT in a state where they can be stored and manipulated for appreciable times at ordinary liquid helium temperatures, are disclosed. Molecular mixtures, radiation treatments, symmetry species conversion catalysts, molecular species spatial arrangements, radio frequency irradiations and anneal programs are given to provide polarized .uparw.D and polarized .uparw.T in usable forms in the solid, liquid and high density gaseous phases.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 27, 1983
    Date of Patent: February 10, 1987
    Assignee: Syracuse University
    Inventor: Arnold Honig
  • Patent number: 4639348
    Abstract: This is one of a series of nuclear fusion (vs. fission) inventions by this physicist-inventor. This invention is designed to burn the cleanest of all known fusion fuels: boron hydride (B-H, or p-.sup.11 B). Boron hydride has no free neutrons on either side of its reaction equation: p+.sup.11 B=3.alpha.+W. If this fuel can be made to fuse as planned the many problems associated with neutron-based fuels, deuterium-tritium (D-T) in particular, can be obviated. D-T gives off 80% of its energy in the form of neutrons. These make the apparatus radioactive; and the neutrons may be used to breed weapons grade fission material. Whereas, p-.sup.11 B cannot be used to make fission bomb material; its product particles are entirely safe inert helium particles. B-H fuel is abundant, available and inexpensive. Boron hydride comes in gas, liquid or solid form, stable or unstable. The invention at hand proposes to accelerate macromolecular ions of boron hydride (such as B.sub.2 H.sub.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 13, 1984
    Date of Patent: January 27, 1987
    Inventor: William S. Jarnagin